pable of it. And for the poets, if they had they adore under the name of a God : for this science, they would know how to in their present ignorance they confuse exclude what is proper to vanity from the the offices of all their deities, and invent speeches of heroes. I would have the abominable tales, under pretence of honteachers of youth instructed in it, that oring them. they might not stifle or neglect the Soc. Offer my prayers with yours, expowers of their pupils, nor attempt one cellent Phidias, for the happy advent of discipline by the exercises of another. the new science. May the purpose it Ministers of the Gods should learn it, that may serve more than counterbalance the they may know what quality or energy evil it must bring.

J. D. W.



No one can be long in Genoa without most strenuous exertions and unimpeachbecoming acquainted with the striking able fidelity to reach the rank of undercharacteristics of Massena. The heights lieutenant, he at length, after fourteen around the city in which he struggled — years' service, left the army in indignathe crippled and deformed beings that tion and, marrying the daughter of a meet one at every turn, pointed to by the shop-keeper, seitled down as a common inhabitants as the results of that awful man in Nice. Here he doubtless would famine Massena brought on the inhabit- have remained and died a common man, ants, when besieged by sea and land he but for the outbreak of the Revolution. obstinately refused to surrender—are Massena, like those other stern-hearted constant mementoes of that iron-hearted men who afterwards shook Europe so,

heard the call for brave and daring spirits Andrea Massena's birth-place was and immediately reëntered the army. only a hundred miles from Genoa. He At the age of thirty-five he found himself was born at Nice on the 6th of May, general of division, and had acquired in 1758, and, while still an infant, was left the army of Italy, where he served, the an orphan in the world. Growing up reputation of a man of great courage and without parental care, his education was skill. He was present at Montenotte, neglected, and he was left to the mercy Millesimo, Arcole, Lodi, and through all of almost any impulse that might strike that brilliant campaign of Napoleon in him. An uncle, captain of an ordinary 1796, in Italy. He did not long escape the merchant vessel, took him to sea with eye of the young Corsican who was astonhim while he was a mere boy. But after ishing Europe by his victories, and he having made two voyages, the young soon began to look upon him as he did Andrea, then only seventeen years of upon Ney, Lannes and Murat. He once age, enlisted as a private soldier in the said to him during this campaign, “ Your royal Italian regiment, in which another corps is stronger than that of any other uncle ranked as captain. This service general-you, yourself, are equivalent to seemed more fitted to his tastes, and he six thousand men.” When peace was performed its duties with such regularity concluded with Austria, he was chosen and care that he was made corporal. to convey the ratification of it to the Long after, when scarred with his many Directory, which received him in the battles and standing on the highest pin- most flattering manner. nacle of military fame—Marshal of While Bonaparte was in Egypt, MasFrance and Duke of Rivoli—he frequently sena commanded the army on the eastern spoke of this first promotion as affording frontiers of France. On his return, Mashim more happiness than all the after sena was intrusted with the defence of honors that were heaped upon him. Genoa, invested by the Austrians and From this he went up (gradually enough, blockaded by the English. The next two it is true) to serjeant, and, finally, adju- or three years were passed at Paris or tant, where he stopped. Unable by the Ruel in comparative idleness. He bought

the magnificent chateau of Richelieu at do with the dishonor and murder of his the latter place, and scarce ever appeared old comrade in arms. at court. He was a strong republican, I have thus given a brief outline of and disliked the pomp and show the First Massena's career, in order to furnish a Consul began to gather around him. kind of reference to the reader when I Bonaparte was aware of this, but still he

come to speak of the battles in which felt he could not do without him; and so, this intrepid leader exhibited his great when made emperor in 1804, he made him strength. Marshal of France. The next year the Massena possessed scarcely a trait defence of Italy was intrusted to him, and either of the Italian or French character, at Verona, and afterwards at Caldiero, he though, from his birth-place, he might be beat and completely routed the Archduke supposed to exhibit something of both. Charles and drove him out of the country. He was not an impulsive man like Junot The year following this he commanded or Murat, nor an impetuous creature like the

army that accompanied Joseph Bona- Lannes. He was not easily excited, but parte to Naples and, by the successful when once aroused he was one of the siege of Gaeta, fixed the new king firmly most terrible men in Bonaparte's army. on his throne. These were the years of He was like an enormous wheel that re. his glory; and we find him the next year, quires a great deal of force to set it in 1807, commanding the right wing of the motion, but when it does move it crushes Grand Army in Poland. At the close of everything in its passage. Perhaps the this campaign he was created Duke of prominent trait in his character was fixedRivoli, and presented by Bonaparte with a ness of purpose. He was more like Ney large sum of money with which to sup- in this respect than any other of Napoport his new title.

