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to the sword. A ray of justice flashed the man. The character is indicated over him, and he bethought himself that more by the motive than by the act. Now, it was hardly right to murder the soldiers we do not see the least inconsistency in for resisting when acting under orders, Cromwell's conduct from first to last. and so he transferred his vengeance to The very simplicity with which he gives the officers. Such an uncivilized mode his own account of the affair, shows that of warfare has never been heard of, ex he imagines himself to be acting right. cept among a barbarous people. The He makes no apology-offers no excuses Irish were not rebels—they were fighting —throws in no palliation, but tells the for their legitimate King, and entitled to naked facts as if it were impossible to civilized treatment. What right had doubt his sincerity. These barbarous Cromwell to make them an exception to massacres, instead of furnishing any his ordinary mode of warfare? Why contradictions to his character illustrate did he not impose the same conditions on it. They prove clearly our first statethe English and Scotch towns that he in- ments, that Cromwell was acting under vested? What if he had massacred the a kind of hallucination, and conceived inhabitants of Bristol and Edinburgh be- himself a special agent of God, to decause they put him to the trouble of stroy his foes and establish his Church. storming thein ? In what respect were He fought battles precisely on the printhey different from Drogheda and Wex- ciples the Israelites did when they strugford ? The simple truth is, his conduct gled to keep possession of the land of of the Irish war was savage and fero- Canaan. The Old Testament was concious—unworthy of a civilized man, stantly in his mouth, and he killed men much more of a Christian, and will rest a coolly as Joshua. The Scotch and Engspot on his name to the end of time. In lish being Protestants, he regarded them as sacking cities, massacres will sometimes Judah might Dan or Manasseh in a civil occur, when a long and bloody resistance war; while the Irish Papists he considered has so exasperated the soldiers that all as Amalekites or Moabites, which were discipline is lost. Thus, during the pe. Ho be destroyed as enemies of the Lord. ninsular war in the time of Napoleon If Cromwell bad not been borne up in the sacking of Badajos and St. Sebas. by some such lofty sentiment as this, it tian by the English, and the storming of is very doubtful whether he could have Oporto by the French, the inhabitants saved England from tyranny first, and were massacred, but the officers took no from a war of factions afterwards. Το part in it, nay, exposed their lives in en- such a man there is no wavering of deavoring to arrest the violence. But purpose--no confusion of thought. The here we have a Puritan commander, who complicated motives and fears which disprays before going to battle, sings psalms tract the mere political leader he knows pastoral letters to Parliament-not per- nothing of. With one grand object in in the midst of the fight, and writes view he passes steadily towardsit—erring mitting but ordering massacres to be it may be in his means, but not in his committed.
motives. To inake no allowance for the Mr. Carlyle seems to think the plan an motives or impressions that guided Cromexcellent one, inasmuch as it prevented well, and judge him by his acts alone, the effusion of blood. Yes, but suppos. would be to condemn all the great waring Cromwell had not always been vic. riors of the Old Testament as cut-throats. torious, and the Irish had retaliated on We have no doubt Cromwell considered him the bloody warfare he adopted, what himself as much commissioned by the kind of a campaign would this have Lord as ever David did. As he took no been. This “ doing evil that good may glory to bimself from his victories, so he come,” and making “the ends justify felt no blame in the slaughters that prethe means” is considered in our times ceded them. It was the work of the rather doubtful morality.
Lord, from first to last, and he gave him We have spoken as condemnatory of all the glory, never doubting that he took the conduct of Cromwell towards the all the responsibility. But Cromwell had Irish, as if he had butchered the inhabit. no right to this impression, for he had ants in brutal ferocity or tiendish hate, received no revelation from God. The because we wish not in any way to warriors of Israel received their comsanction the view which Carlyle takes. mission from Heaven, through its own But though there can be no apology for appointed medium ; and hence, their such a mode of warfare there may be for bloody wars were no more nor less than
divine justice. But Cromwell received no work that had been done, and gave them such divine direction in his Irish massa. all honor for the part they had borne in cres, and 10 believe that he had, argues a it; but waxing warm as he proceeded, want of moral sense and of the spirit of he began to speak also of their injustice, true religion, which mars very much the delays, strifes and petty ambitions—burlexcellency of his character. Still it was ing fiercely accusation after accusation in an error of the intellect rather than of the their faces, till a member rose and re. heart, and sprung from that very belief buked him for his language.
" Come, without which he could not have saved come,” broke forth Cromwell, “we have England.
