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Men curse those who scream re- compelled to deviate from his course, and proaches in their ears, whether these re pass one of the worst ranges of the proaches be uttered in words, or by a Appenines, during which time be was practice differing from its received ethics. exposed to terrible storms of hail, snow The world utters its maledictions, (its and rain. Four days of such exposure sick sayings,) till it begins to perceive was enough to have killed a man acits need, and then commences a worship customed to exposure, much more one little more healthful than its first state. with the delicate habits of an artist and Men forget that some of the faults they scholar. Suffice, that it did kill De alleged against the Prophet are really Veaux! and one of the best sentences in his-spots on the sun, it may be, bnt tone, purport and language, that we have really spots. They make a god of the seen from the somewhat eccentric pen of recent demon, and men always make Mr. Lester, is the concluding paragraph gods bunglingly.
of his sketch of De Veaux : The man of genius no more acts by permission, than his heart pulsates by and early lost painter, Americans will
“ Over the resting-place of this gifted enactment. He does not ask of his fel. stand and weep. lows leave to live. He lives it may be “ Nor can I forbear to say, that if De in a garret, or some other very comfort. Veaux had been a citizen of any other great less place. He feels the divine fire nation, the Court of Rome would long ago within bim glowing and burning with a have been summoned before a tribunal heavenly intensity, and, so sure as God which even Infallibility itself must respect, is omnipotent, he will conquer or die, to tell why it was that a young Artist from and dying conquer.
a distant country must be treated like an The fourth number continues the series. Italian bandit, when he is on his way to We have in it the heads of Trumbull the shrines of art.” and De Veaux-both of them execut On the whole, we are very glad that ed with spirit. The Biography of Trum- this series has appeared. The sketches · bull is an undiscriminating eulogy- do not go quite as deeply into their genethough we can make larger allowances ral subjects, as discriminating accounts of for such a tone in this case than in any Artists and their works, nor into the great of the others mentioned. Nobody is in theme of Art in general, as we could danger of mistaking the rank of Trumbull wish, and as they ought to have done, as an Artist, nor are his claims to our notwithstanding their necessary brevity. affectionate partiality as the hero, and There is little characterization or critifriend of Washington, in danger of being cism. The author, perhaps, writes too forgotten. The sketch of the gifted, gala little himself, gathering his materials lant and unfortunate young genius of somewhat too readily from the first South Carolina, De Veaux, is the most sources at hand. Thus, in the fifth No., pleasing and spirited of the series. Rembrant Peale is permitted to write his
De Veaux was a piquant writer as well own life ; and though it is certainly done as a good Painter. Poor fellow! how with becoining modesty on his part, yet it saddens one to think that so much life the fact that it has been published in this and truth and daring hope as is displayed form hardly exonerates Mr. L. from the in all he left bebind, should have been general charge of inconsiderate baste in dashed and eternally obscured by a stu- what he undertook. Still, we are confi. pid and ferocious decree of the Court of dent the series will be of definite service Rome. Under the suspicion that he was in making many people in the country some wild, fanatic republican, he was, as it were personally acquainted with our while on a journey as an Artist, from Artists, and will render the great cause Parma to Florence, forbidden to pass of Art--the high world of ideal beautythrough the Pope's dominions, and thus more familiar to the national mind.
men are to pass without inquiry the most by imitative signs. In doing this, other essential points in cases submitted for persons and things also to which these their investigation. A boy was intro- acts bear a relation, will at the same time duced by Mr. Mann, represented as a be indicated, and may thus, by mere im. deaf mute who had been instructed by plication, be set before the imagination his father. And, truly, he could articu- with as much distinctness as if portrayed late well, and had also an uncommon with the minutest accuracy. You canability to read on the lips. Certainly, not represent a person as milking a cow, there may be something in Mr. Mann's or driving a yoke of oxen, without callassertions respecting the German schools ing to mind these animals. By the simple was the general conviction. At the action of casting a fishing.line, you preafternoon session, however, a gentleman sent to view the rod, the line and the connected with the American Asylum water; and by other acts, you may picbegged leave to call up the lad again ; ture the bait, the book, ihe fish, the when it was demonstrated that the boy bank, or the boat; the more extended could hear, and understand perfectly, with and minute the pantomime, the more in no aid from the eyes, what was spoken number and the more specific will be the in a full tone of voice, at a short dis- objects implied. By skillfully imitating tance. How much better he could once a coachman on his box, as he manages hear, we are not informed, but he had the reins and flourishes the whip, you unquestionably obtained his knowledge may not only raise the idea of the reins, of speech and of language by the ear. the whip, the coach and the horses, but
How far and how easily is the language you may show whether he has four or of action available, as a means of com two in hand, and even the rate at which munication for deaf mutes ?
