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way that a civilized being would eat a rad some conventialities to hamper the freeish, and without any more previous prepa- dom of either sex ; not even the restraints ration. They eat it raw; scales, bones, of marriage are felt, although our author gills, and all the inside. The fish is held did discover that women tattooed in a peby the tail, and the head being introduced culiar manner were considered as wives. into the mouth, the animal disappears with a rapidity that would at first nearly lead
Notwithstanding all these captivating one to imagine it had been launched bodily the Typeean society seemed to him so
charms of savage life; notwithstanding down the throat. “ Raw fish! Shall I ever forget my sensa
far superior to that which is the growth tions when I first saw my island beauty de and creature of civilization and religion,
Oh, heavens ! Fayaway, how Mr. Melville was in despair and rendered could you ever have contracted so vile a unhappy because he could not escape habit? However, after the first shock had from this paradisaical valley. He could subsided, the custom grew less odious in live without labor and be free from care, my eyes, and I soon accustomed myself to but he could not get rid of the idea that the sight. Let no one imagine, however, some fine morning he would be killed that the lovely Fayaway was in the habit of and cooked, after he had attained to that swallowing great vulgar-looking fishes : oh, degree of obesity which is requisite in no ; with her beautiful small hand she order to figure respectably on such an ocwould clasp a delicate, little, golden-hued love of a fish, and eat it as elegantly and casion. And therefore we find him makas innocently as though it were a Naplesing his escape at the first opportunity. biscuit. But alas ! it was after all a raw
A small boat coming into the bay from fish; and all I can say is, that Fayaway ate Nukuheva, he made his escape, aided by it in a more lady-like manner than any a friendly feeling on the part of some of other girl of the valley.
the natives. This was not effected with“When at Rome do as the Romans do, I out a vigorous opposition on the part of held to be so good a proverb, that being in others. Indeed, a fight ensued, and was Typee I made a point of doing as the Ty- in full progress on bis account when he pees did. Thus I ate poee.poee as they departed from their shores; and some did; I walked about in a garb striking for its simplicity; and I reposed on a commu.
savage fellows, stung no doubt by his nity of couches ; besides doing many other
folly and ingratitude at leaving so much things in conformity with their peculiar happiness, both present and prospective, habits; but the farthest I ever went in the followed him a long way into the bay way of conformity, was on several occa
with frantic cries and threats of vensions to regale myself with raw fish. These geance. being remarkably tender, and quite small, We take it for granted, as Mr. Melthe undertaking was not so disagreeable in ville bas now reached home, that he is the main, and after a few trials I positively again duly sensible of the great hardbegan to relish them : however, I subjected them to a slight operation with my knife he will hasten his return to the society
ships and evils of civilization, and that previously to making my repast.”
he has so cleverly described in these vol. The appearance of the Typee people umes. The charming Fayaway-the produced a deep and favorable impression simple-hearted trustful maiden whom he on the mind of Mr. Melville. He con- left weeping on the lone island shoresiders them models of grace and beauty; no doubt waits his return with tearful the fair come in for a large share of his eye: and besides this allurement, a score admiration, and in regard to them he of Typeean gourmands are also waiting, makes invidious comparisons in the shade of lofty cocoa-trees, for their which we commend to the notice of his noon-day meal. How can Mr. Melville countrywomen. He is also highly resist such temptations? If he does repleased with the freedom enjoyed by the turn, we can only express the hope, in natives. The Typee government is sim- the language of Sydney Smith to a Misple. A chief reigns supreme, and his sionary friend on his departure for New commands are few and willingly obeyed. Zealand, that he may not disagree with There are no rigorous laws, nor trouble. the stomach of the man that eats him.
