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way that a civilized being would eat a rad some conventialities to hamper the freeish, and without any more previous prepa- dom of either sex; not even the restraints ration. They eat it raw; scales, bones, of marriage are felt, although our author gills, and all the inside. The fish is held did discover that women tattooed in a peby the tail, and the head being introduced culiar manner were considered as wives. into the mouth, the animal disappears with
Notwithstanding all these captivating a rapidity that would at first nearly lead one to imagine it had been launched bodily the Typeean society seemed to him 80
charms of savage life; notwithstanding down the throat. “ Raw fish! Shall I ever forget my sensa
far superior to that which is the growth tions when I first saw my island beauty de- and creature of civilization and religion,
Oh, heavens! Fayaway, how Mr. Melville was in despair and rendered could you ever have contracted so vile a unhappy because he could not escape habit? However, after the first shock had from this paradisaical valley. He could subsided, the custom grew less odious in live without labor and be free from care, my eyes, and I soon accustomed myself to but he could not get rid of the idea that the sight. Let no one imagine, however, some fine morning he would be killed that the lovely Fayaway was in the habit of and cooked, after he had attained to that swallowing great vulgar-looking fishes : oh, degree of obesity which is requisite in no ; with her beautiful small hand she order to figure respectably on such an ocwould clasp a delicate, little, golden-hued love of a fish, and eat it as elegantly and casion. And therefore we find him makas innocently as though it were a Naples A small boat coming into the bay from
ing his escape at the first opportunity. biscuit. But alas! it was after all a raw fish; and all I can say is, that Fayaway ate Nukubeva, he made his escape, aided by it in a more lady-like manner than any a friendly feeling on the part of some of other girl of the valley.
the natives. This was not effected with“When at Rome do as the Romans do, I out a vigorous opposition on the part of held to be so good a proverb, that being in others. Indeed, a fight ensued, and was Typee I made a point of doing as the Ty. in full progress on his account when he pees did. Thus I ate poee.poee as they departed from their shores; and some did; I walked about in a garb striking for its simplicity; and I reposed on a commu.
savage fellows, stung no doubt by his nity of couches ; besides doing many other folly and ingratitude at leaving so much things in conformity with their peculiar happiness, both present and prospective, habits ; but the farthest I ever went in the followed him a long way into the bay way of conformity, was on several occa
with frantic cries and threats of vensions to regale myself with raw fish. These geance. being remarkably tender, and quite small, We take it for granted, as Mr. Mel. the undertaking was not so disagreeable in ville has now reached home, that he is the main, and after a few trials I positively again duly sensible of the great hardbegan to relish them : however, I subjected ships and evils of civilization, and that them to a slight operation with my knife he will hasten his return to the society previously to making my repast.”
he has so cleverly described in these vol. The appearance of the Typee people umes. The charming Fayaway—the produced a deep and favorable impression simple-hearted trustful maiden whom he on the mind of Mr. Melville. He con left weeping on the lone island shore siders them models of grace and beauty; no doubt waits his return with tearful the fair come in for a large share of his eye: and besides this allurement, a score admiration, and in regard to them he of Typeean gourmands are also waiting, makes
invidious comparisons in the shade of lofty cocoa-trees, for their which we commend to the notice of his noon-day meal. How can Mr. Melville countrywomen. He is also highly resist such temptations? If he does repleased with the freedom enjoyed by the turn, we can only express the hope, in natives. The Typee government is sim- the language of Sydney Smith to a Misple. A chief reigns supreme, and his sionary friend on his departure for New commands are few and willingly obeyed. Zealand, that he may not disagree with There are no rigorous laws, nor trouble. the stomach of the nan that eats him.
stant and steady decline of prices of panic which occasionally arises because stocks. Political causes have, undoubt- of a few millions variation in the supply edly, a large share in this decline, but the of gold, or the amount of Bank note is. apprehension of the effect of the gene. sues, will seem remarkably disproporral money concerns of England, of the tioned to the relation existing between large investments in railroads, is not with- such sums and the whole property of the out its influence; and therefore we pro- kingdom. pose to say a few words upon this topic. From these and like considerations, it The assumption that the millions upon seems to us that the apprehension which millions subscribed to railroads must op- did undoubtedly weigh over the London erate to the derangement of the circulat. market at the last dates—though in a less ing medium, and consequently to the em- degree than before-of the bad effects of barassment of general business, seems to the railroad investments, was unfounded, us unfounded. While, indeed, the pre- and soon will be ascertained so to be; liminary deposits are locked up, and and, as a consequence, we think any disuntil active operations are commenced, trust here that money is to be any more there might be some little pressure occa scarce in London, is equally without sioned, because the amount was very con- foundation. siderable ; but even that pressure seems In our opinion, therefore, there is no to us to have been overrated for the reason to believe that difficulties in our Accountant-General, into whose hands money market are to be occasioned by these deposits are paid, invested them in scarcity or tightness of money in Eng. the public stocks, and of course liberated land ; nor do we see-except in so far as therefrom an amount of capital to become uncertainty always operates unfavorably disposable for general purposes, equal to anything in the present aspect of the that invested.
