seizing one throne after another, until it they are—no matter by what perjuries, by has become sovereign of nearly the whole what treasons, by what assassinations, of Central Asia, and is daily meditating what secret or open crime they may have the vulture's descent upon the small re been achieved, are marked upon the map mainder. The Punjaub has, thus far, as British possessions. And Great Bri. been exempt from its interference; but tain may most righteously be arraigned the Calcutta Englishman, of a very re before the world, in place of him against cent date, heads an article with the omi- whom, as the head of this vast, irresponnous words, “ Every appearance of a sible and despotic power, Burke thunPunjaub war,” and goes on to exhibit the dered his terrible denunciations, when he “extreme disorder” prevailing in that said, “ We charge this offender with no country, and to speak of the “ probability crimes that have not arisen from passions that British intervention cannot be much which it is criminal to harbor ; with no longer delayed.” Scinde was seized upon offences that have not their root in avaeven in impatient advance of what Black- rice, rapacity, pride, insolence, ferocity, wood calls the “ principle of unavoidable treachery, cruelty, malignity of temper; expansion."

in short, in nothing that does not argue The London Times proclaims that con a total extinction of all moral principle, quest must go on in Asia until the “ na that does not manifest an inveterate tural limits of empire” are reached; and blackness of heart, died in grain with the Foreign Quarterly Review has pro- malice, vitiated, corrupted, gangrened to claimed that “ to Great Britain, as to a the very core.” And this is the model conquering and civilized caste, the gov- upon which is to be formed the projected ernment of all India belongs, not so British Company in California! This much through any paltry right derivable Western Continent is to be the theatre from custom, or originating in popular on which these scenes are to be reën. notions, as from that sacred right impart- acted ! ed by Providence to intellect and justice, Nor is the suggestion we have cited to rule over violence and ignorance.”+ our sole or chief authority, for suspecting And this career of conquest, which has the British Government of projects of been continued without interruption and dominion in this portion of the North with increasing vigor down to the present American Continent. There has sprung time, and which is still advancing with up of late a very general demand from strides worthy of its gigantic power and all sides of the British press, for the stupendous purpose, has beyond all prompt accomplishment of these designs. doubt involved more perfidy and corrup- The Foreign Quarterly Review closes tion, more robbery and murder, more some speculations upon the probable desbutchery and blood, more crime and out- tiny of California, with the remark that rage of every grade and every hue, than “an active minister, who had a forecast the most ruthless deeds of Roman ambi- of the future, might secure it as an aption, or, indeed, than can be matched in pendage to Oregon, our unquestionable the history of any single power, of an- right to which is too clear to be surrencient or of modern times. The East dered. The Mexicans,” it is added, India Company has always been one “ would not be sorry to part with it to us of those convenient and super-ser- upon fair terms." The urgent recomviceable agents whose transactions the mendations of the Mexican correspondsovereign power of Great Britain could ent of the London Times, we have al. avow or disavow at its sovereign pleasure. ready quoted ; and we have now to offer, But now it has come to be universally from the same source, this explicit and, recognized as simply Great Britain in beyond all doubt, authentic announceAsia. Its arm is that of Britain. British ment of a fact which our previous citaambition is the life that throbs through tions must have shown to be probable. all its giant frame. British troops are its In his letter, dated September 29, 1845, instruments. The British seal has been after speaking of the arrangement in proaffixed even to its most atrocious deeds; gress between the governments of Mexithe avails of its robberies have swollen co and the United States, on the question the vast tide of British wealth ; its con- of boundary, this writer says: quests-bloody, ruthless, unprincipled as “ The question of frontier will also be

* Blackwood's Magazine, No. 328, p. 273. † F. Q. Rev. Jan. 1844, p. 271.



embarrassing on the Pacific coast, and in- ment of the fairest of her possessions, terfere with the negotiation Now GOING should now, so soon after the obnoxious on between the British and Merican gov- deed is finally and fully accomplished, ernments for the adoption of a frontier manifest even an intemperate eagerness parallel, NECESSARY TO BRITISH INTER

to resume with us friendly relations, and to negotiate for a boundary upon so lib.

eral a basis as she is said to have proWith this evidence before us, it is impossible, or at least unwise, to doubt that posed. We fear these measures are but Great Britain is striving to secure from of present life.” They have already re

the fair-seeming dictates of a “ necessity Mexico sovereignty in California, abso- lieved her seaboard from the presence of lute, it may be, or perhaps “ somewhat in the manner of the East India Compa- from the pressure of our troops. They

our squadron, and her Texan frontier ny."

have averted, or at least deferred, a blow The next question naturally suge against which she had found it impossi. gested relates to the probability of her ble to interpose the shield of Britislı

