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tale of a render story, and that Like the sweet blossoms of the May

man, a something gaunt and terrible in shine driven away by hurrying clouds! the boldness of outline, asserting in se then a short gusty sobbing, with a few pulchral monotone a right to live by vir- rain.drops ; then a wrestling of opposite tue of hard labor, betwixt “the day-light winds, and eddying of the dry leaves; and dark.” To conceive a clear image and without any great violence, fickle of man's distress is to put one in another's and changeful throughout. stead, and to follow afar off the grandest example on record ; but it is noble to “Oh clasp me, sweet, whilst thou art mine, work out this conception, and to be the And do not take my tears amiss, creator of an Image out of the terrible For tears must flow to wash away negation of want. The poor cannot

A thought that shows so stern as this! speak; or, could he, there would be no.

Forgive, if somewhile I forget, thing so convincing as the coldness of In wo to come the present

bliss. his hearth-side, and the silent eloquence Her flowers at the sight of Dis,

As frightened Proserpine let fall of his despair. That would present only Even so the dark and bright will kiss. an instance. But the Poet can embody The sunniest things throw sternest shade, an universal suffering, and excite an And there is even a happiness active pity over the whole realm. The That makes the heart afraid ! majesty of art is proudly vindicated, and no theme has grander elements than the Now let us with a spell invoke convulsive struggling of the Poor. If The full orbed moon to grieve our eyes ; all who have a reputation to gain in Not bright, not bright, but with a cloud literature would do as much for this class Lapped all about her, let her rise as Thomas Hood! His very smiles are

All pale and dim, as if from rest nothing but the light of Heaven beauti- Had crept into the skies.

The ghost of the late buried sun fully shining through his tears. There is The moon! She is the source of sighs, no antagonism. Dew and sunshine The very face to make us sad; sparkle together on the same leaf. It is Il but to think in other times . shed on a

, a globule reflects a litle world of gora As if the world held nothing base geous scenery, and a heart must be brim- of vile and mean, of fierce and bad; full to mirror the more perfect images of The same fair light that shone in streams, joy. Does not Hood's “ Song of the The fairy lamp that charmed the lad; Shirt,” with his other writings, illustrate She taunts men's brains, and makes them this ? Can one chirrup like the grass mad. hopper, to which Anacreon has written his Ode, without being similarly fed? We all things are touched with melancholy, find that the realms of mirth and pathos Born of the secret soul's mistrust, are, for the most part, ruled over by the To feel her fair ethereal wings same potentates. "He who could go into Weighed down with vile degraded dust; so fantastic a discourse upon “buttons,” Even the bright extremes of joy indited Le

, of which the burden Whose fragrance ends in must. is : “ Disguise thyself as thou wilt, still, Oh, give her then her tribute just, Slavery, still thou art a bitter draught: Her sighs and tears, and musings holy! and though thousands in all ages have There is no music in the life been made to drink of thee thou art no That sounds with idiot laughter solely ; less bitter on that account." An “Ode There's not a string attuned to mirth, to Melancholy” is before us, which, had But has its chords of Melancholy.” the author written nothing else, would have entitled him to the name of Poet. The distinguishing trait of Hood's mind It is a masterpiece of artful contrivance, was fancy. He has not imagination to whereby the rhyme and rhythm are so any great degree—that is, what we unarranged by an inflection of exquisite derstand by imagination in such men as melody as to accord with the fitful chang- Shakspeare and Milton, and, since them, ing, sighs, and whimpering of a half-sick- in Byron and Shelley. This faculty is heart

. The rise and falling are beauti- one which flies with a strong wing, finds ful as a wind-harp's; the vibrations of out new worlds for itself, and invents its the dying note almost impalpably fine. own creatures to people them with. But Rather we might compare the effect of it Hood's fancy was remarkably rich ; and to a day in April. First a gleam of sun. what made it peculiarly effective it never

men are to pass without inquiry the

most by imitative signs. In doing this, other essential points in cases submitted for persons and things also to which these their investigation. A boy was intro. acts bear a relation, will at the same time duced by Mr. Mann, represented as a be indicated, and may thus, by mere imdeaf mute who had been instructed by plication, be set before the imagination his father. And, truly, he could articu- with as much distinctness as if portrayed late well, and had also an uncommon with the minutest accuracy. You canability to read on the lips. Certainly, not represent a person as milking a cow, there may be something in Mr. Mann's or driving a yoke of oxen, without call. assertions respecting the German schools ing to mind these animals. By the simple -was the general conviction. At the action of casting a fishing-line, you preafternoon session, however, a gentleman sent to view the rod, the line and the connected with ihe American Asylum water; and by other acts, you may picbegged leave to call up the lad again ; ture the bait, the hook, ihe fish, the when it was demonstrated that the boy bank, or the boat; the more extended could hear, and understand perfectly, with and minute the pantomime, the more in no aid from the eyes, what was spoken number and the more specific will be the in a full tone of voice, at a short dis. objects implied. By skillfully imitating tance. How much better he could once a coachman on his box, as he manages hear, we are not informed, but he had the reins and flourishes the whip, you unquestionably obtained his knowledge may not only raise the idea of the reins, of speech and of language by the ear. the whip, the coach and the horses, but