political questions in agitation between As to the capital of these enterprises, the two countries, to cause sad difficulties. when once commenced it is paid out al. The recent message of the President in most as fast as paid in, and returned to answer to a call of the Senate, does not general circulation-so that no derange. vary our position, nor in any degree abate ment is thereby occasioned; and then, our confidence in an eventual peaceful as a matter of fact, the investments in arrangement. The utmost that can be English railroads having thus far proved made of that message is, that the Presiso profitable as to yield, vpon an ave. .dent now avows openly what before was rage, considerably over 4 per cent. per inculcated underhandedly and irresponsiannum--the usual rate of interest—they bly, but still publicly—that there is must be looked upon as adding to, rather enough of doubt about our position, with than abstracting from, the active com respect both to England and Mexico, to mercial capital of the country.
authorize some precautionary measures On another point misapprehension pre- of self-defence. If this had been as vails, as to the proportion between the frankly said in the message at the comreal wealth of the country, and what is mencement of the session, all would have usually considered its circulating medic approved it; as, indeed, all who knew
Let us take the example of Eng. anything of the defenceless state of the land. It is estimated, by statistical wri. country, expected it. The ight of the ters, that the “ fee simple of the re- thing is not altered by delay, nor is the exsources of the British empire is worth six pediency of the course recommended less thousand millions sterling-while the obvious now than before—but yet the circulation of the Bank of England moment chosen is inopportune. Still we amounts to only twenty millions; so apprehend no evil from the message, and that the real and personal property held trust that the Committees of the Senate by British subjects is to the amount of to which is intrusted the charge of miliBank of England notes, as three hundred tary and naval affairs, will soon make a to one. In other words, for every five report, so that it may be seen what pounds represented by a Bank of Eng; amount of appropriations, and what exland note, there are fourteen hundred and tent of armament, are contemplated. The ninety-five pounds not so represented of revenues now accruing are insufficient bona fide property, consisting of lands, for any considerable increase of expendihouses, ships, agricultural produce, and ture, and if such increase is to be encoun. manufacturing stock belonging to the tered, loans or direct taxes must at once people of that realm.” In this view, the be resorted to for the means. The latter
applies to universal Love are alike ap- quent situations of happiness, sorrow, plicable to the spirit of poetry : love, hate, seraphic rapture, unutterable “ All thoughts, all passions, all desires,
crime and anguish, to which his own exWhatever stirs this mortal frame,
perience is entirely a stranger. In addiAll are but ministers of”
tion to this natural cast of intellect and
temperament, his course of life may have Poesy, and conspire equally to “ feed the thrown him much more into connection flame” of a creative genius.
with man than with physical Nature. In But as Nature is not less herself in a accordance with those circumstances is part than she is in the whole of her sove- the character of his thoughts and wri. reignty, so the poet is not less truly such, tings. The valley-loving streams, and who-from original temperament and foaming currents seen among wild mouncast of intellect, or early associations, or tain passes, are of less thrilling interest subsequent habitudes of mind-may have to him than the rivers of passion that been led to familiarize himself with but rush through the hearts of men. The one of the three great departments which crags that beetle above them, visited only she opens to the exercise of human by the birds of strongest wing, seem less thought. It is here that a very great sublime than those vast spiritual heights, error in taste, appreciation and criticism from which the eagles of the mind survey has arisen. Following a partial bent of their dominions. or is the sea filled mental or even physical constitution, with storm and motion, or its tranquil often from the mere force of circumstan- immensity with a clear sky bending ces in the first years of life, one person above, so mighty to him as the tempestu. of finely-strung intellect and a delicate ous depths of the human soul, or its subtilness of sense is rendered keenly calm boundlessness when the Deity has alive to the presence of external Nature. looked upon it. Even the mere forms He continues conversant with that pres- and relations of social life, the shell-like ence, till love for her forms, aspects, fabric of society, engages his intensest influences, becomes with him a passion. interest, gives rise to some of his most If he happens—as is oftener the case powerful strains, because through them with true poetic minds, we imagine, than the action of humanity makes itself manis usually supposed-10 have been too ifest. rudely educated to know anything of Still a third, together with some sen“ rhythmic fashions,” he will show his sibility to physical influences, some unrhymed devotion, by hating the sympathy with the present conditions of “places where men do congregate," human existence, has by nature a conclinging always to some unvisited home, templative turn, an excursive, acute where a wild mountain-range, the dedica- and philosophical mind. Had he these tion of a river to its sweet valley, or the qualities alone, or to the mastery of his distant marriage of sky and ocean, is currents of thought, he would be merely sufficient lo bind him to it; or he lives a philosopher, a metaphysician. But if as a hunter, or solemn-minded trapper, an he possesses also the former to some irreclaimable life with Nature in the sol. degree sufficient to color his moods of itudes of forest and prairie. If, on the mind—if, especially, he has imagination other hand, he has entered, though but a enough to add wings and brightness to little way, the avenues of letters fram- the wide excursions of his intellecting measures destly, and as one who he becomes, not the port of outward Nacannot help it-he seeks only to repro- ture, not the plaintive or scornful versiduce, like a landscape-painter, and with fier of the joys and sufferings of humanithe colors which Nature herself lends ty, but the daring and powerful inquirer, him, the features of loveliness, and the treading ever on the brink of speculation, thrilling delight which have made him a He is too clear-sighted to stop satisfied worshiper.
