boast of mankind, we mean Taddeus ing met with a fall from a horse, he endKosciuszko, (read Ko-stew-shko) whom ed his glorious career, on the 16th of Ocwe left pining from wounds and sorrow tober, 1817. in prison at St. Petersburg.'

After his Russian captivity he never Born on the 12th of February, 1756, he fought, although Napoleon endeavored to was educated in the military school at engage his services.

He saw through Warsaw, where he acquired a taste for this crafty military despot. Kosciuszko's mathematics and history, which conti- remains are deposited in the tombs of nued his favorite studies through life. kings at Cracow, where, as a monument Disappointed in his love for the daughter to his memory, his grateful nation raised of the Marshal of Lithuania, Sosnowski, him an artificial mountain, Bronislawa, (Sos-nov-skey) who would not permit (Bro-nis-láh-vah.) this connexion, because the suitor's fami. It was a heart-rending scene to see peoly, though equally noble, was not pow. ple of all ages, high and low, men, women erful as his, Kosciuszko determined to and children, carry some earth to build up devote his life to the cause of liberty, the mound, all too happy to be able to while his inamorata was married to Prince pay this tribute of gratitude to their beLubomirski. As at that time the war of In- loved chief. dependence broke out between this coun The admirers of romantic constancy try and England, he had an opportunity will find in Kosciuszko the chivalrous to fulfil his vow, and accordingly em- virtue of faithfulness to his first love, for barked for America, where he served with he never was married. He was simple distinction in the army of the confederate and natural, as is becoming a great man, States. He was appointed aide-de-camp to and of warm feelings. After his captivity the immortal Washington, afterward made he touched at Bristol, England, while on general, and was one of the only two his way to America. Even at that time foreigners (Lafayette the other,) who re he had not yet got well of his wounds, ceived the Order Cincinnati, as an ac which made great inroads upon his once knowledgment of his great services ren robust constitution. While he thus lay dered to this country. On his return to stretched upon his couch, one of his visit. Poland, in 1786, he likewise found a glo. ors, by way of consoling him, spoke of rious field for his talents. The Diet more propitious days yet in store. To raised him to the rank of major-general this, faintly smiling, be answered, with under Prince Joseph Poniatowski in the feeble voice, “ Ah! sir, he who devotes campaign of 1792. We have already himself for his country, must not look for seen him sway the supreme power of his his reward on this side the grave.” country in 1794. On the accession of the After these words of his, we are not emperor Paul to the Russian throne, he able to add anything more of him but was liberated, and received signal marks what would be faint, since here he is of the autocrats esteem. The emperor portrayed as true as life. His generous, presented him with his own sword, but disinterested soul is here shadowed forth he declined accepting it, adding, “ I no as the bay-tree in limpid waters; his past, longer need a sword, since I have no his present, and his future are all here longer a country.”

mirrored at one stroke. Paul gave him 1,500 serfs and 12,000 To estimate properly the calamity that roubles, after he had declined a high mili- befel Poland, we must understand the tary post, but he returned the presents, soul of the nation, as it manifests itself and determined to go to America. The in her laws and institutions. It is not emperor began his reign by generosity only Poland herself that suffered, but and clemency. He set

at liberty all the through her disasters the cause of freePoles who were sent to Siberia by Catha. dom suffered also ; for her mission was rine, amounting to nearly 12,000; and to uphold liberty, and foster civilization. also those who were imprisoned were li Poland, through five successive centuþerated. But he was too generous to live ries, at the cost of her own blood, prolong.

tected Europe from the tide of Asiatic Having arrived in America, Kosciu- barbarism. When all Europe, except szko spent some time among his old com some cities of Italy, was suffering under rades, and then went to France, where he the feudal system, or enveloped in prosettled on an estate he bought near Fon- found obscurity, Poland was rich and tainebleau ; thence he retired to Switzer- powerful, enjoying the benefits of such land, and resided at Soleure, where, hav- written laws and popular education as

the spirit of the age admitted. Her Code a night of St. Bartholomew, of a Thirty of Wislica, given her by Casimir the Years' War, or a Holy Inquisition, but Great, in 1347, anticipated the famous have always protected the persecuted for code of the German emperor hy 13 years. conscience sake. By this constitution the king's power was When the Jews were persecuted elselimited, and personal freedom guarantied where, they found an asylum in Poland, to all classes. At the same time schools and received important privileges as early were established throughout the country as the thirteenth century (1264). When for the children of both the nobility and in England the fires of Smithfield were the peasantry, who, on graduating, if they blazing, when Germany was gorged with were not before, became nobles de jure, the blood of Lutherans, and when in and as such were entitled to all the rights France rivers of Huguenot blood flowed, of free citizens.