How far and how easily is the language you may show whether he has four or of action available, as a means of com. iwo in hand, and even the rate at which munication for deaf mutes ?

he travels, the kind of road he passes Many persons are sceptical as to the over, and the freaks of the animals. In capabilities of such a language for ex. such imitative action, periods of time may pressing more than what is palpable to be indicated, by the skillful introduction sense, or what pertains to the most of actions appropriate to particular times, common uses of life. But the most as night, morning, noon, evening, the refined and artificial tongues grow from Sabbath, winter or summer. By probeginnings like this; the most purely ceeding from a known starting point, the intellectual ideas ever formed by the mind actual time of real occurrences may be of man, or that have even floated in the communicated. A person returning from dreams of the transcendentalist, find their an excursion, would commence with his expression in terms which, in their ori- departure, and mark the subsequent ingin, denoted a purely physical phenome- tervals of time. Animals may also, to an

Why then may not a language of extent, be personated in pantomime. In action, having the same ground, be in this shape the language of action has herently capable of a similar develop- been cultivated as a fine art, and used ment?

for popular amusement, and is universal. The lowest stage in which the lan. ly and readily intelligible.* The deaf guage of action may be viewed, embraces mute not only makes abundant use of the pointing out of objects in sight, the such pantomimic action, which is pantonatural expression of real emotion, and mime, properly so called, but he imitates the indication of wants by means of the the motions of inanimate things, and most common and familiar actions. In pictures objects by other means. these forms no one can be at a loss how The sign-language of deaf mutes exto make use of it.

hibits, however, a wide departure from A step higher is taken by personating pure pantomime or mere pictorial reprean individual and describing his actions sentation. In addition to their direct

non.

The art of pantomime, it is well known, was carried to great perfection by the ancients. We have it on ihe authority of Lucian, that'a king from the borders of the Euxine, seeing a pantomime perform at Rome, begged him of Nero, to be used as an interpreter with the nations in his neighborhood at home. As every schoolboy knows, it was a matter of strife between Roscius and Cicero, which could best express an idea, the one by gestures or the other in words.

The language of signs has been much used by many tribes of American Indians. Parties from some of these tribes have found themselves quite at home, when visiting a school of deaf mutes. Not mere pantomime, but even symbolical signs, strikingly similar, and in some instances the same with those employed by deaf mutes, have been found in use among the Indians.

use, it establishes from these as elements, by the most common actions connected distinct signs appropriated to particular with their production or use, or otherobjects, qualities and phenomena, and wise related to, and implying them. Anithus becomes a language of terms com mals are in most cases personated; the bined in propositions--is not merely individual who makes the sign, reprecapable of representing a succession of senting their peculiarities of form or scenes to the imagination, but becomes appendage-as horns, ears, neck, whisan instrument adequate to the expression kers, beard, wings, bill, mane, claws, of ideas in various forms, as in ihe arti- tusk trunk &c.-upon the corresponding ficial languages of speech. Such it is, part of his own person; he also generally in different degrees of perfection, even as imitating, to a greater or less extent, the originated and used by the uneducated peculiar actions of the animal. The sign deaf mute. We shall describe it as it for a dog, however, is made by patting exists in institutions in this country. the thigh and snapping the fingers as if

