state with the rickets, and some other disorders. I desire your prayers for it.

"I am, dear Sir,

"Your most affectionate and obliged
"Friend and brother,


"P. S. For accounts of the state of religion in America, and some reasons of my conduct in this controversy with my people, I must refer you to my letters to Mr. Robe, and Mr. M'Laurin."

"To the Rev. Mr. M'Culloch."

"REV. AND Dear Sir,

"Northampton, July 6, 1750.

"It is now long, since I have received a letter from you: the last was dated March 10, 1749. However, you having heretofore manifested that our correspondence was not unacceptable to you, I would not omit to do my part towards the continuance of it. Perhaps one reason of your neglecting to write, may be the failing of such agreeable matter for correspondence, as we had some years ago, when religion was flourishing in Scotland and America, and we had joyful information to give each other, of things pertaining to the City of our God. It is indeed now a sorrowful time, on this side of the ocean. Iniquity abounds, and the love of many waxes cold. Multitudes of fair and high professors, in one place and another, have sadly backslidden; sinners are desperately hardened; experimental religion is more than ever out of credit, with the far greater part; and the doctrines of grace, and those principles in religion that do chiefly concern the power of godliness, are far more than ever discarded. Arminianism, and Pelagianism, have made a strange progress within a few years. The Church of England, in New-England, is, I suppose, treble of what it was seven years ago. Many professors are gone off to great lengths in enthusiams and extravagance, in their notions and practices. Great contentions, separations and confusions, in our religious state, prevail in many parts of the land. Some of our main pillars are broken; one of which was Mr. WEBB of Boston, who died in the latter part of last April. Much of the glory of the town of Boston is gone with him; and if the bereavements of that town should be added to, by the death of two or three more of their remaining elder ministers, that place would be in a very sorrowful state indeed, like a city whose walls are broken down, and like a large flock without a shepherd, encompassed with wolves, and many in the midst of it.

"These are the dark things that appear. But on the other hand. there are some things that have a different aspect. There have in some places appeared revivals of religion. Some little revivings

have been in some places towards Boston. There has been some reformation, not long since, in one of our Colleges. And by what I hear, there has been much more of this nature in some other parts of British America, than in New-England: something considerable in several towns on Long Island; and also in some other parts of the province of New-York, near Bedford river; something in several parts of New-Jersey, particularly through the labours of Mr. Greenman, a young gentleman educated by the charitable expenses of the pious and eminent Mr. David Brainerd, mentioned in his life; which I think I sent to you the last summer. And since I last wrote to Scotland, I have had accounts of the prevailing of a religious concern in some parts of Virginia.

"And I must not forget to inform you, that, although I think it has of late been the darkest time in Northampton, that ever was since the town stood, yet there have been some overturnings on the minds of some of the young people here, and two or three instances of hopeful conversion the last summer, and as many very lately.

"When I speak of its being a dark time here, I have a special reference to the great controversy that has subsisted here, for about a year and a half, between me and my people, about the forms of communion in the visible church; which has even at length issued in a separation between me and my people; for a more particular account of which, I must refer you to my letters to Mr. Robe and Mr. Erskine.-Besides, I shall endeavour to procure the printed copies of the Result of the Council, that sat here the week before last, with the Protestation of some of the members, that these may be sent to you with this letter, together with one of my books, published on the point in debate between me and my people; of which I crave your acceptance.

"I am now separated from the people, between whom and me there was once the greatest union. Remarkable is the Providence of God in this matter. In this event, we have a striking instance of the instability and uncertainty of all things here below. The dispensation is indeed awful in many respects, calling for serious reflection, and deep humiliation, in me and my people. The enemy, far and near, will now triumph; but God can overrule all for his own glory. I have now nothing visible to depend upon for my future usefulness, or the subsistence of my numerous family. But I hope we have an all-sufficient, faithful, covenant God, to depend upon. I desire that I may ever submit to him, walk humbly before him, and put my trust wholly in him. I desire, dear Sir. your prayers for us, under our present circumstances.

"I am, Sir, your respectful

"and affectionate friend and brother,

"JONATHAN EDWARDS." "P. S. My wife and family join with me, in cordial salutations to you and yours."

On the 11th of June, Mr. Edwards married his eldest daughter, SARAH, to ELIHU PARSONS, Esquire, and on the 8th of November, his fourth daughter, MARY, to TIMOTHY DWIGHT, Esquire, both of Northampton.

After Mr. Edwards was dismissed from his people, several months elapsed, before he received any proposals of settlement. During this interval, the Committee of the Church found it very difficult to procure a regular supply of the pulpit. When no other preacher could be procured, Mr. Edwards was for a time applied to by the Committee, to preach for them; but always with apparent reluctance, and only for the given Sabbath. He alludes to these circumstances, in the following letter; in which the reader will find, that he was a decided advocate for the celebration of the Lord's Supper, every Lord's day.

Letter to Mr. Erskine.


"Northampton, Nov. 15, 1750.