This must be simply a matter of opinion. It would be useless to the fatal necessity of engaging, single

and have released her from

power, disguise our fear that, so far as Mexico handed, the power of the United States. is concerned, she may accomplish her Of such a struggle the result has repurpose. We have less confidence than peatedly been predicted in Europe. perhaps is just, in the good faith of the The French Journal des Debats has defriendly disposition towards the Govern- clared that the conquest of Mexico ment and people of the United States, would be a wide step towards the enwhich Mexico is said of late to have slavement of the world by the United evinced. Our acquisition of Texas is yet States, and a levy of bucklers by the too recent-our port towards Mexico has Mexicans at this moment would lead the been too commanding-our exactions have been too rigorous, for the wound they in. Times remarks that Mexico has had the

way to this subjection.” The London flicted upon this sensitive and resentful

sagacity to perceive that a declaration of race to have yet fully healed. The sono

war would enable the United States to rous blasts of our mutually defiant armies seize upon and retain the Mexican terrimust even yet be echoing among the marshes between Metamoras and Aransas tory. These views were doubtless enBay, nor can the proclamations of the by the representatives of both France and

forced upon the Mexican administration Mexican powers, so

Great Britain : and the result has been ** Horribly stuffed with epithets of war," that all thought of immediate war has have yet wholly passed from their recol- passed away. Meantime, a negotiation lection. Their soldiership, we are well for the cession of California, and is “ now

has been set on foot with Great Britain mere prattle without practice,” and they found themselves, like in progress.”. Suppose it to be successful,

and the British power to be planted in Iago, so

the Bay and around the tributary wa“ be-lee'd and calm'd ters of San Francisco; will not the EuroBy clamorous creditors,”

pean powers be then in a condition to that

attempt to reduce to practice the theory

of M. Guizot, that “the integrity of exThough they do hate us as they do hell isting powers in America must be main. pains,

tained?” “ Between the autocracy of Yet, for necessity of present life, They must show out a flag and sign of America, aggrandized by the conquest of

Russia on the East, and the democracy of love, Which is, indeed, but sign.

Mexico, on the West,” says the Journal

des Debats, the official paper of the French It seems to us improbable that a gov. government, “ Europe may find herself ernment marked and swayed by Mexican more compressed than she may one day temper, which persisted against the ad- think consistent with her independence and vice and example of the leading nations dignity.It cannot be disguised that apof the earth, in refusing to recognize the prehensions of the future power of the independence of Texas, for a long series American people are arousing the fears, of years of enforced inaction, which has, and influencing the policy of the princifrom first to last, charged upon the pal nations of Europe. The leading United States the robbery and despoil. journal of Great Britain but a few days

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aware, was


since, declared, that “ no European poli. has most power, upon land and sea, tician can look forward to the power of must have over every other, and over all the United States, within the present cen- others, advantages, the weight of which tury, but with the most appalling pros no distance from them can ever seriously pects.” And so the Paris Debats remarks, impair. Supremacy of this kind long that “ for the political balance of the enjoyed will never be readily yielded ; world, the conquest of Mexico by the nor can any prospect, however remote, United States may create eventual dan- that it will be snatched away by some gers, which, although distant, it may not vigorous and growing competitor, fail to be superfluous to guard against.” And be met with discontent which may ripen so again, upon another occasion, the into scowling defiance and open hostility. same official journal employed this still These considerations, and others which more emphatic language:

must readily occur to every one upon A cry of war between America and slight reflection, must remove or at least Mexico has been raised: although it is modify the incredulity with which the not believed that the threats will be fol. chance of European intervention for the lowed by acts, yet it would be well for purpose, whether avowed or not, of us to be prepared for anything. North checking and fixing limits to the growth America presents her ambitious plans for of American power, is very naturally conquering all the American continent. received. She began by the annexation of Texas, by But there are other considerations which she divides Mexico, and a war which may tend still farther to render will give her a welcome pretence for pos- probable such intervention. Between the sessing herself of all Mexico. Soon the political institutions of the great Eurosmaller states will follow, and the Isthmus pean states and those of this country, of Panama fall into the hands of North there is a radical and a vital difference America. Europe should not tolerate this, a difference which cannot fail to ripen

SUFFER NORTH AMERICA TO IN into hostility whenever the two systems CREASE, or the independence of Europe shall threaten collision. Many years ago might sooner or later be wedged in by this difference was thus defined : “ The the two colossuses of Russia and North European alliance of emperors and kings America, and suffer from their oppres- have assumed, as the foundation of hu. sion."