Of sensible qualities and attributes, calling one; the act of catching a fly deform, size and position are either marked notes this species. Bread is indicated by or pointed out in the air; or the arms, the action of cutting a loaf, and butter by hands and fingers, one or all, are so ad. that of spreading upon the bread; milk justed, as themselves to represent the by that of milking, and hay of mowing; form, position, and sometimes also the an egg by showing how one is opened, size of the objects described. Motions and a watch by seeming to apply one to of various kinds are represented through the ear. The manner in which a cluster the same means. In a similar manner of currants is taken into the mouth, that are denoted the relations of objects, in of projecting the stone of a cherry, and respect to situation, if at rest, or relative that of snapping a watermelon, denote motion, if in motion ; thus, by the two these fruits. The fingers are so moved hands, or a finger or a thumb of each, as to imitate the flickering of flame ; or are expressed the ideas denoted by such again, they picture falling drops of rain, words as on, in, with, near, between, or flakes of snow. The two hands are around, under, together, meet, separate, united in the shape of a boat, and moved follou', approach. Number, definite or in imitation of its motion; or they are indefinite, is represented by the fingers; applied to each other and opened and and with one hand alone, by a simple shut like a book. If there is occasion to method of distinguishing units, tens, guard against a mistake of the object in. hundreds, &c., sums to any amount may tended, for the quality, act or appendage, be expressed with ease and rapidity. by which it is mainly denoted, or to disColors are denoted by referring to some tinguish it from other objects equally object, (as the lip för red,) or by signs implied by the action made use of—ibis is somewhat arbitrary. Weight, hardness easily done by some rude representation and softness, fineness and coarseness of of its form or size, or the addition of particles or of fabric, roughness and some other distinctive sign. smoothness, degrees of consistency, vis In passing from the external world to cidity, &c., are expressed by peculiarity the world of consciousness, we find the of action in handling a body having any language of action equally, and to some of these qualities ; fluidity by the action extent peculiarly, natural, rich and exof pouring, or by representing the flow. pressive. ing or waving motion of fluids.

The most expressive language of emoAn individual of a species or class is tion is visible in action, attitude, and play designated, either by a detailed enume of feature, in the agitation of the frame ration of distinguishing traits, or by one and the changing hue of the countenance. or two prominent characteristics simply. What volumes does the eye speak ? The The latter is the method natural even to lips, though mute, may be eloquent. The the uninstructed deaf mute, and as the minutest shade of emotion may be picturlanguage becomes improved and fixed, is ed forth to the eye, beyond the power of adopted for all common objects ; detail words, and even tones of voice, to ex. being still admissible as occasion or fancy press. The capabilities of the language may demand, and much used in the early of action here, will be questioned by stages of instruction. The various sorts none. Rightly to appreciate the indirect of external objects, animate or inanimate, service rendered by this element, in every the productions of nature or art, are de- part of the sign-language, requires not scribed, not only by peculiarities of form, only a familiar knowledge, but a careful motion, and other sensible properties, but study of the language itself. Emotions

use.

man.

and passions are, however, indicated, not necessity designated, either by their aconly by their natural expressions and companying outward expression, or bodiactions characteristic, but also by other ly atlection of some sort; the actions consigns, descriptive of their physical con nected with them; the occasions which comitants—as the quick beating of the awaken them ; or their resemblance, real heart in joy, the stirring up of the er imagined, to something external and blood in anger, the suffusion of the sensible. The application of words to face from shame. Conventional signs ideas of this class, is founded on these are established by selecting some strik- principles, traceable in their etymology, ing point of one or the other kind.

or apparent in their obviously figurative The capacity of this language for re Signs, by attaching themselves presenting the operations of the intellect, more to the outward expression, and by in great variety and with great distinct- always introducing this as one element, ness and expressiveness, will not be so come nearer to an exhibition of the inobvious. Ji may best be shown, by de. ternal state itself, and present it with far scribing, however inadequately, a few more vividness, and often with more signs for ideas of this class. To learn definiteness and accuracy; and thus furis, in the sign language, to gather up nish a vehicle for eloquent expression, something and put it into the forehead, and an effective instrument for acting, by to remember, is to hold something there; sympathetic communication, upon the to forget, is to let something fall out of intellectual and moral faculties. the same receptacle of thought; to invent, Extensive use is made of figurative or or originate mentally, is expressed by symbolical modes of expression for other pushing the finger upward upon the ideas. Indeed, the signs for sensible forehead, signifying that the thought objects bear a close relation to those springs up there; to understand, hy strik- figures of speech, in which the whole is ing or pressing the point of the finger represented by a part, or an object by upon the forehead, with a lighting up of something connected with it—as when the countenance; to know, by gently sail stands for ship, or whip means coachtouching and pressing the forehead with It is chiefly by the use of figures a confident air; to intend, to aim at, to founded on resemblance or analogy, that refer to, embracing also the idea of the our languages of words are enriched, and word for, by projecting the point of the acquire copiousness, and at the same finger from the forehead, as if toward an timne precision. The sign-language also object; for fired thought, the finger is employs symbols of this description, held upon the forehead with an appropri- naturally and abundantly; but to a someate air' and attitude ; It is moved about what less extent, in consequence of its the forehead to denote thinking about power of more direct expression ; it also something, or thinking somewhat dis- wants the occasions and facilities for the cursively. The general sign for judge, use of metaphor, which result from the is made by representing the scales of a artificial structure of language, the embalance, by circles formed with the ployment of the abstract noun especially. thumb and forefinger of ea

and; and The following are a few of the signs is of extensive use in expressing modifi- of frequent use in a metaphorical sense. cations of this general idea, as compare, The sign for fall, (made by letting the deliberate, determine, criticise, &c.-in hands tumble downward over each other,) deliberation, there is a hesitating air and expresses disappointment, discomfiture, a wavering of the scale; in judgment and failure of every kind. The sign for positive, the scales are fixed and the air silence, (made by pressing the forefinger confident; in determination, the judging or the thumb upon the lips,) expresses, as is finished, (cut off,) and there is an air differently modified and combined, still. of will and decision.

