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upward. The herdsman knew that a Commending himself, by a brief yet storm was approaching.

fervent prayer, to heavenly protection, Suddenly a dark speck, so distant that the youth turned aside, and clambered it seemed Ďut a more on the dazzling face upward by a more circuitous route, where of heaven, caught his eye. His heart a few straggling pines aided his almost bounded within his breast.

perpendicular ascent. He stood at last The speck grew larger; he clasped his on the summit. One peril was surhands in an ecstacy of joy and gratitude. mounted-he was now to strive for life It was the condor! Soaring at a height and death with the fierce enemy whose immeasurable, it still drew nearer. Schaff- realm he had invaded. The condor sate hold hid himself in the foliage of the tree, percbed on the top of the lofty tree, whetand watched the flight of the majestic ting her beak for the encounter, her bird. Of the condor it is said that it will large keen eyes glaring defiance, her remain for days upon the wing, and never talons rending the bark of the tree. A lights upon earth save for food. The thought struck the young herdsman. youth knew, by the steadiness of its on- Gathering a heap of the driest brushward and descending course, that it sought wood, he fastened it to the end of a long its eyrie. Rapidly it came on : floating pole, which he had cut down with his calmly in mid air, as if it scorned the tee axe. Then, striking fire, he kindled it, ble enmity of man. Schaff hold's eyes and placed it as high as he could reach, followed its flight: he saw it tending to in the branches of the tree. wards a lofty and inaccessible rock. On The half-decayed boughs were instantly the summit of this stood an aged free, on fire. The violence of the wind swept half stripped of its leaves by the wind it upward ; and the nest itself, composed and storms. There, he was at length of dry twigs and moss, was wrapped in convinced, was the nest of the mountain flames. The condor had taken flight at tyrant.

the first gush of smoke, but recalled by Not a moment was to be lost. Descend- the cries of her young, wheeled round ing from his elevated situation, he hastily and round the blazing tree, uttering a crossed the valley, and passed along the hoarse short cry at intervals, and flapping side of the mountain, cutting a path for her huge wings, as if maddened by rage himself through the dense undergrowth and despair. Anon she dashed furiously of the forest. The storm had begun; at the human foe. Schaff hold struck at the wind surged heavily through the her with his axe, bis only weapon of thick foliage; he heard the roar of rush- defence; the bird wheeled round him, ing streams, and the crackling of forest retreated, and then plunged madly into trees bent by the blast; but pressed on the midst of the flames, whence issued ward without seeking rest. At length the last stifled cries of her young ones. he had climbed the mountain to the foot The mother's instinct proved her own of the rock. Pausing a few moments to destruction. Blinded by the flame, her take breath, he commenced the steep and wings singed, and struggling helplessly perilous ascent.

for escape, it was now easy for the herdsGrasping the shrubs growing on the man to climb into the burning tree and face of the rock, and cutting footsteps as dispatch her with his axe. He had barely he slowly advanced, he reached the most time to drag his panting foe to the ground, dangerous part. The cliff projected over when the shivered and crackling limbs of the abyss, and on its verge stood the the tree, so lately his foot-hold, gave way. lightning-scathed tree, the throne of the The blazing fragments fell into ibe abyss. winged monarch, never before invaded Schaff hold threw himself prostrate in by man. He could see the dark form of thankfulness both for his escape and his the bird above him. The parent was success; and bearing the huge bird, tied feeding her young. Her fiery eyes flashed, securely with ropes, prepared for his and her wings flapped threateningly, as descent. she watched the intruder. Schaffhold saw his imminent peril, suspended thus All the population of the valley, as between heaven and earth, and at the well as the stately followers of the court, mercy of such a foe. The clamorous were assembled next morning before the impatience of her young for food, alone castle. The Duke came forth to meet stayed her revenge. When they were the young man who had slain the condor, gorged, her next swoop would be upon He received his homage, listened to his him.

account of the adventure in which he had

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triumphed, and demanded his name and Greifenstein, and is enriched with cities lineage.

and hamlets. The Duke contirmed the "Schaffhold, the son of Wolfgang the gift, and in presence of his whole court, herdsman," was the reply. But the created the young man a knight and noyouth looked not up to see the sheer ble, with the title of Baron Scbaafthat passed around the circle at these gottsch-giving bim for his device, to be words.

worn on his shield, a sheep reposing “ Bring forth my daughter," said the under a green tree, with golden collar Duke, after a moment of silence. Several and bells. The new baron prayed for of the knights ventured to remonstrate, one sole boon : it was that, ere his mar“The princess-wedded to a low-born riage, he might be permitted to earn the hind!" was murmured by ırany lips. honors of knightbood. Permission was

“Go to," answered the Duke; “my granted ; and Schaafgottsch repaired to word is pledged-and it shall be so. the court of the Emperor Philip. Duke Fetch hither the princess."

