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had withdrawn their applications now renewed them. A large number of school managers, although they had received public money of the lords of the treasury, to whom, before the Committee of Council was formed, the distribution of the parliamentary grant had been committed, and who had not insisted on inspection, intimated their readiness to admit the visits of the queen's inspector. Intimations of this kind were given within three months, by the managers of schools, in not less than 213 places. I shall not attempt to express, but shall leave it for you, my reverend brethren, to conceive the relief at this time experienced by the individuals on whom devolved the formidable responsibility of having advised the National Society, first to break off, and afterwards to renew, its connection with the government.
The change of administration which shortly afterwards ensued, made no change in the relations of the society to the Committee of Council. Those relations were now settled upon a basis, to which both the leading parties in the state were committed. Both parties had pronounced it satisfactory. To disturb it might be dangerous, and might be again the signal for parliamentary and general warfare. In such a struggle, a divided church would in all probability be brought into disastrous collision with the whole body of statesmen. both in and out of power, united against it. For my own part, I took my stand at once upon the archbishop's agreement with her Majesty's Privy Council
, and upon the terms which have for years regulated the admission of schools into union with the National Society. Others might desire a deviation to the right hand or to the left, but my hearty desire and constant endeavour have been to preserve the National Society in the strong position which it has now honourably and consistently occupied during a period of nearly five years. So long as the archiepiscopal agreement and the terms of union with the National Society remain inviolate, the church, I am persuaded, will retain its proper influence in this department; and popular education will neither be in danger of renouncing christianity altogether, nor of substituting for church principles some chaotic mass of vague and inoperative generalities. I am persuaded also that her Majesty's Privy Council must appreciate the tranquility now enjoyed by the country, with reference to a subject which had previously produced so much disquietude, and must contemplate with the highest satisfaction, the rapid and surprising progress made by the society in relieving the educational destitution of the country.
At the same time, since public money is voted annually by parliament for education, it is right for us to provide that a portion be awarded to tlie church, commensurate with its claims upon the public treasury. And since a board of privy councillors has been permanently established, for the distribution of the public grants, it becomes the more indispensable to guard against any precedents which the secular power might, even undesignedly, establish to the prejudice of the ecclesiastical : it becomes necessary to prevent principles or practices from being introduced, which, however harmless while the government is friendly, might, under less favourable circumstances, be extended to the injury or depression of the church. Vigilance, therefore, on this point is an important duty, which every member, and still more every minister of the church, according to his abilities and opportunities, is bound to discharge. It is a duty, however, more especially binding on the committee of the National Society and their official agents. That the committee have not been wanting in this duty, but have zealously attended to the interests of the church, I might abundantly demonstrate from the papers in my possession. A statement, however, of this kind is unnecessary, and would be premature.— Extract from a Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Archdeaconry of Middlesex, by the Ven. John Sinclair, M.A.
REPORT OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY, MAY 28, 1845. In making their present annual report to the members of the National Society, your committee will not have to announce any intelligence so remarkable as that which characterised their last address. No event has occurred during the past year so striking as the collection of the Special Fund for the manufacturing and mining districts. Indeed, nothing of a very important nature either for good or evil has recently signalised the history of the society. Your committee have been chiefly engaged in dispensing the funds entrusted to their charge ; they have mainly employed themselves in a careful apportionment of grants out of the Special and Queen's Letter Funds, and in regulating and improving the various training institutions of the society. But, though the narrative of the society's late proceedings may be less eventful and less generally interesting than on other occasions, the labours of your committee have been perhaps greater than in any former year, both on account of the unprecedented amount of funds which they have had to dispense in grants throughout England and Wales, and on account of the extended operations of the society in training teachers. Indeed, as far as actual results are concerned, the recent proceedings of the society afford matter of congratulation beyond all former precedent, whether we regard the increase and improvement of elementary schools, or the provision made for a good supply of teachers, to spread sound instruction and the pure precepts of the gospel throughout the kingdom. Your committee proceed to give a brief summary of the transactions and occurrences of the past year.
I. The business of the society has very much consisted in continuing the distribution of the Special Fund. The principles and regulations adopted in the distribution of this fund were so fully detailed and explained in the report of 1844 that it is needless to recur to them, except to remark, that the same rules are still observed, as your committee have had great reason to be satisfied with them.