ness and quiet of every kind, peace, Hope, embracing both thought and humility, meekness, patience, passivity emotion, is represented by reaching for- in general, secrecy, &c. Physical cleanli. ward with an air of pleased expectation; ness represents moral purity, as it does trust, by grasping one hand and resting also neatness, grace, elegance, refinement, on it with the other; trouble of every and ideal perfection. Air or breath desort, objective or subjective, by a sign notes spirit, literal straightness, moral recdescriptive of confusion and entangle. titude. Just and unjust are figured by ment before one, or in the mind.

the even and the uneven scales. To par. As thought and feeling cannot be di- don is literally to wipe off. The sign for rectly depicted to the eye; they are of show, (made by holding up the palm of one

THREE CHAPTERS ON THE HISTORY OF POLAND.

CHAPTER I.

Poland has become linked by asso- while faithful to dales and names, he may ciation and sympathy with the cause of give an unnatural complexion to the subFreedom the world over. Her heroic jects he paints. This is precisely the struggles and her cruel fate, while they case with Mr. Alison when sketching the have rejoiced the despotisms that sur. history of Poland. On this account it is round her as another victory of Tyranny more difficult to refute him, without going over Liberty, have bound her to the heart all over the ground, as every feature in of the patriot in every land. Poland is this subject must be retouched with its now a corpse dismembered and divided appropriate color, that the whole picture to her conquerors, and all that her chil- be faithful to nature. To do this, neither dren can do is to see that her grave is not time nor space would allow us; bui we dishonored, nor her name covered with will attempt such a sketch as will preundeserved obloquy. She struggled while sent Poland in her proper light, and serve she could, and when hope in her own as a partial vindication of her so much arm had departed, she leaned on her misunderstood or misrepresented cause. broken spear, and turned with pleading The inhabitants of the great plain, now look to the world, but in vain, and she unrighteously partitioned, bounded by the fell. Not content with her ruin, her ene. Baltic, the Dwina, the Dnieper on one mies attempt to blacken her history, and side, and by the Oder, the Carpathian destroy the moral effect of her example. Mountains and the Black Sea on the

We propose to devote here three chap- other, according to the belief of some, ters to the affairs of Poland, with a view had the Scythians for their ancestors. of giving a concise sketch of its history, The Poles were also called by the Greeks so that one can form a more definite and and Romans Sarmatæ, and hence the correct opinion of that nation than from name of Sarmatia was given the counthe meagre and prejudiced sources fur- try they inhabited. Sarmatia is but a nished by English historians. There is contraction of Saurommatos, and means so little written on Poland in the English lizard-eyed, being derived from the two language, and most of that either in preju. Greek words saura lizard and ommatos dice or ignorance of Polish authorities, the eye. that a correct and comprehensive history These lizard-eyed people bore also the of Poland is yet a desideratum in English name of Slavonians, which appellative is literature. We never were so forcibly derived from the word slava, meaning reminded of this fact as when reading fame or glory: Slavonian, therefore, Alison's History of Europe—that libel on means famous or glorious. Of late the all history. Mr. Alison set out with Slavic writers prefer this to another fair professions of candor and impartial. equally authentic generic name of the ity, but he has not made those professions Slavic race, we mean Slovianie (read good in any part of his work; and every Slo-viah-nieh.) Slovianie is derived from nation he has taken up has suffered at his slovo word. Slovianin, the singular of hands; England alone-the immaculate Slovianie, means rich, full in words. England—is glorified. In speaking of This latter appellative is used to this day Poland, he discovers there too much of by a small tribe of the race calling themrepublicanism, and his sensibilities are at selves Slovacy (Slo-vah-tsy) the singular once offended. Instead of taking up the of which is Šlovak. It follows that the thread of history at the beginning, and proper appellation of the race is Slavianie, following it to the end, he takes it up at or Slovianie ; Slovacy being reserved for the most unfavorable point, and from the the tribe alluded to. In English we circumstances which then exist, he judges should say Slavonian or Slovian, or if it of the whole nation and her entire history. should please better, Slovianian, Slavic or In history, as in painting, the outline may Slovic race, and never Sclavonian, Scla. be correct but the coloring may be false, vonic, or Sclavic race. not true to nature. The historian may The Germans, who were mortal enedip his brush only in black, and thus, mies to the Slavonians, were in the habit

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