THERE are three kinds of readers and cannot get away from them, all men adcritics of poetry, as there are three very mitting them, more or less to their condifferent kinds of poets. Of bards indeed templation and belief, they become to us minstrels, scalds, sagas, seers, poets, or realities which is enough for the arby whatever name the early ages, with gument, if it is not the ground of all reaa species of wonder, designated those soning on the subject. But how vast a who seemed conversant with some Pres- region of the objects of thought, of the ence of which the mass of humanity influences of the mind, lies entirely apart had little perception-of minstrels and from the outward physical world, and bards the three orders are plainly enough equally from the sphere of human pasdistinct. For the poet is one who reads sions and affections. The conditions of Nature more clearly than his fellow.men. existence—the always unfathomable mysBut Nature—though in the fullest sense, teries of our nature-our capacities and to the clearest eye, she is one-yet lies moods of mind, the “ thoughts that wanin two or three departments, so different der through eternity”-our relations (as as to seem entirely disconnected, except to men have universally agreed in believ. a deep comprehension of the relations of ing) to Divinity and a spiritual world things. The word is usually accepted as the half recognized elements of inferior embracing only the universe of material creatures the immense system of absothings—those objects and influences alone lute truths—the great circle of probabiliof which our senses take cognizance. ties almost as persuasive—the shadows This restriction of the meaning is as false, that are not shadows, the dreams that as it is common. The world of the all have conspired in dreaming, the imhearts and minds of men—the great com- aginings all have been constrained to munity of human passions and affec- imagine, lying far off in that thrice-veiled tions, with those complicated relations Future, from whose portals no shining of society which necessarily grow out feet have come back to us of those whose of them-is as truly a part of Nature as entrance we have seemed to beholdis the sphere of all external existences. these things are in a distinct realm by The Power that “ laid the foundations of themselves, and equally with all other the heavens,” in like manner ordered qualities and influences that can affect our these, with a yet vaster diversity and minds are ordained by Him who “ sees with a harmony not less wonderful. the end from the beginning.” Nor yet do these two fields of the objects Now as the greatness of Nature conof contemplation exhaust the domains sists in. her embracing at once all that which Nature must be considered as pos we have enumerated as lying beneath sessing. For the term, wbether by its ety- the on-look of Deity—all entities, that mological sense or by force of the just com are, aside from the Uncreated—whether prehension which it ought to have, em material or spiritual, bound together in braces whatever 15—of attributes, qual. this great whole by certain ties not the ities, influences, effects as well as causes, less real and eternal, that they are suband immaterial, unexplained, as well as til and unseen-so the greatest of poets material, evident-out of and apart from is he who not only most deeply reads the “Great First Cause.” In other words, and feels the physical universe, but who everything that is necessarily—by the penetrates as it were,and compasses with laws of our being which the Creator or a quick vision that inhabiting co-extenddained—a subject of thought to the hu- ed universe of spiritual life, of intelliman mind, exists to human estimation, gent existences without which the formas a part of the wide field of Nature. If er, with its infinitude of sights, sounds many things are dimly seen, or utterly and odors, were but a vast dumb pageantinexplicable—if possibly higher beings ry, utterly unintelligible and idle, bemay see them differently from what we cause having neither use nor interpreter. do--it is yet nothing to us; for if we The fine words indeed which Coleridge
* The Poems of Alfred B, Street. Complete Edition. New York: published by Clark & Austin.
applies to universal Love are alike ap- quent situations of happiness, sorrow, plicable to the spirit of poetry
love, hate, seraphic rapture, unutterable “All thoughts, all passions, all desires,
crime and anguish, to which his own exWhatever stirs this mortal frame,
perience is entirely a stranger. In addiAll are but ministers of ”
tion to this natural cast of intellect and
temperament, his course of life may have Poesy, and conspire equally to “ feed the thrown him much more into connection flame” of a creative genius.
with man than with physical Nature. In But as Nature is not less herself in a accordance with those circumstances is part than she is in the whole of her sove- the character of his thoughts and wrireignty, so the poet is not less truly such, tings. The valley-loving streams, and who—from original temperament and foaming currents seen among wild mouncast of intellect, or early associations, or tain passes, are of less thrilling interest subsequent habitudes of mind-may have to him than the rivers of passion that been led to familiarize himself with but rush through the hearts of men.
The one of the three great departments which crags that beetle above them, visited only she opens to the exercise of human by the birds of strongest wing, seem less thought. It is here that a very great sublime than those vast spiritual heights, error in taste, appreciation and criticism from which the eagles of the mind survey has arisen. Following a partial bent of their dominions. Nor is the sea filled mental or even physical constitution, with storm and motion, or its tranquil often from the mere force of circumstan- immensity with a clear sky bending ces in the first years of life, one person above, so mighty to him as the tempestuof finely-strung intellect and a delicate ous depths of the human soul, or its subtilness of sense is rendered keenly calm boundlessness when the Deity has alive to the presence of external Nature. looked upon it. Even the mere forms He continues conversant with that pres- and relations of social life, the shell-like ence, till love for her forms, aspects, fabric of society, engages his intensest influences, becomes with him a passion. interest, gives rise to some of his most If he happens—as is oftener the case powerful strains, because through them with true poetic minds, we imagine, than the action of humanity makes itself manis usually supposed to have been too ifest. rudely educated to know anything of Still a third, together with some sen“ rhythmic fashions,” he will show his sibility to physical influences, some unrhymed devotion, by hating the sympathy with the present conditions of “ places where men do congregate,” human existence, has by nature a conclinging always to some unvisited home, templative turn, an excursive, acute where a wild mountain-range, the dedica- and philosophical mind. Had he these tion of a river to its sweet valley, or the qualities alone, or to the mastery of his distant marriage of sky and ocean, is currents of thought, he would be merely sufficient to bind him to it; or he lives a philosopher, a metaphysician. But if as a hunter, or solemn-minded trapper, an he possesses also the former to some irreclaimable life with Nature in the sol. degree sufficient to color his moods of itudes of forest and prairie. If, on the mind—if, especially, he has imagination other hand, he has entered, though but a enough to add wings and brightness to little way, the avenues of letters fram. the wide excursions of his intellecting measures destly, and as one who he becomes, not the port of outward Nacannot help it—he seeks only to repro- ture, not the plaintive or scornful versiduce, like a landscape-painter, and with fier of the joys and sufferings of humanithe colors which Nature herself lends ty, but the daring and powerful inquirer, him, the features of loveliness, and the treading ever on the brink of speculation. thrilling delight which have made him a He is too clear-sighted to stop satisfied worshiper.