Henry granted him a master at arms, There was a pause of silence, and who instructed him in all military exerpresently Rubeta appeared, leaning on cises. He fought under the imperial her mother's arm. Her face was pale as

banner against the restless Otho IV., and death; her eyes fixed on the ground. won such distinction, that Philip be. Again a murmur passed through the stowed on him the highest praise, and crowd.

presented him, at a tourney in which be My daughter,” said the Duke, “thou was victorious, before his assembled well knowest why I have sent for thee. court, with a rich velvet mantle, violet There stands the man whose bravery has embroidered with gold, and a heavy gold. won thy hand. Be he churl or peasant- en chain. He even offered him the hand my word may not be broken. I pray of a noble lady in marriage; but the thee to receive him as thy husband." knight, faithful to his betrothed, only

“ Nay-not so-my liege lord and craved leave to return home. sovereign !” cried the youth, kneeling at The news of his return laden with the Duke's feet. “I would risk life a honors, went before him, and he was thousand times for so fair a prize; but I welcomed by a procession of the shepwill not take the band the lady doth not herds, in holiday garments, his father at willingly bestow !"

their head. They scarce recognized their “Now, by the rood, thy spirit is late companion in the stately knight who knightly enough,” said Duke Henry. came, with his attendant squires, to meet " But it is our will, vassal, that thou them ; 'but Schaafgottsch ihrew himself dost wed the lady. Rubeta, what sayest from his horse, embraced his father, and thou ?”

cordially greeted his former friends. “I will abey thee, my father!” answer The burg of Greifenstein already tow. ed the maiden, on whose cheek the flushered proudly on the summit of the rock. of joy had chased away its paleness. It was completed ere long; and within its The Duke joined their hands. “And walls was the marriage celebrated of the that thou mayest have a home stately princess Rubeta and the Baron von Schaaf. enough for a princely bride,” he con- gottsch. Many of the descendants of this tinued, “I give thee as much land as first baron of ihe name were distinguish. thou canst encircle in one day, driving ed, as well in council as in the field; and thy flock. On the rock thou didst climb not a few rose to eminence in the church. the condor's eyrie, I will build a stately The Baron Ulric, falsely accused of high castle for thee and thine heirs, which treason, was beheaded the 25th July, shall be called Greifenstein,' in remem- 1635, at Regensburg, at the command of brance of the bird that has brought thee the Emperor Ferdinand II. In the befortune.”

ginning of the eighteenth century the The same day was the betrothal of the family of Schaafgottsch were raised by princess and the herdsman solemnly cel. the Emperor Joseph to the dignity of ebrated. On the following mo g, Counts of the Empire. The castle reSchatfhold commenced his circuit of the mained in their possession. land which now forms the domain of

INTELLECTUAL CHANGE: MENTAL CHARACTER OF THE AGE.*

are

For some time past, a change has been themes of antiquarian research or schoolgoing on in the world of thought. The boy harangues, whilst the minds of her works, which stand at the head of this chosen few, her Virgil, her Horace and article, are but the unerring indices of her Tacitus, are our earliest instructors. this change, and, for the present, no far. Her laws are well nigh forgotten, whilst ther concern us.

the filial love of Coriolanus and the maIdeas are now familiar, and sentiments ternal pride of Cornelia, are the nursery trite, of which the philosophy of our tales of our children. Her forms are fathers could not have dreamed. Pick gone, her body is mingled with the dust, up an old author-Livy, for example but her soul is ever amongst us, in the and how commonplace seem all those re verse of her poets, and the eloquence of flections, which in his day were deemed her orators and historians. La materiel most profound. How little does the od is dead-la spirituel is immortal. Patavinian really tell us of the people “ Societies,” says Roger Collard, whose history he writes. His books are born, live, and die upon earth; there they filled with the “ gloria imperii,” he gives accomplish their destinies, but they conus auguries, traditions and battles-he tain not the whole man.” The State delights to tell us how Rome, "ab exi. holds not all that binds him to earth, guis profecta initiis, creverat ut jam for not in that alone does he live. Withlaboret magnitudine sua :" but are these in himself there is a world, a microcosm, things Rome? nay, are they in any wise wonderful in all its parts, divinely and part of her or her character? Has he harmoniously wrought. Besides, there brought her before us, panoplied in all is for him another world ; that bright and the armor of her strength, and made her happy one, the circle of his tireside. To stand forth a being of life-cold, stern, live as becomes him, he must act well iron-cast, yet true? Far from it. We his part in these three worlds. All his ask for her spirit, and he shows but her duties must be so blended together, that corpse; we ask for her heart, and he he may fulfill his high appointment as an shows us her muscle and sinew. In the individual, as a citizen of the State, and days of Titus Livy, the interest, nay, the as a being of the household. Sadly for being of the man was absorbed in the in- him, he has too often, whilst in one terests and being of the State. Men sphere of life, forgotten the existence of were never thought of, save in the multi- another. Cast back the eye five centuries tude, as some vast, spring-set, wire. ago. In that twilight of time, where was worked machine, in the bands of empe- the individual man, where was the being rors, senators and tribunes. As individ- of the household ? Nowhere to be found. uals, and as beings of the fireside circle, A blind despotism of the mass everynone ever heard of them. They were where ruled. The whole man important only as they made patres con- merged in the multitude, guided to and scripti and consuls, comitia and legions. fro by want and passion. Of action there And yet Rome, the State, has passed was much, of suffering much, of thinking away, teaching man but little beyond that which bitter experience teaches him every