he travels, the kind of road he passes Many persons are sceptical as to the over, and the freaks of the animals. In capabilities of such a language for ex. such imitative action, periods of time may pressing more than what is palpable to be indicated, by the skillful introduction sense, or what pertains to the most of actions appropriate to particular times, common uses of life. But the most as night, morning, noon, evening, the refined and artificial tongues grow from Sabbath, winter or summer. By probeginnings like this; the most purely ceeding from a known starting point, the intellectual ideas ever formed by the mind actual time of real occurrences may be of man, or that have even floated in the communicated. A person returning from dreams of the transcendentalist, find their an excursion, would commence with his expression in terms which, in their ori- departure, and mark the subsequent ingin, denoted a purely physical phenome- tervals of time. Animals may also, to an non. Why then may not a language of extent, be personated in pantomime. In action, having the same ground, be in- this shape the language of action has herently capable of a similar develop. been cultivated as a fine art, and used ment?
for popular amusement, and is universalThe lowest stage in which the lan. ly and readily intelligible.* The deaf guage of action may be viewed, embraces mute not only makes abundant use of the pointing out of objects in sight, the such pantomimic action, which is pantonatural expression of real emotion, and mime, properly so called, but he imitates the indication of wants by means of the the 'motions of inanimate things, and most common and familiar actions. In pictures objects by other means. these forms no one can be at a loss how The sign-language of deaf mutes exto make use of it.
hibits, however, a wide departure from A step higher is taken by personating pure pantomime or mere pictorial reprean individual and describing his actions sentation. In addition to their direct
* The art of pantomime, it is well known, was carried to great perfection by the ancients. We have it on the authority of Lucian, that a king from the borders of the Euxine, seeing a pantomime perform at Rome, begged him of Nero, to be used as an interpreter with the nations in his neighborhood at home. As every schoolboy knows, it was a matter of strife between Roscius and Cicero, which could best express an idea, the one by gestures or the other in words.
The language of signs has been much used by many tribes of American Indians. Parties from some of these tribes have found themselves quite at home, when visiting a school of deaf mutes. Not mere pantomime, but even symbolical signs, strikingly similar, and in some instances the same with those employed by deaf mutes, have been found in use among the Indians.
this mode of purchasing salvation; wher are being said at a dozen different altars, ever there was one of these who felt the confessionals are filled, and devotees their gold to be more potent than their are kneeling before some precious relic faith, churches arose around in numbers preserved in marble, silver or gold. As and size greatly disproportionate to the before remarked, the effect of all this is population which worshiped in them. wanting in England, where most of the
The cloisters of a monastery still remain building is regarded as we would any adjoining Westminster Abbey, and most other piece of antiquity or monument of of the cathedrals in England. With the Romish Supremacy. How well they respect to the size of these edifices, most have all been used by those who built persons will form a more correct idea by them, is evidenced by the fact that where, comparison than by feet and inches. In as in St. Mary's at Warwick, the conEngland, but a very small portion is de- fessionals are of stone, the steps leading yoted to Divine service. The choir thereto are worn almost to the thinness which is used for this purpose, and is of paper, by a constant treading of the frequently as large as an ordinary church feet of devotees. At the last-named or chapel, is separated from the rest of church there is a small opening in stone the floor by an oaken screen, and on about a foot thick, through which the each side are three or more rows of confession was whispered, neither priest oaken stalls, or large arm-chairs, with nor penitent seeing each other; and this high straight backs, fantastically carved, is, on one side, worn to quite a cavity by furnishing seats for perhaps two or three the pressure of the confessor's head, as hundred persons. Here, every day in he inclined his ear to catch the sounds. the week, five or six canons and minor The towers vary greatly in their relative canons, with a choir of ten or twelve positions in different countries. In Italy boys, chant the whole of the service, they are generally separate from the before perhaps a dozen persons; except church, as at the cathedral at Florence, on Sundays, when they have a larger and the leaning towers at Pisa and Boaudience. In most of the cathedrals I logna. At Strasburg and Rouen there have mentioned, the choir occupies not are two towers in front, and a spire in more than one-fifth of the building. the centre; though, at the former, one of The rest of the floor is, in England, taken the towers is much higher than the other, up with monuments to the illustrious and at the latter, they are very differdead. One sees here a hundred things, ently shaped, uniformity in this respect the purposes of which it is difficult to being by no means regarded as essential divine, and which excite only curiosity to good looks. Where there is but one as the relics