with admiring the universe of things exAnother is found gifted with an acute ternal and material, too strong-souled to sensitiveness to the joys and sufferings be absorbed by the changes of human of men—the vicissitudes of the hu- life. Nature, so called, is to him but a man heart. What is more rare, he may vast hieroglyphic tabernacle; the present possess, besides, that intense fusion of lives of men with their griefs and joys, feeling with imagination, which enables but the playing of puzzled children him to invest himself with the passions among its mighty niches and columns. He of others, placing himself at will in fre- sees, or thinks that he sees, the world
and the existence beyond_themes that but should often deny to each other the attract him the more because lying in name of poet. What the authors do, doubt. Continually, as with Young, his their respective admirers among critics “ Thoughts start up and o'er Life's narrow are usually found adopting-denying all verge
attributes of the true poet to any except Look down on what?"
the school of their favorites. The latter is Like Milton's Lucifer, gazing, from the not altogether to be wondered at, since threshold of Hell, into the “waste void” partisans commonly go farther than their -Space, Blackness and Chaos_he leaders. And yet that those pretending to .“ Stands on the brink and looks awhile,
be critics should not have a broader apPondering his voyage;"
preciation, a deeper insight into the elebut, while the mere Reasoner shrinks ments of all excellence in all the fields back appalled from the “inane gulf” their feeling, if not their knowledge,
of human effort—especially that, where and the “darkness unutterable,” his imagination seems to project a light before field of poetry! The world
should be as universal as the air, the him, down into the abyss,and he launches but one man, who, as a poet, has trod fearlessly out over the shoreless night, all the departments of Nature, of which because of his
we have spoken, with an equal step and “Murmuring bark of Verse.”
an eye catching equally all appearances Thus it is seen, that the three great and relations whatever. The name of departments of Nature-that is, of the Shakspeare has been connected too often subjects of human thought-may furnish with this assertion to be dwelt upon each a true poet on its own peculiar here. His was the heart, the mind, the field. There is yet another sphere which coul. He is not more a poet in one aspect a single faculty of the mind creates, as it than in any other. A few, as Homer, were, for itself. It forms no part of Na. Æschylus, Dante, Milton, Göthe, with, ture, since, by a process the most subtil perhaps, two or three more, have in some in our being, it is caught, evolved and qualities achieved the highest possible combined from all possible subjects of triumphs, without greatly failing in any thought and the spirit that“ rolls through one. All the rest will be found to have all things"—in other words from the en- mainly united some two of the departtire realm, at once, of whatever, ma ments of Nature, or (more rarely) to have terial or spiritual, we have represented confined themselves exclusively to one. Nature as possessing. But as the imagi. Wordsworth is a remarkable example of nation in some degree is necessary to the the union of the most profound love and poet working in any capacity, so that appreciation of external Nature with an greatest of faculties may so preponderate, elevated, calm, and tender philosophy, overpowering all other qualities of mind at times approaching to the Platonic eloand heart, as to make for itself a kind of quence, and sounding with an extraordiseparate world—a realm of forms and nary feeling of wisdom the mysteries of formless shadows, impɔssible visions, humanity. But he had, with these, an cold and glittering images—that shall be imagination heavy and inert-circling on like, yet strangely unlike, all those things, a level, rarely soaring—and a most diluted familiar to our thought and sense, of perception of the power of human paswhich they are combined. Carried to its sions. Is Lord Byron, then, who in imagiheight, indeed, this state of the mind be- nation has four times his energy of wing, comes insanity—which cannot be judged an appreciation of Nature more absorb. to be a condition of Nature, or ai least ingly vivid, though hardly as wide or only of Nature distorted. Still, to this minute, and a power, both of passion in sphere of unrealities short of insaneness, himself and of its representation in oththe poet may so surrender himself as to ers, to which no one of his great contembelong rather to it than to any recog- poraries, unless Shelley, could make any nized part of the universe of thought or approach—is he and his admirers to ridímatter,
cule a Now it is among the strangest of the many strange things in letters, that poets or set down its author merely as one who
“Clumsy frowsy poem, The Excursion,'' working in these separate spheres, each under the bent of his own genius and That prose is verse and verse is only prose.