Poland protected the sacredness of the Already under Casimir Yagellon we human conscience, and for greater secufind that Poland possessed a national re- rity, the Diet in 1573 passed a law guarpresentation. The law published in 1454 antying forever freedom of worship to all limiting the king's power, runs thus: religious denominations; and enacted “We (meaning the king) promise not to that the Polish people, both Catholics and declare war or to make any law without Protestants, should mutually be considthe consent of the Diet,” &c., &c. A law ered as Dissenters in matters of faith : of 1468 ordained that every district should thus anticipating in religious toleration send to the Diet two representatives. not only the rest of Europe but even the Although the Magna Charta was granted founders of Rhode Island and of Maryfour hundred years before the Habeas land. Corpus act was passed, yet the latter, the When Henry de Valois was called to corner stone of British liberties, dates its the Polish throne, before he could be existence from the 31st year of the reign crowned he was forced to intercede with of Charles II. Poland, however, enjoyed his brother in favor of the French Proher law “ Neminem captivabimus nisi jure testants. When Sigismund III. sent to victum, aut in crimine deprehensum," none Ferdinand II. of Germany eight thousand shall be arrested unless legally indicted Cossacks against the Protestants, the Diet for crime, or taken in the act, as early as unanimously passed an act, declaring all the beginning of the fifteenth century the Cossacks who should remain with (1413).

the Emperor, traitors to their country. The freedom of her institutions is still And be it remembered that the Diet pass. farther illustrated by the fact that in the ing such laws consisted of a large masixteenth century, when her population jority of Catholics, several Bishops did not exceed fifteen millions, she num

among the number. bered four hundred and eighty thousand When the crowned heads of Europe voters; while France, at this period, after were crouching before the Pope, and all the blood she had shed for liberty, Gregory VII. presumed to excommunicate with a population of thirty-five millions, the Poles for dethroning their King; the numbers scarcely two hundred thousand clergy spurned the edict, and refused to electors.

publish the excommunication, giving His That the mild precepts of Christianity Holiness to understand that the church bore their fruit early in Poland, we learn has no right to meddle with affairs of from the fact that in 1100 a charitable state : and when the German armies in. association was established at Cracow, vaded Poland to enforce the excommuni. In 1303 another institution, called Mons cation, they paid dearly for their hardiPietatis was established, whose object hood. was to lend money to the poor at three We shall see that Poland, not only in per cent. interest. Towards the close of political institutions but also in literature, the fourteenth century a school for indi. was in advance of her neighbors. Be. gent children was organized, where they fore the sun of English literature reached received assistance. And in 1773 Poland its meridian; before the era of Louis XIV. was the first to establish an administrative had dawned upon France; before Gerdepartment of education, having appro- many could enjoy the privilege of reading priated for the benefit of her people all the Bible in her vernacular tongue, Polish the confiscated estates of the Jesuits after literature had reached already its Augus. their expulsion.

tan age under the reign of the Sigismunds The Poles never enacted the horrors of father and son.

Vitelio Ciolêk was the first to point out mingo by the French, to quell the insurthe laws of light as early as the thirteenth rection of the famous Toussaint. century, (1230.) Copernicus, in 1530 The Poles fought in the cause of the revealed to the incredulous world the French, for they believed it to be that of courses of the earth and stars. Zaluzi- freedom, and because by the success of anski, long before Linnæus was born, the French arms they hoped to deliver demonstrated the sexual organization of their own country. Sensible of their serplants in his Methodus Herbaria,” pub- vice, Napoleon encouraged their hopes ; lished at Prague in the seventeenth cen- they, however, found out, though too tury.

late, that they were deceived. After he The names of John Ostrorog, Fred. had humbled Prussia, by the battle of JeModrzewski, Cardinal Hosius, Bishop na, and Russia by that of Friedland, and Kromer—the Polish Livy, Rey, Janicki, made the Treaty of Tilsit, (7th of July, Kochanowski, Gornicki, Simonowicz, 1807,) he raised a part of Poland, conSarbiewski-poets and philosophers, are taining about 4,000,000 of inhabitants, known to the learned world as the orna into the Duchy of Warsaw. This the ments of Polish literature. John Glo. Poles thought to be a prelude to the comgowezyk, (Glo-gov-chick,) who lived in plete restoration of Poland, and they emthe latter part of the fifteenth century braced the French interest with more ar(b. 1440, d. 1507), has the merit of hav- dor. Seventy thousand Poles, headed by ing written on Craniology, now known Prince Poniatowski, marched in the coas Phrenology. Lord Bacon will waive lossal army led by Bonaparte against his claims to priority in the path of in- Russia in 1812. The battles of Mir, ductive philosophy to Gregory of Sanok, Smolensko, Borodino, Kaluga, attested who died towards the end of the fif- their valor, and they shared honorably in teenth century (b. 1400, d. 1477), as a the horrors of the passage of the Beresina. Professor at Cracow. History must ren The survivors in this memorable camder justice to the memory of the master paign followed Napoleon in his disastrous of Copernicus, the celebrated mathema- retreat, 10 fight desperately the battle of tician, Albert Brudzewski (Broo-dzev. Leipzig, (Oct. 19, 1813.) And here they sky) the author of the Gregorian calen- lost their brave chieftain Poniatowski, dar, and who was the first to expunge who by his valor and patriotism washed the astrological nonsense from the al- out the stain of his family. He met bis

death in the river Elster, which, after beSuch was the nation that was sacri- ing twice wounded, he attempted to cross. ficed to the rapacity of infamous kings. The Poles followed Napoleon to France,