leon's marshals. His tenacity was like In 1810, Napoleon placed him over death itself. A battle with him never the army in Portugal. Reducing Ciudad seemed over, unless he gained it. This Rodrigo, after three months' siege, and obstinacy of resolution never forsook taking Almeida, he advanced on Welling- him. I do not know an instance in his ton, who retreated to the Torres Vedras. whole career, where he appeared the Here the English commander intrenched least affected by the panic of others. The himself and bid defiance to Massena, cry of sauve qui peut, never hastened his who, finding himself unable to dislodge footsteps, or disturbed the regular movehim, and famine and sickness wasting ment of his thoughts. His own iron will his army, was compelled to commence a was sufficient for any emergency. He disastrous and barbarous retreatinto Spain. wished no aid or sympathy from others He was shortly after recalled, and from to steady him. He fell back on himself his infirm health and shattered constitu- in the most desperate straits with a contion, was left behind in the fatal Russian fidence that was sublime. Amid the Expedition, though he earnestly besought wildest hurricane of cavalry-face to face it. This ended his military career. He with a hotly-worked battery, while bis was at Toulon when Bonaparte landed dead and dying guard lay in heaps around from Elba. He could not at first believe him, or reireating before an overwhelmthe report, but he was soon convinced of ing force—he was the same self-collected its truth by a letter from Napoleon him- and self-poised man. Amid the disor. self. Prince," said he, · hoist the dered ranks he stood like a rock amid the banner of Essling on the walls of Toulon waves, and hurled back from his firm and follow me.” But the old Marshal breast the chaos that threatened to sweep refused to break his new allegiance till him away. His stubbornness of will, the surrounding cities had gone over, and however, was not mere mulish obstinacy, the Bourbon cause was evidently lost. which is simply aversive to change of He took no part in the military prepara- purpose, but was based on decisions tions of Napoleon during the Hundred which evinced the soundest judgment Days, and after the overthrow of the Em- and a most active and vigorous mind. It peror at Waterloo he was appointed by is true that his hatred of defeat, combined Louis commander of the National Guard, with his stubborn resolution, sometimes and was one of the council appointed caused him to err in exposing his men to to try Ney. But the old Marshal de- useless slaughter. He was brave as clared the court incompetent to perform courage itself, and constitutionally so. such a task, and would have nothing to It required no excitement to bring him

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up. He did not seem to be aware of dan- prodigious power. Mete obstinacy seger, and acted, not so much like a man cures about as many disasters as sucwho has made up his mind to meet the cesses, but Massena acquired the title in perils that environ him heroically, as like the French army of “ The Favored Child one who is perfectly unconscious of their of Victory.” No man could have won existence. His frame corresponded with that title without genius. Nothing is his character, and seemed made of iron; more common than the absurd echo of his endurance was wonderful. He had Bonaparte's statements, that his generals one peculiar trait—he grew clear-headed could do nothing of themselves and were amid the disorder of battle. It is said mere engines—terrible, it is true—which that on ordinary occasions he appeared he brought to act on the enemy's ranks. dull and heavy, and his remarks were of Men talk as if those conquerors of Euthe most ordinary kind ; but the thunder rope—the Marshals of Napoleon-were of cannon cleared up his ideas and set mere senseless avalanches which he his mind in motion. The effect of the hurled where he wished. Such splendid first report of cannon, as it rolled heavily achievements as were wrought in the away over the field, shaking the plain wars with Bonaparte are the results of with its sullen jar, was almost instan- military genius, not animal courage. But taneous, and his mind not only became even Napoleon, when on St. Helena, was active but cheerful. It was the kind of inclined to praise Massena. Massena,” music he liked, and his strong, ambitous said he, “ was a superior man ; he was nature beat time to it. Neither was this a eminently noble and brilliant when surmomentary excitement, but a steady effect rounded by the fire and disorder of battle. continuing throughout the contest. Amid The sound of guns cleared his ideas, and the wildest uproar

conflicting thou- gave him understanding, penetration and sands—buried in the smoke and tumult cheerfulness. He was endowed with exof a headlong charge-his thoughts were traordinary courage and firmness, which not only clear and forcible, but indicated seemed to increase in excess of danger the man of genius. Great emergencies When defeated, he was always ready to often call out great mental and physical fight the battle again as though he had efforts ; but there are few men whose been the conqueror.” minds the roar of artillery, the shock This is as true as any criticism Bonaof cavalry, and all the confusion and dis parte ever passed on any of his marshals. order of a fierce-fought battle-field, bright. The remark respecting his courage inen up into its clearest moods. Such a creasing “ in excess of danger,” is espeman must have within him the most ter- cially so: There seemed an exhaustless rible elements of our nature. This sin reserve force in him which came forth as gular characteristic gave wonderful col. the storm gathered darker and the danlectedness to his manner in the midst of gers thickened around him. That force the fight. In front of the deadliest fire, his will could not summon up-perilous struggling against the most desperate crises alone could do it, and then his very odds, he gave his orders and performed look and voice were terrible. Towering his evolutions without the least frustra- in front of his shattered column, he moved tion or alarm. He never seemed diss' like the God of War, amid the tempest heartened by any reverses, and fought that beat upon him. Sometimes, when after a defeat with the same energy he moving into the very teeth of destrucdid after a victory.

