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improvements in machinery, combine to bring knowledge of all kinds within the reach of the comprehension of a child, .# the pecuniary resources of a labouring man. The enlightened christian gladly joins in this work, but he will never rest satisfied with the diffusion of earthly wisdom alone ; he deems all education incomplete, if not useless, which does not embrace the inculcation of those truths and duties which are revealed and enforced in the Word of God, and which form the only solid basis of happiness either in this world, or in that which is to come. In the inculcation of these truths on the minds of the young, Sunday schools occupy a most important position, providing as they do for the religious instruction of numbers, who thus alone learn what is to make them wise unto salvation, and also of a large class who have no other education whatever. Deep should be our thankfulness to Almighty God, that so large a body of teachers have come forward in this field of labour, seeking not the praise or the reward of men: but surely it is incumbent on the church to see that those who thus devote themselves to the service of the Lord should be furnished not only with the materials necessary for the proper organization of their schools, but also with opportunities of adding to their own mental acquirements, that thus they may bring to bear upon their work the resources of a cultivated mind, as well as the energy of heartfelt piety. This duty the church has recognized, though but partially: and three or four societies have earned the warmest thanks of Sunday school teachers by the valuable assistance they have rendered them. . But, whilst gladly acknowledging these services, the committee feel themselves warranted in saying that a society was needed which, (gaining those advantages which invariably attend unity of purpose by devoting itself exclusively to the interests of Sunday schools,) should provide Sunday school teachers connected with the Church of England with a depository whence to obtain a supply of books and school materials, a source of information upon the best systems of teaching, a fund to yield pecuniary assistance in poor neighbourhoods, and opportunities of meeting in communion with their fellow labourers without being compelled to abstain from all reference to those doctrines and formularies which they feel to deserve both their respect and their affection. Scarcely any steps have yet been taken to render the existence of the institute known to the christian public; but nevertheless many members of the clergy and of the laity have borne witness to the necessity for such a society, and have brought their hands and hearts to co-operate in the work . In speaking in the second place of what has been done, the committee will proceed to lay before the members extracts from the reports presented by the various sub-committees. The Finance Sub-Committee report that the receipts up to the present time amount to £133. 4s. 7d. ; of which sum £39. 16s, id. arises from donations, 4:25, 5s. 0d. from life members, £64. 6s. 6d. from annual and quarterly subscribers (282 in number), and £2.17s. 0d. from the sale of the introductory lecture. The expenditure amounts to £70. 15s. 6d., leaving a balance of £62. 9s. 1d. in the hands of the treasurer. This balance, however, is subject to some current expenses, such as rent, remuneration of house-keeper, librarian's salary, &c., leaving but a small sum for the purchase of books and the furtherance of other plans for extending the utility of the institute. The committee, therefore, express their hope that the members will use such opportunities as may occur of obtaining donations from those who are willing and able to assist in such an object. This appeal is rendered more necessary by the resolution to which the committee have come, of removing to a more central situation, as soon as premises suitable for the purposes of the institute can be met with. The House Committee report that there is no probability of obtaining such premises at the low rent for which they are at present liable; but the situation, and internal arrangements of the rooms now occupied by the institute, are such as to render a change not only highly desirable but absolutely necessary. The Lecture Committee report the delivery of six lectures, to the character of which they refer with the highest satisfaction, as eminently serviceable to Sunday school teachers. The introductory lecture delivered by the Rev. John Harding, which contains (besides other very valuable matter,) an excellent synopsis of the designs of the institute, has been published, and circulated to some extent among the members and friends of the society. Two others of the number will also be ready for distribution in a short time. The attendance at the lectures has varied between 70 and 140. The Library Committee report that the library contains 366 volumes, of the estimated value of £84. Of this number, 159 have been purchased at an outlay of £33. 3s. 1d., and 207 have been presented to the institute. Among the latter class is a handsome present from the Lord Bishop of Chester, of two copies of his Lórdship's Commentaries, in all 24 volumes; also the liberal gift of the annual publications of the Parker Society, presented by the council of that body. The volumes in the library may be classed under the following heads; 147 on Divinity (including 61 volumes of Commentaries), 20 on Education, 89 on History and Biography, 37 on Geography and Travels, 6 on Science, and 67 Dictionaries, Magazines, and works of a miscellaneous character. The library has been frequented by 142 members, to whom 517 issues of books have taken place. A catalogue will be prepared for the use of the members early in the ensuing year; this work having been delayed until the number of books in the library should render a catalogue tolerably comprehensive. The committee refer with pleasure to the appointment of Mr. Riche (a member of the institute, and a Sunday school teacher of some years' experience,) as librarian, feeling confident that the members will meet with every attention at his hands, and be saved the disappointment which must sometimes have arisen, had the attendance at the library been left, as heretofore, to gentlemen whose time is not always at their own command. The committee also have the pleasure of informing the members that the library will in future be thrown open for three hours on Saturday