“Shows way of life, should not only have no liking or appreciation for their compeers, His lordship, on the other hand, exhib.
untenanted since the morning of the cre- proposed to extricate us from this new ation.” Following a scarcely perceptible difficulty, path, they were suddenly stopped by its
“Well, my boy,' I exclaimed, after the termination at the verge of a deep ravine. expiration of several minutes, during Descending this by the aid of tangled which time my companion had not uttered roots and limbs of trees, they found a rest.
a word, . What's to be done now?' ing-place for the night on a shelving probably the best thing
we could do in the
“He replied in a tranquil tone, that rock, washed by the waters of the cataract. Cold and dripping with water the present strait was to get out of it as soon as
possible. morning found them sad but resolute; «« Yes, my dear Toby, but tell me how and after surmounting a variety of diffi- we are to get out of it.” culties, they at last came in sight of the “« Something in this sort of style," he sea, between which and themselves lay a replied ; and at the same moment to my smiling valley bedecked with all the rich horror he slipped sideways off the rock, hues of Paradise. But to reach this Ely. and, as I then thought, by good fortune sian vale was not an easy task. The only merely, alighted among the spreading path—if path it might be called-was shooting its hardy roots along a ledge bealong or in the channel of a stream low, curved its trunk upwards into the air, which dashed and tumbled through gorges and presented a thick mass of foliage about between high rocks and down dark pre- twenty feet below the spot where we had cipices hundreds of feet in depth. We thus suddenly been brought to a standquote a few paragraphs to show with still. involuntarily held my breath, what resolution the deserters surmounted expecting to see the form of my companion, the obstacles in their journey, premising after being sustained for a moment by the that they had been four days from the branches of the tree, sink through their ship, and were worn down with hunger frail support, and fall headlong to the botand fatigue.
tom. To my surprise and joy, however, he recovered himself, and disentangling
his limbs from the fractured branches, be “ After an hour's painful progress, we peered out from his leafy bed, and shouted reached the verge of another fall, still lustily, 'Come on, my hearty, there is no loftier than the preceding, and flanked both other alternative ! and with this he ducked above and below with the same steep beneath the foliage, and slipping down the masses of rock, presenting, however, here trunk, stood in a moment at least fifty feet and there narrow, irregular ledges, sup- beneath me, upon the broad shelf of rock porting a shallow soil, on which grew a from which sprung the tree he had devariety of bushes and trees, whose bright scended. verdure contrasted beautifully with the “ What would I not have given at that foamy waters that flowed between them. moment to have been by his side? The
“ Toby, who invariably acted as pioneer, feat he had just accomplished seemed little now proceeded to reconnoitre. On his re less than miraculous, and I could hardly turn, he reported that the shelves of rock credit the evidence of my senses when on our right would enable us to gain with I saw the wide distance that a single dar. little risk the bottom of the cataract. Ac- ing act had so suddenly placed between cordingly, leaving the bed of the stream at the very point where it thundered down, " Toby's animating come on! again we began crawling along one of these slop- sounded in my ears, and dreading to lose ing ledges until it carried us to within a all confidence in myself if I remained few feet of another that inclined downward meditating upon the step, I once more at a still sharper angle, and upon which, gazed down to assure myself of the relative by assisting each other, we managed to bearing of the tree and my own position, alight in safety. We warily crept along and then closing my eyes and uttering one this, steadying ourselves by the naked roots comprehensive ejaculation of prayer, I in. of the shrubs that clung to every fissure. clined myself over towards the abyss, and As we proceeded, the narrow path became after one breathless instant fell with a still more contracted, rendering it difficult crash into the tree, the branches snapping for us to maintain our footing, until sud. and crackling with my weight, as I sunk denly, as we reached an angle of the wall lower and lower among them, until I was of rock where we had expected it to widen, stopped by coming in contact with a sturdy we perceived to our consternation that a limb. yard or two further on it abruptly termi “ In a few moments I was standing at nated at a place we could not possibly hope the foot of the tree, manipulating myself all to pass.
over with a view of ascertaining the extent • Toby as usual led the van, and in si of the injuries I had received. To my surlence I waited to learn from him how he prise the only effects of my feat were a