tion, he would encourage his shrinking This self-control—this wonderful power men by putting his hat on his sword and of will--rendering a man equal in him. lifting it over his head, and thus, like a self to any emergency-is one of the rarest pillar of fire to his men, he marched qualities in man. Those who judge of straight on death. There cannot be a Massena's ability as a general seem to more touching eulogy than that passed overlook this characteristic entirely, or on Massena and others by Napoleon place it on a par with mere animal cour when, sad and disheartened, he wrote age. But blind, dogged resistance is one from before Mantua to the Directory, in. thing—the same tenacity of will, com- forming it of his perilous position. Said bined with the powerful action of a clear he, “I despair of preventing the raising and vigorous mind, is quite another. The of the blockade of Mantua; should that former the most common man may pos- disaster arise, we shall soon be behind sess, but the latter is found only in great the Adda, and perhaps over the Alps.

It is mind alone that imparts that the wounded are few, but they are the


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élite of the army. Our best officers are 14th of January. The heights around struck down; the army of Italy, reduced were illuminated by the innumerable fires to a handful of heroes, is exhausted. of the bivouac of the enemy, revealing The heroes of Lodi, of Millesimo, of the immense force he was about to strugCastiglione, of Bassano, are dead or in gle against. Nothing daunted, however, hospitals. Joubert, Lanusse, Victor, Mu- he formed his army under the light of rat and Charlot are wounded; we are the silver moon that was sailing through abandoned in the extremity of Italy. the midnight heavens, shedding its quiet Perhaps the hour of the brave Augereau, light on the snow-covered Alps, and of the intrepid Massena, of Berthier, is casting in deeper shadow the dark firabout to strike; what then will become trees that clasped their precipitous sides; of these brave soldiers ?” In his moments and by nine in the morning was ready of despondency he confesses how he for action. The Austrian columns, movleans on such men as Massena. Well ing down from the heights of the Montehe might, for a short time after, in the baldo, which lay in a semicircle around terrible fight in the dikes of Reno, and the French army, fell on the left with the passage of Arcole, another of his such power that it was forced back and props went down in Lannes, and Mas- overthrown. While the Austrians were sena escaped almost by a miracle. In following up this success, and the posithe wasting fire to which he was ex tion of the French was every moment posed, Massena could not bring his men becoming more critical, the village of to charge, except by placing himself at Rivoli, near by, suddenly rang with the the head of the column, and lifting his clatter of horses' hoofs. "Bonaparte, with chapeau on the point of his sword above his guard, was plunging through on a his head, and thus moving to the onset. fierce gallop to the head-quarters of MasIt is said that his bearing on this occa sena. This indomitable chief had marched sion was magnificent. While his column the whole night, and was now resting moved along the dike, he was seen in his troops before leading them into acfront, bareheaded, with his glittering tion. In a moment Massena was on sword stretched high over his head, on horseback, and, forming his wearied the point of which swung bis hat as a troops into column, charged the Austrians banner to the ranks that pressed after ; in front with such desperation that they while his hair streamed in the storm of were forced to fall back, and the combat battle, and his piercing eye flashed fire, was restored.

Bonaparte never called as it surveyed the dangers that encom on the intrepid Massena in vain. The passed him. Thus, again and again did doubtful and bloody contest was at length he advance to the charge through the at nightfall decided in favor of the French. tempest of shot that swept everything But there was another Austrian army down around him, and by this course farther down on the Lower Adige, where alone was enabled to maintain his ground Augereau's position was every hour beduring the day:

coming more critical. With a part of But with all Massena's bravery, and Massena's division, which had marched firmness, and genius, he had some traits all the previous night, and fought with of character that stained his reputation unco

nconquerable resolution the whole day, and dimmed his glory. He was rapa. he started for Mantua. These indomitacions, it cannot be denied—though not to ble troops moved off' as if fresh from their the extent his enemies assert-and at bivouacs, rather than wearied with a times cruel. He seemed almost entirely whole night's rapid march and a sucwanting in human sympathy, and cared ceeding day of hard fighting, and marched no more for the lives of others than for all that night and the following day, and his own, which was apparently not at all. arrived after dark in the neighborhood of