In one matter your committee have found it necessary to modify their grants, namely, as regards the assistance given towards the temporary maintenance of new daily schools in populous and poor neighbourhoods. Your committee would be glad to have it in their power to aid all such cases. The decrease of the fund, however, and the increase of applications of this nature, have constrained them to resolve to vote such assistance only in those instances which, in addition to the extreme need of the case, present features of a peculiar character, and claim some prompt remedial exertions. Your committee commenced voting grants of this description under the hope that such temporary aid would be productive of permanent good by causing education to be appreciated in the places where the new daily schools were opened, and would thus render the schools self-supporting when the temporary help of the society was necessarily withdrawn. Your committee, however, have found that the permanent good anticipated was not always realised, and in some instances the schools did not, as was expected, become independent of extraneous support. In other cases your committee are happy to say that their temporary grants, voted for the purpose of giving a good start to new daily schools, or to open for use on week days, schools heretofore used only on Sundays, have issued in beneficial results which afford a fair promise of durability. One clergyman writes as follows :-“If it had not been for the temporary assistance I received from your society, I could not have kept my daily schools open. I believe these schools are effecting a vast amount of good amongst a once rough and
uncultivated mining population. Yon will perceive that I have in my three schools nearly 350 children present daily, and upwards of 500 on Sundays.” Another clergyman says: "On a careful examination of the expenditure and probable income of our national daily school, I believe we shall be able to carry it on in future without foreign aid. As our school on Sunday now numbers nearly 500, we shall ere long have to apply for assistance to enlarge the building.' Another correspondent remarks: “The grant made by the society to start my school was very valuable. The school is always quite full-thanks to the excellent master sent me from Westminster. I shall require no further aid.”
Your committee stated last year that the conviction had been forced upon them of the great inadequacy of the supply of skilful teachers, more especially for the large schools which were springing up in all quarters of the manufacturing and mining districts. Accordingly, in addition to the steps which were then announced to have been taken for procuring a greater number of efficient masters for schools in those parts, your committee have subsequently adopted measures for obtaining a more numerous body of well qualified mistresses for schools in such localities. The sum of £2,000 was set apart for the purpose
of providing exhibitions for eligible females, to be educated at the institutions of the society and the diocesan training schools, upon condition of taking charge of schools in those quarters for which the Special Fund was intended. By means of these exhibitions many females, accustomed to the manufacturing and mining districts, have been induced to become candidates for admission into training under the society at Whitelands, and under the Chester board at Warrington; and there seems every probability that they will prove valuable teachers for the important and difficult schools for which they are destined.
The institution at Battersea for training masters for the manufacturing and mining districts was so fully described in the report of last year that there is little to add respecting it on this occasion. As it has been in the hands of the society only during the last eighteen months, it would perhaps be premature to speak of its results. The additional buildings, towards which the committee of council had voted £2,200 at the time when the society accepted the charge of the institution, have been finished in a satisfactory manner.
Nine pupils have completed their training here under the society, and have been placed in charge of schools. There is now accommodation for seventy-five students, and fifty-eight young men are at this time in the establishment. Your committee entertain a confident hope that the institution will soon be filled by eligible candidates, more especially as a few exhibitions of £15 and £10 each are open for competition, and will be awarded to such candidates as pass a good examination and fulfil the usual requirements of the society in other respects.
Your committee are happy to report that the model factory school at Bradford is proceeding entirely to their satisfaction, although a great loss was felt in the removal of both the head teachers, Mr. Ross and Mrs. Jenkins; the former of whom was chosen to be inspector of schools for Manchester and Salford. Your committee are glad to say that they have
been successful in supplying their places with two duly qualified persons. The subjoined extract from a letter of the Rev. Dr. Scoresby, vicar of Bradford, contains some striking facts relative to the educational means provided for that large manufacturing parish by the society and the vicar, assisted by the zealous co-operation of R. J. Saunders, Esq., Her Majesty's Inspector of Factories, and other friends of sound education. On the 26th of February last, Dr. Scoresby writes as follows: " In preparing a report of our parochial schools, I have obtained some interesting returns of all the children that have passed through the schools at Stott Hill, Eccleshill, and the model school. The numbers to December 31, 1844, are, at Eccleshill, factory children, 220; day scholars, 258 ; total, 478.
At the model school, factory children, 2,332; day scholars, 270 ; total, 2,602. At Stott Hill, factory children, 1,765 ; day scholars, 1,030 ; total, 2,795. Total of the whole entered at the schools, of which about 1,300 remain, 5,875. Adding the school at Manningham while under my charge, at New Leeds, and at Daisy Hill, opened a few months ago, the whole amount would extend, I believe, to about 7,000 children in about three years and a half !”
From these facts, and from the facts which were stated in last year's report, your committee are encouraged to hope that the unusually large grants which they have made towards erecting and carrying on the model factory school have not been made injudiciously. Your committee are now more than ever inclined to believe that it would be well to establish model schools in various parts of the country
The experience of your committee convinces them that the example of a good school generally excites imitation in the neighbourhood. And it is desirable that, in all districts of the kingdom, those who may be concerned in the management of schools should have convenient opportunities of seeing education under the best forms, and thus to be stimulated to introduce into their own schools the most approved school books and apparatus, and also the best methods and processes of instruction. But more especially is this desirable in those quarters where it has chanced that church education has not been hitherto seen under favourable circumstances. In some remote parts of the kingdom, there is not only much ground to plant, but much also to reclaim : the church has not only to win the minds of the people, but likewise to soften and overcome many established prejudices. In such places, therefore, it is evident that measures of more than ordinary vigour are requisite, where mediocrity would make no impression, and failure would perhaps be irreparable. In Cornwall, for instance, your committee are supported in their view by the opinions of two most enlightened and excellent friends of education in that county, the Rev. C. Lyne, vicar of Tywardreath, and the Rev. J. Punnet, ricar of St. Erth. Your committee will be at all times ready to co-operate, to the extent of their means, with any managers of church schools, who may lay before them any well digested and feasible plan for exhibiting the church system of education on the best models, in such districts as have been referred to, or in other eligible localities.