evening, and that the Tuesday attendance will be changed from the evening to the afternoon, to suit the convenience of ladies who may not be able to leave their homes in the evening. The hours will therefore be in future, Monday evening from six till nine o'clock, Tuesday afternoon from two till five, Thursday and Friday evenings from six till ten, and Saturday evenings from six till mine. During the whole of these hours the exchange of books may be effected by members of both sexes; but on Monday and Tuesday the use of the reading room is appropriated to ladies only. The committee earnestly hope that these increased facilities will be met by the members with a determination to improve the advantages offered to them by the institute. The Publication Committee are engaged in a thorough examination of the works already published for the use of Sunday schools, with a view of preparing a catalogue of such as they can recommend, which they believe will be of much service to teachers seeking assistance in the choice of elementary and reward books. The committee will then turn their attention to the supply of any deficiency which they may find to exist. The establishment of a depôt for the sale of such works is very desirable, but cannot be effected without a considerable increase in the capital now possessed by the institute. These remarks naturally lead to inquiry—What hope is there of the society being able to carry out its objects? Upon this point the committee would carefully abstain from holding out an expectation that the society will rapidly advance to the accomplishment of the purposes for which it was formed; but, on the other hand, they feel that they have every reason to congratulate the members on the present state and prospects of the institute. Looking to the great
attention now paid to religious education, especially by members of the established church, the vast sums appropriated for that purpose, and the talent engaged in the work; and looking also to the generally acknowledged want of such a society as the Church of England Sunday school institute, and the favour and interest with which its formation has been regarded, they believe that the progress of the institute, though it may be slow, will be sure and continued, and that it will at length powerfully contribute to make Sunday schools, what they ought to be—the nurseries of the church. Much may be done by individual members to promote its prosperity. Let them induce their fellow teachers to join them by showing that they themselves appreciate the advantages thus afforded them; and let them not fail to use such opportunities as may occur, of bringing the claims of the institute before the notice of those who may be able and willing to help forward any such labour of love. The committee, however, desire to impress upon the members, what they trust is deeply felt by themselves, that “except the Lord build the city, their labour is but vain that build it.” They earnestly desire that the prayers of the friends of this young society may be unceasingly offered up to Almighty God, that He would be graciously pleased to direct and prosper it in all its objects, and make it, in His hands, the instrument of turning many to righteousness, and hastening the coming of His kingdom.
A FEW WORDS FROM THE VICAR OF ROYSTONE TO THE POOR OF HIS PARISH ABOUT THEIR NATIONAL SCHOOL. MY DEAR FRIENDs, I am going to say a few words to you about your national school. You all know what I mean by the national school: it is the new building which stands—where such a building, if possible, should stand in every parish—close to the church and parsonage. This school will be opened for the instruction of your children, God willing, on New Year's Day, the Feast of the Circumcision of our Blessed Lord. You will, perhaps, wonder how this handsome and convenient building has been erected. “Where has the money come from-what will our children be taught, and what shall we have to pay?” are questions which many of you, I dare say, have often asked yourselves. Listen to me, then, and I will tell you all about it: what has led to the building of it, whence the means have been obtained, what is the object of the school, and on what terms your children may be taught therein. I had not been long amongst you, before I found that your children greatly needed instruction. They are sadly ignorant; and ignorance, especially of christian knowledge, that is, the knowledge of God, the blessed Trinity, is the source of all evil. Knowing, too, that the minister of the parish is the servant of the poor, I thought that I could do the poor no better service, than by building a school in which their children might be taught their duty to God, their neighbour, and themselves, and something of useful school learning besides. As soon as I came amongst you, therefore, I determined to use every effort to build you a national school. I must confess, however, that I did not expect to accomplish the good work so quickly, as, by God's blessing, it has been accomplished. The first person to whom, as in private duty bound, I mentioned the subject, was our chief pastor, the Lord Archbishop of York. It is a good old rule to do nothing without the bishop, and one which in clerical matters a clergyman should always act upon. His grace was pleased to sanction the undertaking, and to head the subscription with a very handsome donation. The archbishop also kindly inspected the plans of the school, and approved of them. Having thus obtained the high sanction of our venerable metropolitan, I felt emboldened to ask the assistance of others. I appealed to the great landholders of the parish: these gentlemen cordially entered into my views, and gave largely not only of their money, but what personally I value more, their sympathy and good wishes. In the next place, I sought the assistance of the principal farmers in the parish, some of whom, I am thankful to say, supported me with heart and hand; but too many, I regret much, gave the matter no encouragement. This indifference to so good a cause, I am anxious to attribute to some misapprehension of the object of the school; for had the farmers clearly understood that the object of the school is the instruction of the children of their own labourers, and therefore of those who eventually will be their labourers themselves, I cannot help hoping that they would have been glad to assist their parish priest in providing a school, wherein might be trained a succession of honest