"Some time in July last I wrote to you, and ordered one of my books, on the Qualifications for Communion in the Church, to be sent to you from Boston, with the letter. In my letter, I informed you of what had come to pass, in the issue of the late controversy between me and my people, in the dissolution of my pastoral relation to them; and ordered the printed Result of the Ecclesiastical Council, that sat on our affairs, and the Protest against the said Result, to be put up with the letter; and also, at the same time, sent letters to my other correspondents in Scotland, with the books, etc. I have as yet had no call to any stated business elsewhere in the ministry; although, of late, there has been some prospect of my having invitations to one or two places. The people of Northampton are hitherto destitute of a minister. They have exerted themselves very much, to obtain some candidate to come and preach to them on probation, and have sent to many different places; but have hitherto been disappointed, and seem to be very much nonplussed. But the major part of them seem to continue without any relenting, or misgiving of heart, concerning what has been done; at least the major part of the leading men in the congregation. But there is a number, whose hearts are broken at what has come to pass; and I believe are more deeply affected, than ever they were at any temporal bereavement. It is thus with one of the principal men in the parish, viz. Col. Dwight; and another of our principal men, viz. Dr. Mather, adheres very much to me; and there are more women of this sort, than men, and I doubt not but there is a number, who in their hearts are with me, who durst not appear, by reason of the great resolution, and high hand, with which things are carried in the opposition, by the prevailing part. Such

is the state of things among us, that a person cannot appear on my side, without greatly exposing himself to the resentments of his friends and neighbours, and being the object of much odium. The committee, that have the care of supplying the pulpit, have asked me to preach, the greater part of the time since my dismission, when I have been at home; but it has seemed to be with much reluctance that they have come to me, and only because they could not get the pulpit supplied otherwise; and they have asked me only from Sabbath to Sabbath. In the mean time, they have taken much pains, to get somebody else to preach to them.

"Since I wrote to you in July last, I received your letter, dated the 30th of April last, with your generous and acceptable presents of Fraser's Treatise of Justifying Faith, Mr. Crawford's Manual against Infidelity, Mr. Randal's Letters on Frequent Communicating, Mr. Blair's Sermon before the Society for propagating Christian Knowledge, with an Account of the Society, and the Bishop of London's Letters to the cities of London and Westminster. The view, the Jast mentioned gives of the wickedness of those cities, is very affecting; and the patience of God towards such cities, so full of wickedness, so heinous and horrid in its kinds, and attended with such aggravations, is very astonishing. That those cities, and the nation, and indeed Christendom in general, are come to such a pass as they are, seems to me to argue that some very remarkable dispensation of Divine Providence is nigh, either of mercy, or of judgment, or perhaps both of mercy to an elect number, and great wrath and vengeance towards others; and that those very things, you take notice of, in Isa. lix. are approaching, appears to me very probable. However, I cannot but think, that, at such a day, all such as truly love Zion, and lament the wickedness that prevails in the earth, are very loudly called upon to united and earnest prayer to God, to arise and plead his own cause, that he would make bare his arm, that that may bring salvation; that now, when the enemy comes in as a flood, the Spirit of the Lord may lift up a standard against him. When the Church of Christ is like the ship, wherein Christ and his disciples were, when it was tossed with a dreadful tempest, and even covered with waves, and Christ was asleep; certainly it becomes christians, (though not with doubting and unbelief,) to call on their Redeemer, that he would awake out of sleep, and rebuke the winds and waves.

"There are some things, that afford a degree of comfort and hope, in this dark day, respecting the state of Zion. I cannot but rejoice at some things which I have seen, that have been lately published in England, and the reception they have met with in so corrupt a time and nation. Some things of Dr. Doddridge's, (who seems to have his heart truly engaged for the interests of religion,) particularly his Rise and Progress, and Col. Gardiner's Life, and also Mr. Hervey's Meditations. And I confess it is a thing, that

gives me much hope, that there are so many on this side the ocean united in the concert for prayer, proposed from Scotland; of which I may give a more particular account in a letter to Mr. M'Laurin, which I intend shall be sent with this. I had lately a letter from Governour Belcher, and in the postscript he sent me the following extract of a letter, he had lately received from Dr. Doddridge. "Nor did I ever know a finer class of young preachers, for its number, than that which God has given me this year, to send out into the churches. Yet are not all the supplies, here as elsewhere, adequate to their necessities; for many congregations, in various parts of England, remain vacant; but I hope God will prosper the schemes we are forming for their assistance. I bless God, that, in these middle parts of our island, peace and truth prevail in sweet harmony; and I think God is reviving our cause, or rather his own, sensibly, though in a gentle and almost unobserved manner."

"This, which the Doctor speaks of, I hope is a revival of religion; though many things in many places, have been boasted of as glorious revivals, which have been but counterparts of religion, so it has been with many things that were intermingled with and followed our late happy revival. There have been in New England, within these eight years past, many hundreds, if not thousands, of instances, very much like that of the boy at Tiptry Heath, mentioned by Mr. Davidson, as you give account in your letter. We ought not only to praise God for every thing, that appears favourable to the interests of religion, and to pray earnestly for a general revival, but also to use means that are proper in order to it: and one proper means must be allowed to be, a due administration of Christ's ordinances : one instance of which is that, which you and Mr. Randal have lately been striving for; viz. a restoring the primitive practice of frequent communicating. I should much wonder, (had it not been for what I have myself lately seen of the force of bigotry, and prejudice, arising from education and custom,) how such arguments and persuasions, as Mr. Randal uses, could be withstood; but however they may be resisted for the present, yet I hope those who have begun will continue to plead the cause of Christ's institutions; and whatever opposition is made, I should think it would be best for them to plead nothing at all short of Christ's institutions, viz. the administration of the Lord's Supper every Lord's day-it must come to that at last; and why should Christ's ministers and people, by resting in a partial reformation, lay a foundation for a new struggle, and an uncomfortable labour and conflict, in some future generation, in order to a full restoration of the primitive practice.

"I should be greatly gratified, dear Sir, by the continuance of your correspondence, and by being informed by you of the state of things, relating to the interests of religion in Europe, and especially in Great Britain; and particularly whether the affair of a comprehension is like to go on, or whether the Test act is like to be taken VOL. I. 53

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