The influences which law and govern. day. Her temples and her arches have ment have on the inner man are oi necrumbled to ruin. Her tribunes and con- cessity few. Possessed of but negative suls, her comitia and centuria, are but power, it is theirs not to create good, but

was

none.

* The Miscellanies of Thomas Carlyle, in 1 volume. Cary & Hart, Philadelphia.

The President's Daughters, Nina and Home, In 3 volumes, by Miss F. Bremer. Transjated by Mary Howitt. Harper & Brothers, New York.

The Education of Mothers; or, Civilization of Mankind by Woman. Translated from the French of Aine Martin, 1 volume. Appleton & Co.

to restrain evil, not to plant and nurture again remark, confined to outward results, virtues in the people, but with a strong regarding only visible and tangible effects. and impartial hand, to curb their outlaw. By operations of law and government, ry and rebellion. With positive rights, we mean all united action upon niasses. government can, of course, have little to The Muthoi of Plato, the categories and do. Her sphere of action is confined to dicta of Aristotle, did much indeed to indirect means, and her operations are draw man from truth. Many were their subject to all those casual influences, in errors, and deeply, grievously, did their the creation of which every court is pro- wild and visionary theories weigh down lific. Thus it is, that those who view upon the spirit of true and noble philosoman only in a political light, have cut phy. But the enemies of their school off from him all ihose direct and immedi- ran into an extreme far more debasing: ate powers, whose workings are able to With the one all was silent, unfruitful mould anew the whole face of society. thought; with the other all was senseless, Government they have made the end, mechanical force. If the ancient student whilst it is only a means. They have too slightly regarded the physical and mistaken the instrument by which human practical powers of his fellow-men, have happiness may be promoted, for that hap- not the moderns been equally disrespectpiness itself. In this wise, have men ful of their mental and spiritual stores ? been led on to look only at the forms and Utility alone has been revered. It has symbols in which principles are clothed. been the key-stone of a philosophy They saw how potent were those mean which even yet holds iron sway over ingless insignia, with all others around men.' Bentham, Hobbes and Mills have them, and is it to he wondered at that even not yet lost their disciples or defenders. the wisest should forget the substance In this, our boasted Nineteenth Century, and cling only to the shadow, that they we are but little beyond the ancient should scoff at the spirit, whilst they Greek, pagan and imperfect as he was, as bowed to its corpse? Whole parties have to ethical sciences. The phantasms of been arrayed around empty and unmean the subtil dreamer of the Academy might ing symbols, by which principles were still teach us new truth. The philoso. once made visible: indeed, the time was, phies of our day speak in no such wis. nay, it is somewhat with us now dom as did that Socrates whom Plato has when man did nothing save in the mass. pictured to us, sitting at mid-noon under Independent, individual action was check. The shade of his favorite plane-tree, on ed by the crushing spirit of a despotic the banks of the Jlissus. "Even Rome, philosophy. Man's intluence, as an ab- stern, selfish and iron-cast as she was, solute, self-acting, self-moving being, sunk men but little lower than did this seemed almost forgotten. In the language torpifying spirit of the mass, which so of a French philosopher," the pleasure sadly marked the advent of the last cenof feeling one's self a man, the sentiment tury. Its highest aim seemed to be, Miof personality, of human spontaneity, in das-like, to turn the noblest things iuto its unrestricted development, was almost perishable gold. lost to our race.” Clubism, “the sure The operations of Law and Governsymptom of unrest and disease,” spread ment are, we thirdly remark, uncertain. far and wide over society, and well might To this cause do we attribute much of the philosopher say, "The deep meaning that wayward inconsistency stamped on of the laws of mechanism hang heavy the actions of eminent Statesmen. So upon us.” In the closet and in the fo. shifting and changeful are the laws which rum, in the temple and by the fireside, it guide men in their capacity of political encumbered every working of the mind, societies, so tempting are the allurements and was spreading over the noblest of of place and power, and so distant is just faculties a nightmare of sleep. Every and righteous retribution for wrong, that error was made the subject of political man seldom leaves such pursuits save action. No progress was seen, no reform with a heart that has been visited with a was carried on, save by the mass. Its scathing and wasting power. Look at evils were as evident as they were inevi. Bolingbroke of England and Burr of table. Excesses, roused up by stirring America, and learn the mournful lesson manias, rocked society to its centre, and from them. In the prime of manhood men trembled under a despotism as infu- their intellects were lights to admiring riate as it was senseless. The operations Senates : in the close of their careers they of law and government are, we would were slow but self-consuming fires. Not