of a bygone age. But in tower in front, it is frequently on one Catholic countries all parts of the vast corner and not in the centre. The spire edifice are brought into use. There, the at Strasburg is four hundred and sev. choir, which is not screened off, but enty-four feet high. That at Rouen, simply elevated a few feet above the which has been but recently erected, is floor, is only occupied by the numerous of cast iron, four hundred and thirty-six priesthood, while the remainder for feet high; St. Michael's, at Coventry, the people, who stand, kneel, or use two hundred and ninety; that of Trinity small chairs hired from persons in at- Church, in New York, two hundred and tendance. There, all the niches are filled sixty-four; Bunker Hill Monument two with statues of saints. The church is hundred and twenty. surrounded by small chapels, thus num When we look at the ornamental work bering twenty or thirty altars. Between on Gothic edifices, the varied and elaboall the chapels are confessionals. When rate carving and tracery-work is absothe service is going on at the grand high lutely bewildering. The Duomo at Mialtar, every gaze is bent in that direction, lan, which presents the most imposing the voices of all the priests are heard in exterior of any in Europe, has more than unison, from the choir, to the accompa one hundred and fifty towers or pinnaniment of the organ. In hanging galle- cles, each of which is composed, as it ries, entered by private staircases from were, of a series of oblong white marble neighboring convents, nuns and monks cages, one above another and diminishare seen counting their beads ; ceremony ing in size. Through the marble slats of does its utmost, and a scene is presented each of these are to be seen one or more calculated to awe and impress the most imprisoned statues, and on the top of careless observer. At other times, masses each tower is one of gigantic size and
beautiful execution. In niches all over pletely filled with it, the smaller side the building, and forming the capitals of ones only exhibiting a few upper panes, the heavy columns which support the in- and perhaps a border. Much artistical terior, are other statues, numbering more skill is exhibited in so combining the than two thousand, all of white marble; colors as to blend them in a soft mellow among them many of Napoleon, the Em- light, without detracting from the solem; peror of Austria, and others. In front of nity of the building. Where but a small the cathedrals at Strasburg and Rouen space, such as the point of a window, is which are constructed of a darker stone, to be ornamented in this way, a very are numerous statues, (or what once were simple and beautiful figure may be formsuch, for Time has crumbled many of ed by differently colored or delicately fig. them,) some of those on the former being ured panes ; but on a large surface it equestrians, over all of which a mantle, would be difficult so to arrange them as as it were, of stone-lace appears to have not to give a chequered, showy, or at been thrown. Cooper compares that at least trifling appearance. The figures Rouen to the ivory Chinese work-boxes should be proportionably large, and have which were formerly so often imported. some signification befitting the purposes The pointed arches forming the doors of the edifice ; consequently whole sometimes recede twenty feet, and the scenes from Scripture are represented, semicircular recesses on the sides, formed figures of saints, mementos mori, coats by the four or five columnar projections, of arms, and other heraldic symbols. A are filled with statues which are of full. single window is oftentimes a perfect length size at the joints, and diminish to study, and no words can describe the excherubims with clasped hands at the top. quisite finish of the pictures and the
Most of the Gothic cathedrals in Italy never-fading brilliancy of the tints. have an additional building immediately In Trinity Church a fair proportion, in front called the baptistery. These are in this respect, has been observed. In generally of a circular or octagonal form, the new Grace Church, on Broadway, and in the centre there is a large basin, there is more stained glass, in proportion as if for immersions, surrounded by to size, than in any cathedral in Europe. smaller ones, for infant baptisms. In the The numerous windows are almost enmodern Roman church the latter only are tirely made up of it, every pane presentused, though the larger ones have occa- ing some small device, such as crosses, sioned much discussion as to the usages mitres, vines, &c.; or being arranged in of the early church. In many instances the shape of fantastic images, like the the baptistery is more elaborately finished figures upon calico. The eye is merely than the cathedral itself, and the exterior arrested by their brilliancy, and confused cornices present the strangest jumble of by the multiplicity of the figures, none saints, angels, and unknown monsters, of them being sufficiently large or devogiving the tout ensemble a wild, and not tional in their design to fix the attention unpleasing effect. But here, where mar or inspire feelings of awe; and there bles are so abundant, the most beautiful being no contrast between this glass of combinations are formed in the shape of colors and the perfectly white wall, the Mosaic work. At Sienna, there is a whole building presents a showy, rather medallion picture over the entrance to the than an elegant or religious aspect. As cathedral, and the whole pavement is in we write, we learn that an attempt is bethis way made to represent Scripture ing made to remedy this, by inserting in scenes.