On the 23rd of this month, the entire amount of the special fund was £151,985, of which the sum of £116,500 has been paid to the treasurer; and £75,000 have been expended and voted by your committee.
II. In the course of last autumn the collections made under the Queen's Letter in behalf of this society were completed. Your committee have reason to believe that the cause of education generally has been greatly benefited by being thus brought prominently under notice in the churches of the realm, by the letter of the sovereign and the exhortations of the clergy. By this means, increased attention has been drawn to the topic of education, more accurate knowledge has been diffused, and more active interest in the subject awakened in the minds of all classes.
The whole amount of the proceeds of the collections thus made, under the authority of her Majesty, was £32,291 ; from 9,249 places. In addition to this, the sum of £1,092 was given in special donations to this fund, making a total of £33,383. Your committee have to acknowledge with gratitude this liberality and confidence of all those, laity as well as clergy, who have placed this sum in their hands for distribution; a sum which exceeds the amount of the largest similar collection previously made in behalf of this society by upwards of £3,381. The fact of this increase in the fund obtained under the royal letter is hailed by your committee with pleasure, both on account of the actual good which they trust will hereby accrue to the cause of sound education, and still more as an evidence of the spread of the principle which the National Society has so long inculcated, that the poor are not likely to do their duty the worse for knowing it the better.
At the same time your committee are obliged to state that the sum collected is by no means commensurate with the wants of the case, or with the demands which they would wish to supply. Indeed, so great had been the pressure of demand, that your committee had ventured to forestall the recent collections made under the sanction of the crown, and had voted out of this source the sum of £6,995 in advance.
The Queen's Letter fund is available for grants to all places throughout England and the principality ; but as special sums have been raised for the mining and manufacturing districts, this fund will at present be mainly devoted to agricultural, commercial, and seafaring localities. The objects upon which this fund is now chiefly expended, may be classed under three principal heads : Ist, the building, enlarging, and fitting up of schoolrooms ; 2dly, the building or purchase of teachiers' residences ; 3dly, the payment of organising masters. In their last report your committee enumerated other ways
in which they were desirous of promoting the education of the country out of this fund, especially the yielding temporary assistance towards opening Sunday schools for daily instruction in neglected rural and maritime places. In short, it was their wish to afford help from this source to all the numerous objects which were assisted out of the special fund. This wish they have for the present been obliged to resign for lack of the requisite means. They have, however, augmented the number of their organising masters; and they have likewise taken up one new mode of strengthening church schools, namely, by assisting out of this fund to erect or purchase houses for the teachers. The difficulty which is sometimes experienced of adequately maintaining schools, especially in rural and thinly peopled districts, constrained your committee to take up this last matter as far as lay in their power, from the consideration that a comfortable dwelling is an important portion of a teacher's remuneration, and, consequently, a small permanent endowment of the school to which it is attached. Accordingly, help towards procuring teachers' residences will henceforward be apportioned out of the Queen's Letter fund as well as out of that which was raised for the benefit of places engaged in mines and manufactures. This help is given, either in the shape of an increased rate of grant in those cases in which a teacher's house forms part of the building plan, or in the shape of distinct grants to parties who are desirous of annexing a residence to existing school-rooms. In every case it is necessary that the residence as well as the school be legally secured for the purposes of church education; and peculiar facilities for effecting conveyances of sites for such uses are given by the School-site Act of Vic. 4 and 5, cap. 38, and by the Act to explain the same of Vic. 7 and 8, cap. 37.
The subjoined table exhibits in a brief compass what has been done by the society out of the Special and Queen's Letter funds, for the extension and improvement of church education in England and Wales, between January 1844 and Lady-day 1845, in the shape of grants voted to individual schools. From this view it will at once be apparent, that the educational works in progress, in schools connected with the society, are very considerable. In addition to all the modes of assistance referred to in the table, education has been supplied with other helps out of these funds, by means of grants to the diocesan training schools, by the payment of organising masters, and in other ways.
The total estimated cost of the works assisted by the society, as shown in the subjoined table, is undoubtedly great; but in fact it will be still greater on account of the unforeseen expenses which in almost every case swell the cost of the undertaking before the work is entirely finished. The whole amount of fresh school accommodation also, obtained through the society's grants, will probaby strike many persons with surprise. If these operations could only be sustained for a few years to come, there would be a reasonable hope of overtaking the wants of the country in this respect. The society