bettered by affliction, nor chastened by Every thought was viewed as a drawer disappointment, but poisoned by an in- forth of internal strength, starting into satiate craving for power, they dragged action a myriad of hidden and hitherto out a sad existence, and finally went unheeded powers. Man was taught no down to their graves unwept and un- longer to live in the sun and on the surhonored.

face, looking only at outer results. “I Şad then, we think, has been the in am accustomed,” says the Literary Pafluence of the spirit of the mass upon man. triarch of Germany, “ to turn the eyes of We have mentioned but few of its evils, my spirit inward, rather than outward.” and those briefly, for we would turn to Over whole nations was this deep, another order of thought, that began now in-looking, soul-searching philosophy to prevail.

spread. The German had renounced his The doom of the blind despotism of the old ways of thought, and well might mass was foretold more than a half a Madame de Staël say, that whilst Engcentury since.

At a time when society land's domain was the sea, France's the was convulsed with revolution and earth, the German's was the beautiful change, when "weeks staggered under a cloud-land and spirit-world, the sky. load of events that formerly made centu- Already had the new-light met the eye ries to bend,” a new philosophy was of the quicksighted, ever onward Newbroached among men. Although old Englander. Whilst others around him habits of thought had not passed wholly were bound down by the old philosophy, away--for even yet they cling to us—yet and were discussing the trite truths of there was a change apparent, fraught Government, the restless son of the Filwith benefit. Ushered in with the stir- grim had-forsaken the worn and beaten ring scenes of a new century, it gave a path, and was now speeding on in a strong and mighty impulse to humanity. higher and more elevated race. “ It is A new light was revealed, and, the dore the spirit that quickeneth,” cried they; mant powers of the individual were un- and Goethe and Schiller of Germany, folded to view. Although the inner man Coleridge and Carlyle of England, Emerhad not been unthought of, although son and Channing, of America, and Coumuch had been done, yet wisdom told sin, of France, stood forth, the bold dethat there were many truths yet un nouncers of the despotism, in which men known.

were living. The deformities of thought, To evolve and arrange those truths the trammels of habit, and the empty symwas the object of what we call Individual bols of party,were brought up to light. The Philosophy. Its mission was to seek out foul monster, Error, was startled by an the latent powers of the soul, and by a Ithuriel's spear. Old things passed away nobler spirit than had preceded it, to and all things became new. The enthudraw them forth into light, and foster all siast fondly

dreamed ihat he had found that was good and pluck up all that was now his To Ayadov of life. Alas! this evil. It gave an impetus never before spirit, too, noble as were its aims, had felt to ethical, nay, to all human science. its deep and crying evils. Not, indeed, The blind, Benthamite devotion to out wide-spread and paralyzing like those of ward results was thrown off, and

the mass, for it had been too deep to be “The love of right and scorn of wrong"

popular, too mystic to be understood. were found to possess something worthy And yet its mild, half-physical, hali. in themselves, and to demand far higher spiritual phantasmns fatally bewildered reverence than mere aims of utility and many of its followers. Uses it bad, promotion of self. The good was taught even yet it has many. There is still to be loved for its own sake, and an en

much amongst men that needs the ano. thusiasm was kindled up in the “ well dynes it alone can supply. But the endoing" of man. “ About this time," said thusiasm of its disciples ran the philosoGoethe, “a certain pious tone was ob- phy into a monstrous ideal pantheism. served to pervade all Germany.” In Eng. They forgot that man is no isolated being, land it was the same : all with man was

that his interests and relations are as an inspirited life. He drew within him. “many-sided” as the gifts wherewith self, to hold silent communions with a

God has endowed him. soul formed in the image of its Maker. « Εκαστος ημων ουχ αμωσω γεγονεν.2*

*Plato.

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