man society, the doctrine of inalienable It seems well nigh incredible that any allegiance. Our doctrine is founded upon or all the European powers should the principle of inalienable right.* This seriously resolve upon measures to pre. is a difference which has become irreconvent and check the growth, in power and cilable. It exists as an impassable gulf influence, of the United States. To the between the family of sovereigns and the casual observer we seem to be so far re- great body of the people. It can never moved from them, the ocean that rolls be- be broken down, and can only disappear tween us seems so broad, as to stifle and when kings shall become perfect and destroy that envy and jealousy which, undisputed despots, or when they shall under other circumstances, might ripen cease to wear their crowns. The sov. into displeasure and end in open and ef- ereigns of Europe, by their frequent interfective hostility. But farther reflection, marriages, by their position which elevates we apprehend, will weaken the force of them above all other society, and espe. these considerations. The affairs of the cially by this identity of interest and of whole world are, in many very import- safety against the encroachments of the ant respects, linked and even fused to- republican spirit, are more closely knit gether. Commerce, which has come to together, and animated by a stronger be the ruling power upon this globe, esprit du corps than any other body in the makes its home upon the broad sea that world. It must therefore be expected knows no bounda—its familiar paths that they will make common cause against are upon the world's great highways; their common enemy, wherever he may and it knows comparatively litile, in its have his seat, whenever he shall threaten highest and most far-reaching relations, to disturb their peace, and from whatof those national limits which divide, and ever quarter, or in whatever shape, his therefore weaken, the aggregate of human aggressive movements may come. For power. That nation of the earth which the last three hundred years the progress

* Hon. J. Q. Adams, Secretary of State, in a letter to Mr. Anderson, U. S. Minister to Colombia, dated 27th May, 1823.

of Republican principles has been unin- ism, which, as we have said, is simply terrupted. In the sixteenth century, the instinct of self-preservation, naturally the age of Elizabeth-the defeat of Philip acquires strength from the magnitude and II. of Spain, the head of the Catholic world, pressure of the danger to be incurred. by the entire destruction of the immense When, therefore, we reflect upon the armada he had despatched against Eng- most wonderful advancement of this, our land, established the independence of the republic, in wealth, population, territory, Dutch commonwealth so renowned, under and all the elements of national greatthe name of the Republic of the United ness and power; upon the spectacle Provinces. The seventeenth century be. wbich we present to the world, of eighheld the execution of an English king, teen millions of people, active, intelligent and the establishment of a commonwealth and happy, enjoying all the protection on the ruins of the throne, under the and feeling none of the burdens of govProtectorate of Cromwell.

Our own ernment, dwelling in peace and in plenty, revolution, and the bloody scenes which made conscious of law only by the imattended the overthrow of royalty in munities and blessings it bestows, hear. France, rendered the eighteenth forever ing of no tithe or tax-gatherer, holding illustrious. Already has the nineteenth their rights and possessions at the caprice heen marked by the triumph of popular of no lord or petty tyrant, but under the power in Spain, Belgium, Norway, and sanction of the commonwealth of which several other nations of Europe, over they are constituent members, and enjoyprevious and still recent despotism; and ing all the blessings of a well-ordered now the growth of a gigantic, over. State, with what Milton calls “the utshadowing Republic on the Western Con- most bound of civil liberty that wise men tinent, seems likely to affix the seal of look for;"! when we look upon the decay and death to the startled and half- gigantic fabric of power which is thus crumbling monarchies of the Eastern shooting upward, with a rapidity to world. The rapidly approaching con which history affords no parallel, towards summation of this great and universal an overshadowing influence which must tendency has only one aspect—that of make itself felt by land and sea, and in fear-and holds out but one result—that all the departments of human action of utter downfall and extinction—to the among the nations of the earth; and whole family of European sovereigns. when we remember that the resources of To the world at large, to the millions of modern practical science and art have its inhabitants and the general interests made it impossible to prevent this un. of humanity, reason may urge that it is bounded and stupendous achievement vastly, immeasurably beneficial. But from being a cynosure to the whole kings can never so regard it; or, if they world; that the people of Europe must do, they will never act upon this convic- and do turn painfully under the yoke tion. Their interests, their personal pros. which their kings and kingly governperity and power, their existence even, ments have laid upon their necks, and are menaced and threatened with destruc- gaze upon the contrast with their own tion by this tendency; and they do, condition which we present, it can therefore, but obey the universal instinct scarcely seem matter longer for surprise of self-preservation when they combine that the London Times should deem the their forces and unite their counsels and probable power of the United States their power, to resist and defeat, and turn within the present century an “appalling back in its channel this rapid, often prospect,” or that the official organ of the tumultuous, and sometimes crimson tide French monarchy should proclaim that of popular ambition. Hence, as a British Europe must not" TOLERATE this rapid writer has remarked, “among all their growth, NOR “SUFFER North AMERICA mutual jealousies, sovereigns have al FURTHER TO INCREASE !” ways had a strong fellow feeling for a The existence of this feeling among king against a people ;*** and nearly all the sovereigns of Europe towards this the interventions of European powers in country, cannot be cloaked by honied the affairs of other nations of modern diplomatic assurances of distinguished times, have been made in support of consideration, nor disproved by angry or kings against the people, or in soine way contemptuous denial. We look upon it for the benefit of the kingly power, as a fact-a "fixed fact,which must This feeling of hostility to republican- have weight in any speculations, that