with admiring the universe of things exAnother is found gifted with an acute ternal and material, too strong-souled to sensitiveness to the joys and sufferings be absorbed by the changes of human of men—the vicissitudes of the hu- life. Nature, so called, is to him but a man beart. What is more rare, he may vast hieroglyphic tabernacle; the present possess, besides, that intense fusion of lives of men with their griefs and joys, feeling with imagination, which enables but the playing of puzzled children sim to invest himself with the passions among its mighty niches and columns. He
others, placing himself at will in fre- sees, or thinks that he sees, the world
and the existence beyond-themes that but should often deny to each other the attract him the more because lying in name of poet. What the authors do, doubt. Continually, as with Young, his their respective admirers among critics “ Thoughts start up and o'er Life's narrow are usually found adopting-denying all verge
attributes of the true poet to any except Look down-on what?"
the school of their favorites. The latter is Like Milton's Lucifer, gazing, from the not altogether to be wondered at, since threshold of Hell, into the “waste void” partisans commonly go farther than their -Space, Blackness and Chaos—he leaders. And yet that those pretending to “ Stands on the brink and looks awhile,
be critics should not have a broader apPondering his voyage;"
preciation, a deeper insight into the elebut, while the mere Reasoner shrinks ments of all excellence in all the fields back appalled from the “inane gulf” their feeling, if not their knowledge,
of human effort--especially that, where and the darkness unutterable,” his im- should be as universal as the air, the agination seems to project a light before field of poetry! The world
has produced him, down into the abyss,and he launches but one man, who, as a poet, has trod fearlessly out over the shoreless night, all the departments of Nature, of which because of his
we have spoken, with an equal step and “Murmuring bark of Verse.”
an eye catching equally all appearances Thus it is seen, that the three great and relations whatever. The name of departments of Nature-that is, of the Shakspeare has been connected too often subjects of human thought—may furnish with this assertion to be dwelt upon each a true poet on its own peculiar here. His was the heart, the mind, the field. There is yet another sphere which soul. He is not more a poet in one aspect a single faculty of the mind creates, as it than in any other. A few, as Homer, were, for itself. It forms no part of Na. Æschylus, Dante, Milton, Göthe, with, ture, since, by a process the most subtil perhaps, two or three more, bave in some in our being, it is caught, evolved and qualities achieved the highest possible combined from all possible subjects of triumphs, without greatly failing in any thought and the spirit that“ rolls through one. All the rest will be found to have all things”-in other words from the en- mainly united some two of the departtire realm, at once, of whatever, ma ments of Nature, or (more rarely) to have terial or spiritual, we have represented confined themselves exclusively to one. Nature as possessing. But as the imagi. Wordsworth is a remarkable example of nation in some degree is necessary to the the union of the most profound love and poet working in any capacity, so that appreciation of external Nature with an greatest of faculties may so preponderate, elevated, calm, and tender philosophy, overpowering all other qualities of mind at times approaching to the Platonic eloand heart, as to make for itself a kind of quence, and sounding with an extraordiseparate world—a realm of forms and nary feeling of wisdom the mysteries of formless shadows, impossible visions, humanity. But he had, with these, an cold and glittering images—that shall be imagination heavy and inert-circling on like, yet strangely unlike, all those things, a level, rarely soaring--and a most diluted familiar to our thought and sense, of perception of the power of human paswhich they are combined. Carried to its sions. Is Lord Byron, then, who in imagiheight, indeed, this state of the mind be- nation has four times his energy of wing, comes insanity-which cannot be judged an appreciation of Nature more absorb. to be a condition of Nature, or at least ingly vivid, though hardly as wide or only of Nature distorted. Still, to this minute, and a power, both of passion in sphere of unrealities short of insaneness, himself and of its representation in oththe poet may so surrender himself as to ers, to which no one of his great contembelong rather to it than to any recog- poraries, unless Shelley, could make any nized part of the universe of thought or approach—is he and his admirers to ridimatter,
cule a Now it is among the strangest of the
Clumsy frowsy poem, The Excursion,' many strange things in letters, that poets
or set down its author merely as one who working in these separate spheres, each under the bent of his own genius and That prose is verse and verse is only prose."