each window a ground-work of dark The stained glass windows are a fea. glass; but we doubt if this will remedy ture peculiar to Gothic edifices, being in- ihe difficulty. As a writer in one of the tended by way of relief to the soinbre public prints has remarked, the building aspect of that kind of architecture. The appears to have been made for the glass, quantity of glass and devices adopted, rather than the glass for the building. vary, of course, in different churches, Another species of interior ornament but there is a certain proportion which which commands attention, is the profugenerally prevails, regulated by the size sion of carving in wood which the choir and number of the windows, and the of almost every Gothic church presents color of the stone forming the interior. to a greater or less degree. At Anwerp For instance, where the windows are nu- and Brussels it is seen to great perfection. merous, it is comparatively seldom that In the church of St. Gudule, at the latter any but the great end windows are com- place, the pulpit is a principal object of
attraction, being supported by the tree of as on the tomb of Henry VII., in the Ab. knowledge, on either side of which are bey and in Beauchamp Chapel, at Warthe figures of Adam and Eve. The ser- wick, the figures are of brass, clothed in pent is coiled around the trunk, and Eve plate and chain armor. At Milan, the is reaching her hand to take the fruit, visitor is conducted down a flight of while every possible nook and space in stairs, beneath the pavement, into the and around the tree is occupied by some Chapel of St. Carlo Borromeo, a room of the mute inhabitants of Paradise, con some ten feet square, encased on every spicuous among which is a monkey, side with silver, on which the principal whose comical grin gives a ludicrous ef- events in the life of the saint are reprefect to the whole. On the old choir of sented in basso-relievo. An altar richly York Cathedral, it is said there was a decorated with gold and precious stones, representation of a blacksmith shoeing a glitters in the reflection of the torches, goose. The artists seem in some in. and from the back, by turning a crank, is stances to have tasked their minds to com- raised to view a sarcophagus of rockprehend every object of nature or of fic. crystal, within which are to be seen the tion, however fantastic. The seats in withered and ghastly remains of St. Carlo the stalls are all made with hinges, so as himself, so embalmed for the veneration to raise them when their occupants are of the devout. Who has not heard of standing, and when thus raised, on the the church at Cologne, where the walls bottom of each is discovered a different on all sides, from floor to ceiling, are and delicate piece of carving.
lined with human bones? But we are But what most astonishes an Ameri- trenching upon the subject of relics, racan, when looking at these buildings, is ther than of architecture. the beautiful and substantial masonry by In the remarks heretofore made, illuswhich all the parts are knit together. trations have been drawn chiefly from Crypts and cloisters everywhere abound, more celebrated fanes; but they by no in which are to be seen every description means include all such features of size of arch, from the delicate Gothic groin to and beauty that are to be found. In Engthe majestic vaulting. In King's College land, to say nothing of the Continent, Chapel, at Cambridge, which is nearly
as many a town of now inconsiderable imlarge as Trinity, and in Henry the Seventh', portance, possesses, in its parish church, Chapel, at Westminster Abbey, the ceil an edifice which, but for the changes efing is constructed entirely of blocks of fected by the winds and rains of centustone, covered with embossed carving, ries, would far surpass anything in the most exquisitely fitted to each other; the United States. There is one of these whole entirely unsupported by columns, places, from the spires of which that of and yet presenting from below scarcely Trinity would seem to have been borany perceptible arch. In Trinity, New rowed, and the memory of which lingers York, the ceiling is an imitation of stone. with a peculiarly pleasant impress upon One word with regard to the monuments
our mind. which meet the eye in every direction, as Fain would we revisit it again in sancy; we wander through these ancient piles. and with those two companions with The most general form of those com whom but two years ago we looked with memorating persons of distinction, is that feelings of awe and admiration on scenes of an oblong block, upon which reposes of antiquity-scenes rendered doubly ina recumbent statue of the deceased, as teresting to us by the freshness and nov. large as life, representing him in the cos. elty of early travel. One of them, alas, is tume he wore when alive--as a bishop gone! Even there his step was feeble, in his mitre and flowing robes, or a knight and his body worn by disease. He had in his coat of mail—but occasionally in a devoted the best part of a life of nearly simple robe or winding.sheet; in all threescore years to the laborious exercases presenting, as you approach, the cise of a profession in which all his appearance of a corpse laid out for the thoughts and energies were absorbed, and grave. Frequently the husband and wife had now taken a respite from the task of are thus represented, side by side. Oc- healing others, to seek in foreign lands casionally old coffins come to light, as at his own restoration. And how won. Chester, where is shown one of stone, in drously did he revive, for the time being, which the body of Hugh Lupus was under ihe influence of spirit-stirring assofound, wrapped in an ox hide, more than ciations! Youth seemed to have returned a hundred years ago. In many instances, again, bringing back the long-forgotten