• Edinburgh Review. † Speech for the liberty of unlicensed printing.

claim to be intelligent, concerning our could be as readily defended as it; while present and future foreign relations. We the combined fleets of all the naval pow. have introduced it here for the purpose ers of Europe might moor within it.” of saying that Mexico cannot be ignorant It lies directly in the track of all transit of its existence, and that, in our judg- between Asia and America, and is by far ment, she intends, with more of wisdom the best, the safest and most valuable than we have given her credit for, to harbor on the Western Coast of the make it serviceable in “ feeding fat the Western Continent. grudge” she bears us. She cannot lack With this port for her naval depôt, the sagacity to perceive that, with Great Great Britain would indeed be MISTRESS Britain firmly fixed in California, she OF THE SEAS, could not engage in war with the United States without a certainty, or, at the least,

not for a day, but for all time!” a very strong probability of having Great An armed squadron, sailing thence, by Britain for an active ally. This is an a single blow could sink millions of object worthy her endeavor. It is one American property, seize upon tens of likely, we fear, to be attained through thousands of our citizens, sweep our the " negotiation now in progress for the commerce, and drive our flag from the adoption of a frontier parallel,” on her Pacific Seas. With California in that northern border, deemed, by Great Britain, part of our dominions, Canada upon our necessary to British interests.” Should northern frontier, Halifax overhanging it prove successful, our government, we our northeastern coast, a portion of the fear, will find reason to regret its forbear. West India Islands whence to burl her ance in not having regarded the decla- brands of open war, and her infernal rations and acts of Mexico, consequent enginery for exciting civil contention, in upon the Annexation of Texas, as in our southern section, with Mexico for fact, declarations of war against a por- an ally, and her ports as points d'appui tion of the American Union, and thus for assailing our southern and southforcing her to a speedy and final adjust- western cities, she would certainly have ment of all points of disagreement. enfolded us as completely in her net, as

We deem it impossible that Great the bloodiest intentions of extermination Britain should expect to occupy Cali- could possibly desire ! fornia, either as a colony, or “ somewhat Such a consummation, we venture to in the manner of the East India Com- say, and England must know, can never pany,” with the acquiescence or indif- be effected with the acquiescence, or ference of the United States. In no spot without the utmost possible resistance, upon the continent could she establish on the part of the United States. It was, her power, where it could be so effectu- indeed, long ago proclaimed by the Exally wielded to our lasting injury. It can ecutive of our government, and has scarcely be doubted that the Pacific recently been reaffirmed by our present Ocean is hereafter to bear upon its bosom chief magistrate, as a principle on which, a far greater commerce than now floats in all time to come, ihis country would upon the Atlantic. Whatever may be act, that any attempt on the part of Euroits relation to Europe, to the United pean powers “ to extend their system to States it is destined to be the highway to any portion of this hemisphere, would be Asia, the avenue to the unbounded wealth considered as dangerous to our peace

and of the “

Even now, safety," and that “ the American conour whaling fleet counts 675 vessels, tinents, by the free and independent with an aggregate tonnage of 2,200,000 condition which they have assumed and tons, and the majority of these, with maintain, are henceforth not to be con. 16,000 of our countrymen, and valued at sidered as subjects for colonization by $25,000,000 under the American flag, any European powers." I And concernare upon its waters ;* and in half a cen- ing this declaration, and the rights which tury our commerce with Asia and the it established, a writer in the Edinburgh Islands of the Pacific must be counted hy Review, for July, 1845, remarks: hundreds of millions of dollars. San Francisco is one of the finest if not the ration, instead of protesting against it, it

“Had Europe acquiesced in this declavery best harbor in the world. “Few are would in time have given to the United more extensive,” says Com. Wilkes, States a prescriptive right to act upon it.”

gorgeous East.”


* Exploring Expedition. Vol. v., p. 485.
| Pres. Monroe's Message, December 2, 1823.

| Ibid., Vol. v., p. 159.

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