In the battle of Rivoli, which took Mantua. At day-break the battle was lace the winter after that of Arcole, again raging and, before night, Bonaparte Massena exhibited that insensibility to was a second time victorious. atigue which always characterized him, The next year found Berthier governor and which he, by constant, unwearied of Rome, and practicing the most extensive discipline, imparted to his soldiers. In system of pillage on the poor pope and this engagement, Bonaparte opposed his Ecclesiastical States. The soldiers at thirty thousand men to forty thousand. length became exasperated with the exHe arrived on the elevated plain of Ri. cesses of their commander, and to check voli at 2 o'clock in the morning of the the insubordination, Massena was ap


pointed to supersede him. All the offi same time a British squadron was seen cers, from the captains down, had as- slowly moving up the gulf to shutit in seasembled and drawn up a protest against ward. Without the speedy appearance of the conduct of Berthier. Massena, as a French army over the Alps, the army of soon as he assumed the command, or Massena was evidently a doomed one. dered the insubordinate troops, except He knew that he could hold the place three thousand, to leave the capital

. But against all the force that could be brought they refused to march, and assembling against it; but the convoys of provisions again, drew up another remonstrance which had been kept back by adverse complained of Massena-accused him of winds, were now effectually shut out by pillaging the Venetian States, and prac- the English blockading squadron ; while ticing extortion and immoralities of every the Austrian army sweeping in an entire kind. Even his iron hand was not strong line round the walls of the city cut off all enough to reduce the soldiers to allegi- supplies from the country, so that famine ance, and, throwing up the command, he would soon waste his army. But it was retired to Arena.

in the midst of difficulties like this, that While Bonaparte was in Egypt, Masse- Massena's spirit rose in its strength. He na, after suffering various losses, and being seemed to multiply with exigencies, and finally driven from Zurich by the Arch- there commenced with the siege of Genoa duke Charles, at length retrieved his one of the most heroic struggles witnessed fame by a masterly movement around during the war. the city, and evinced not only his uncon Genoa is defended, both by nature and querable tenacity by fighting his lost bat- art, as I have never seen any other seatles over again, but also his consummate port. The Liguria Gulf strikes its head skill as a general in arranging his plan deep into the Appennines, so that the of attack.

ground slopes from the very verge of the But perhaps there is no greater illus- water up to the mountain. Two moles tration of Massena’s firmness, courage running from the opposite shores, almost and force, than the manner in which he cross each other, cutting off the extreme sustained

point of the gulf for the port of the city.

Perpendicular walls rise from the water, After Bonaparte's return from Egypt, he forming the base of the houses that line appointed Massena over the army of the shore. Around these, cannon are Italy. Moreau at the head of a hundred planted, while forts are on every comand thirty thousand men was to advance manding point above the city. Added to on Swabia, while Napoleon himself, at this, a double wall surrounds the town, the head of forty thousand, was to march one six miles in circumference, the other over the Alps.

thirteen. The outer walls, corresponding The 60,000 soldiers given to Massena to the shape of the hill, ascend it some. had dwindled down through fever and what in the form of a triangle. Two forts, famine to about 36,000 fighting men, the Spur and the Diamond, stood at the top which were required to defend both of this triangle, protecting the fortified Genoa and Nice, though a hundred walls down on either side by their comand twenty miles apart. Melas, with manding fire. There were three other 120,000 soldiers in good condition, was forts on the east side of the city, protectthe enemy he had to oppose. Leaving ing commanding eminences that rose from 50,000 in Piedmont to watch the passes the river Bisagno. On the west, or toof the Alps, Melas bore down with 70,000 wards Nice, there were no forts, and on the gorges of the Appennines, for the Poleevera comes pouring its waters the 'purpose of cutting the French army into the gulf without affording any strong in two, and shutting one half up in Nice, positions. and the other half in Genoa. This he suc Thus defended, Massena saw the imceeded in doing; and though Suchet and mense Austrian army slowly contracting Soult fought with unexampled bravery, its lines around the city, like a huge anathe French line was divided, and Suchet conda tightening its folds about its vicand Massena separated from each other. tim. Massena immediately resolved to The latter was now compelled to fall back attempt two desperate projects—one, to on Genoa, with only 18,000 men. On sally out on the east with his handful of the evening of the 6th of April, the men, and drive the Austrians over the Austrian flag was flying on the heights Appennines—the other, to sally out on the that overlooked the city; while at the west, and endeavor to cut the Austrian VOL. III. —NO. I.



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