After the third partition of Poland, the and saw their enemies enter Paris in 1814. three political vultures enjoyed the blood The number of sons Poland lost in all of their prey quietly for a time. Poland Napoleon's wars, amounts to 200,000 was too much exhausted to struggle any men; added to this, the sufferings the longer, but her limbs ceased not to quiver, country itself experienced since Germany though in the grasp of this hideous trio. and Russia were made battle-grounds, and The Poles that were obliged to flee their it will make the amount contributed to the country under the wings of the French French interest, for which the Poles reeagle then soaring in Italy, made a nu ceived in return the appellation of brave cleus of future Polish legions at Milan, on Polonais. May this teach the Poles wis. the 7th of January, 1797, and they adopt- dom for the future: Their independence ed the beautiful motto “ Gli nomini li- must be the work of their own bands; beri sono fratelli.” Freemen are brothers. kings will be always ready to take advanTheir commander was the brave General tage of their criminal credulity by fine Dombrowski (Dom-broy-sky). These promises. It is high time that they, as legions were the only representatives of well as the world at large, should rememthe Polish nation abroad. After this time ber that kings are natural enemies of the they became inseparable companions of people. They are the visible vice-geNapoleon's fortunes; faithful to him even rents of Satan, impeding the development in his reverses. They fought with him of that divine idea of progress which in Italy, Egypt, Spain, Germany, Russia; every nation received from God at its even some of them were sent 10 St. Do- birthday.



The misfortune of those deprived of and many customs and institutions of hearing and speech requires no reflection society to him a mystery ; not merely to awaken sympathy. There has even the revelations of Christian truth, but the been, in times past, a tendency to exagge- existence of God, of the soul, and of a rate the depth and the hopelessness of their future beyond the grave, absolutely uncalamity. Within a comparatively recent known-a heathen in a Christian land, period, and through the successful accom. and in the bosom, it may be, of a Chrisplishment of their education, the preju- tian family! dice which long consigned them to neg:

The education of deaf mutes is a sublect, bas given place to a more genial ject, of the first importance to at least sympathy, to an interest higher than one in every two thousandt of the popumere compassion, and pleasing rather lation of these United States ; of deep ihan painful. The condition of the deaf concern to their friends, and to every mute uneducated, needs not the aid of friend of humanity. It is also full of inexaggeration to make it appear indeed terest for the curious and the philosophic deplorable. It is not, that he is cut off inquirer. It is highly important in its refrom the pleasures proper to the sense lations to the science of mind, the phiof hearing--that nature with her thou- losophy of language, and the subject of sand voices is silent to him--that for him education in general. there is no voice of man or woman, no The means are not wanting for an exsound in childhood's mirth, none of perimental basis of inquiry. Since the those expressive tones which awaken opening of the school at Paris by the responding vibrations upon the chords Abbé de l'Epée, in 1760, the foundation of of emotion; that he knows nothing of the institution at Leipsic, under Heinicke, the melody of song or the harmony of in 1778, and the commencement of inverse—nor even, that he is to such a struction, in Edinburgh, by Braidwood, degree, debarred the mere enjoyment of in 1764, which led to the establishment social intercourse, His calamity strikes of the London Institution in 1792, there deeper, as affecting his intellectual and have sprung from these beginnings, more moral being. Having capacities of soul, than one hundred and sixty schools and not inferior to those of other men, but institutions now existing in Europe, and deprived of the instrument of communi- ten in the United States. The earliest cation which they employ, he is, as a established in this country, was the consequence of this isolation, bound to a American Asylum at Hartford, through condition of perpetual infancy-with the agency and under the direction of the the germs of intellect and elevated feel. Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet, opened in ing unquickened; with no share of the 1817. During the two centuries preinheritance we receive in the history and ceding this period, several pioneers in the accumulated wisdom of the past, in this work appeared, in different countries the results of ages of mental progress, and at different times, who taught a few handed down in a language of words; deaf mutes with success. The most nowithout the assistance which a cultiva. ted are, Peter Ponce, a Spanish Benedic. ted language renders in aiding and de- tine monk who died in 1584, and who has veloping thought; with knowledge lim- the credit of being the earliest successful ited to the range of his vision, and con educator of deaf mutes; John Paul Bonet, fined to the visible surface of what he who flourished in Spain not many years sees; science and religion having for later ; Dr.' John Wallis, of Oxford, in him no existence; the rites of worship England ; and John Conrad Amman, a

* The Twenty-Ninth Report of the Directors of the American Asylum, at Hartford, for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb; and Mr. Weld's Report, &c.

Twenty-Sixth Annual Report and Documents of the New-York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, &c. New York. 1815.

+ The census of 1810 makes the proportion 1 to 2,123. That the returns fall far short of the actual number is unquestionable. See the Eighteenth and the Twenty-Third Annual Reports of the New York Institution. In the latter the proportion is estimated at about 1 to 1,650.

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