“ Shows way of life, should not only have no liking or appreciation for their compeers, His lordship, on the other hand, exhib
House divided, and resolved, by a vote of The British had about one-third that numthree hundred and thirty-seven against two ber, with few guns, and those light. They hundred and forty, to go into committee on attacked the enemy, forced them from their the Customs and Corn Importation Act at guns, with immense carnage, and finally, once, rather than postpone its consideration after a protracted and most bloody strugfor six months, as proposed by the rejected gle, drove them entirely from the field. amendment of Mr. Miles. This vote set Even according to the British official retles the question, so far as the Commons ports, they lost about 4,000 of their soldiers are concerned, and will not be without its in this engagement, and many of their influence on the House of Lords. The ablest and most gallant officers, of whom truth is, the time has come, when the abo. Sir Robert Sale was one. lition of protective duties on articles of This is undoubtedly but the opening of food, which the people of Great Britain the campaign ; and if the British troops require for their sustenance, must be meet so firm and so fatal a resistance at abolished. In the course he has pur- each step of their progress as that which sued, the Premier has only obeyed the dic- marked the commencement of the war, tates of that substantial and sovereign pub- the conquest of the Punjaub, and its anlic sentiment which no statesman, in a nexation to the British dominions, will not country which has in its constitution so be speedily or cheaply accomplished. That many popular elements as England, can it has been resolved upon, is officially desafely disregard. Had he not preferred to clared, in a proclamation recently issued lead it, he must inevitably have been crush by the Governor-General. ed by it. The policy he has pursued will No action or debate has been had in Paralmost certainly be adopted by Parliament, liament on American affairs, nor do the and approved by the people. At a subse- public journals contain anything of espequent setting, a motion of Mr. Villiers, to cial interest to this country. The propomake the abolition of duties immediate, sition, to which we have before alluded, of instead of gradual, was rejected by a still transmuting the Republic of Mexico into a larger majority-the vote standing, Ayes Monarchy, and seating upon the throne a 78, Noes 265.
Bourbon prince, of the Spanish branch, is The most stirring news comes from In actively canvassed by the semi-official pa
The British arms, in their career pers of London, Paris and Madrid. All of indefinite Asiatic conquest, apparently agree upon the feasibility of the scheme, as limitless as Alexander's ambition, have and upon its importance, as affording the achieved a victory over the Seikhs, the only means of checking the rapid and inhabitants of the Punjaub, remarkable at threatening aggrandizement of the Ameri. once for its brilliancy, importance, and the can Union. Whether the Governments of blood which it cost. For several months England, France and Spain are in any way a very large British force has been concen connected with this intrigue, can, of course, trated upon the frontier of the territory of only be a matter of conjecture. But the the Seikhs, for the alleged purpose of favor with which the project is received, checking any anarchy, by which the peace the zeal with which it is urged, and the of the British dominions might be threat peculiar motive which is avowed by its ened. The army of the Seikhs likewise leading advocates, are well calculated to moved toward the Sutlej, and from the 11th attract the attention, and excite the curios. to the 14th of December last, made the ity of the people of this country. The passage of that river, and threatened the first step towards its accomplishment must, advanced posts of the British armiy, with of course, be to secure the acquiescence of some 80,000 fighting-men and about one the Mexicans themselves, as without that hundred and fifty pieces of artillery, “ of nothing can be done; and in connection the largest calibre movable in the field, with this point, the fact is not unimportant, and exquisitely finished-an artillery im that a new paper has been recently estabmeasurably more powerful than was ever lished in Mexico, for the express purpose brought into the field by Wellington or of advocating such a change. Thus far, Napoleon.” Sir Henry Hardinge, the Gov however, it has not been received with any ernor-General, and Sir Hugh Gough, Com- indications of public favor. mander-in-chief, immediately hastened to In the literary world we hear of no startrepel them. By forced marches, a part of ling novelties. Publishers are enforced to their force came up in time, and the men, suspend operations until the intense politparched with thirst and sinking with fa ical excitement shall have passed away, tigue, were led, at once, against the foe. and the public shall be again at liberty to A doubtful success on the 18th, was fol. read. A very good collection of the Mis. lowed by a suspension of hostilities until cellanies of Sir JAMES MACKINTOSH has the 21st and 22d, when was waged a most been made by one of his sons, and is issued severe and remarkable contest. The force in three octavo volumes. The first part of of the Seikhs is stated at 60,000, with a Bell's Life of CANNING has been published. hundred guns, and strongly intrenched. Without being a biography of any extraor