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This Work, as the title implies, is designed for the use of advanced students, and also as a work of reference for those who are engaged in teaching geography. The Introduction deals with the essential elements of the science, and its study should accompany, if it does not precede, that of the general geography of the various countries and continents in the body of the work. Special prominence has been given to the British Empire, and it will be found that not only the United Kingdom but also every British Colony and Dependency throughout the world have been treated in careful detail, and that all important countries outside the Empire-such as the United States, China and Japan, and the great Continental Powers are dealt with in a manner commensurate with their importance from our point of view. Recent discoveries and territorial changes in Africa have received special attention, and it is hoped that the arrangement and grouping of the subject-matter in this section will-if supplemented by constant reference to good and recent maps-enable the student to complete and define his knowledge of what can no longer be justly termed the "Dark Continent." In America, the two great English-speaking countries -Canada and the United States-have been dealt with in detail proportionate to their interest and inherent importance; while the sections relating to the Australasian States, comprised in the Commonwealth of Australia, and to New Zealand, and those dealing with the insular world of Polynesia-the political partition of which has been completed by the agreements that define the limits of the British, French, and German spheres of influence and noninterference-are unusually complete. In fact, all the Countries of the World, as well as the Continents, are described in a sufficiently exhaustive manner to meet the requirements of almost all examinations in geography. Due prominence has been given to the
Mountain and River Systems and other natural features; the present political condition of each State is indicated; and, bearing in mind the fact that the study of Commercial Geography is daily becoming of greater importance, the Industries and Trade of the principal countries are dealt with in considerable detail. In the preparation of this work the best and most recent British and foreign authorities have been consulted, and no pains have been spared to make the book a reliable exponent of the geographical knowledge of the present day.
The Earth's Surface-Natural Divisions of Land, according to position