well-instructed servants of both sexes. And I feel confident, after this explanation on my part, that they who did not contribute towards the building of the school in the first instance, will now contribute towards paying off the debt which remains upon it. Not being able to obtain sufficient funds from private sources, I applied for public aid. As was matural, I first went to the National Society, the object of which is to afford assistance towards the building of schools for the education of the children of the poor in the principles of the church. I need scarcely say, that as my appeal was in perfect unison with the object of this invaluable institution, it met with a hearty response. Afterwards I applied to Her Majesty's Committee of Council on Education, at whose hands I received the greatest courtesy, much valuable information, and considerable grants. I should add, that several generous persons, not at all connected with the parish, when they knew what was going on, sent me liberal subscriptions. In these ways, therefore, have the funds been raised for building your handsome national school. I call it your school, my poorer parishioners, because it is built expressly for the use of the children of the poor, that, being instructed day by day in the obligations of their baptism, and in the elements of useful learning also, they may, by God's blessing, be brought up to lead quiet lives in all godliness and honesty. You shall now hear in what way your children, boys, girls, and infants, may be taught in these schools. Religion will be first, and midst, and last in all their instruction. The master and mistress, who have had the advantage of receiving their education in the York Diocesan Training Schools, will chiefly instruct the scholars in other matters; but the religious instruction will generally be superintended or given by me, their spiritual pastor. The work of the school will begin and end each day with prayer; and whenever there is divine service in the parish church, the children will have the privilege of joining in it. The Holy Scriptures will be read daily in the school; the Book of Common Prayer will be carefully explained to the children; and that portion of it which contains the catechism will be taught to all who are able to learn it. In order, also, to enable them the better to appreciate the sacred services of the church, many parts of which are .." to be sung, an effort will be made to instruct the children in psalmody and ecclesiastical music. Ample provision, therefore, has been made for the religious instruction of your children, without which all other learning is not only useless, but pernicious. But when religion is made the grand concern in a school, other branches of learning may be advantageously taught. “Where virtue is, these are more virtuous.” And so it will be in the national school at Roystone. Here, on week days—for of course on the Lord's Day scriptural instruction only will be given— the children will be taught reading, writing, the elements of arithmetic, English grammar, and geography. They will also be made acquainted with the principal events in the history of their church and country, in order that they may know how to value the blessing of being born and bred in good old England. And besides these branches of school learning, your girls will be taught knitting and plain needle work, together with habits of order and neatness, which will be useful to them in after life. And while care is taken for the culture of the minds and hearts of your children, their health and amusement will not be neglected. With this view it is intended to erect a gymnastic apparatus in the school yard, for the use of the children out of school hours.
When it is added that all this instruction will be given for a weekly payment,” which may be afforded by every industrious labouring man who saves what he can out of his wages, and never spends a penny for useless finery upon his wife or children, or intoxicating liquors upon himself. I hope you will agree with me in thinking that your national school bids fair to be a great blessing to the children of the poor. Show, then, that you appreciate this blessing, by sending your children to be educated in it, from their infancy. Take care that they attend regularly and with punctuality. Do all in your power to carry out the rules of the school. Treat the master and mistress with due respect. Set your children a good example at home. Accompany them to church, and pray with them in your own houses. Teach them, also, to praise God for having put it into the hearts of your bishop, your landlords, and the other benefactors, public and private, already mentioned, to enable me your pastor to accomplish this good work. And may neither you, nor I, my friends, ever forget to beseech o God, for his dear Son's sake, to reward them sevenfold into their
Some very curious details of the “State of education in each of the United States in the year 1840," are given in the recent official supplement to part 12 of the Revenue Tables. From this official account it appears that, in 1840, there were in the several states of the Union (30 in number) 173 universities or colleges, containing 16,238 students, on an average of between 90 and 100 to each college. There were also, at the same period, 3,242 academies or grammar-schools, having an attendance of 164, 159 scholars, or an average to each establishment of rather more than 50 pupils. Of primary and common schools, there were in the States 47,209, having 1,845,244 scholars; giving an average attendance of nearly 40 to every school. The number of scholars educated at the public charge amounted to 468,264; and the “ number of white persons above 20 years of age who cannot read or write” was 549,693 in the various states. Pennsylvania possessed most universities and colleges, having no fewer . than 20; Ohio, 18; Virginia, 13; New York, 12, &c. But New York had 505 academies and grammar-schools; while Pennsylvania had 290 only; Massachusetts, 251; Virginia, 382, &c. Massachusetts educated by far the most of any state at the public charge, the number so educated being 158,351, while New York educated gratuitously only 27,075; Pennsylvania, 73,908; Ohio, 51,812, &c. Three of the states, Florida Territory, Wisconsin, and Iowa have no universities or colleges. Wisconsin had but two academies and a grammar-school, and Iowa had but one.
* The terms of instruction vary from one penny to threepence a week. (See rules of the school.)