had enough of this. I will put an end to We could wish to speak of the part he your prating.” He had now fairly got took in the condemnation of Charles, on his battle-face, and his large eyes and defend him from the charge of injus- seemed to emit fire as he strode forth on tice and cruelty which has been preferred to the floor of the House, and clapping against him, but find we have not space. his hat on his head and stamping the
His dissolution of the Rump Parlia- floor with his feet, poured forth a torrent ment by physical force, and assumption of invective on the now thoroughly of the executive power of the kingdom, alarmed Parliament. That speech is lost, have been the basis on which a charge of but it scathed like fire. " You have sat ambition is attempted to be made out. here too long already,” he exclaimed ; But for nearly three years aster England, “you shall now give place to better Scotland and Ireland, were subdued, and men;" and turning to his officer, Harri· rested quiet under the Parliament, the sion, he gave a brief word of command, Parliament could not get along. The as he would on the field of battle, and his King was dead, and now who should brave musketeers with leveled bayonets rule or rather, how should the Parlia. marched sternly in. As he stood amid ment rule. Endless suggestions—pro. the bayonets that had so often surroundposed and rejected bills-committees ed him in the field of death, he began to formed and disbanded—this was the his- launch his thunderbolts on the right hand tory of the Rump Parliament, that evi- and on the left, and breaking over all dently could not rule England. Every- ceremonies of speech, boldly named the thing was quivering in the balance; crimes of which the members were guilty, some wanted a republic-some a sort of and closed up with—"corrupt, unjust mixed government, that no one knew persons; scandalous to the profession of anything about—some the restoration of ihe gospel. How can you be a Parliathé Stuarts. In this dilemma the army, ment for God's people. Depart, I say, now all-powerful, looked to Cromwell and let us have done with you. In the for help; indeed, all England stretched name of God, go!" her hands out to him for relief. He had Thus ended the Rump Parliament, and saved it from outward foes, and now England lay on Cromwell's shoulders. he was looked to as the complete deliv. So did Bonaparte march into the Council erer from her internal feuds. Confer- of Five Hundred, with his brave grenaence after conference was held with Par. diers at his back. liament, and he struggled manfully to
was this summary steady the tottering fabric of liberty he dissolution of Parliament effected, than had helped rear with so much effort. At Cromwell was heard to say, length a bill, settling the basis of a new who have forced me to this. I have representation, was brought forward, one sought the Lord, night and day, that he clause of which made the Rump Parlia- would rather slay me than put me upon ment a part of the new. But Cromwell the doing of this work.” But it was saw, with his far-reaching glance, that done, and when the first gust of passion clean work must be made, and this war had passed Cromwell was himself again, of factions ended, or endless revolution and took the government on his brave would follow-and so he opposed the heart as calmly as if he were born a king. bill. On the day that it was expected to This assumption of power, and his af. pass, he, accompanied by some twenty ter dissolutions of Parliament, when it or thirty of his musketeers whom he would not act in accordance with bis could trust, went to the House, and took wishes, are called despotic and tyrannihis seat. After listening awhile to the cal acts, and so they were. But will discussion he arose to speak. Calm and any one tell us what else could have respectful at first, he alluded to the great been done. To suppose that argument
“ It's you
" and reason would triumph, in that strife some Psalm of David. His feelings, durof factions and chaos of sentiments, is ing the Spanish war, and the fierce enerabsurd. The truth is, England needed gy with which he took part with the some strong, hand to steady her, and persecuted Waldenses, show the religious Cromwell's alone could do it. "Power was sentiment strong to the last. needed to overawe the imbecile and am In the revival of commerce-by his bitious spirits that were too ignorant to conquests in the West Indies and the rule, and too selfish to be united. Crom- triumph of his fleets everywhere—he eswell's measures were high-handed, but tablished the maratime ascendency of we cannot see what else could have been England; while in the administration of done, unless a Stuart had been called in. affairs at home, he exhibited a grasp of The people—the entire mind of the thought and a practical power combined nation-wanted something permanent with an earnestness and purity of puraround which it could settle. The Rump pose, which England may in vain look Parliament imparted no confidence, and for in any other sovereign. gave no security. Cromwell was the He sung Psalms when he went into only man in England that could keep the battle, and consulted the Bible in his revolution from going backward instead campaigns as much as his maps, and of forward.
quoted Scripture to Parliament-all of In great revolutions, the supreme power which may seem very weak in our day, must finally always be lodged in the army, but they detracted nothing from the of which the successful leader is the rep-' strength and majesty of Cromwell's charresentative. · The strong arm of power is acter. A strong, sincere and religious needed to mould the confused elements man—a Christian of Moses' time, if we in form and permanent shape-discus. may use the term, rather than of ourssion and conventions never can do it. who read the Old Testament much, and True, Cromwell's course was despotic, the Gospel little; pondered the dispensation but the cause of freedom and the ends of of law more than that of grace; underjustice demanded it. There is a differ- stood the lofty language of David better ence between the despotic act that crush- than the meek words of John; loved the es liberty, and the one that quells lawless Commandments more than the Beatitudes; violence. The forms of justice must a fierce fighter, a good ruler and a stern sometimes be disregarded to save its patriot, was Oliver Cromwell. He is spirit.
outliving his traducers, and will be honOf the five years of Cromwell's Pro- ored by man long after thrones have been tectorate, we shall say but little. He cast aside as useless things. ruled England well, and showed a better Had be lived longer, so as to have contitle to reign than any Stuart that ever solidated his government, and seen most filled a throne. Mr. Carlyle has given of his restless contemporaries safe under us but little of these few years, except ground, or even left a son but half equal Cromwell's speeches. These are, for the to himself, the destiny of England would most part, rambling, incoherent and dull. have been different, and its after history, They do not evince a single spark of very possibly, that of a republic. genius, yet great practical common sense But after five years of ceaseless anxiety is visible throughout. Their incoherency —at war with his Parliament and surof expression is owing, doubtless, to their rounded by assassins Cromwell, broken having been delivered extempore, and down by his efforts, at the age of fiftytaken from his lips by reporters. It is nine rested from his labors. On his dyevident, however, that he wielded the ing bed we hear the same phrases, the sword better than the pen, and could win same sentiments, which, when uttered two battles easier than he could make on the field of battle or in Parliament, one good speech.
have been called cant and hypocrisy. England flourished under his sway, But did he, with his eyes fixed steadily and his first measures indicated the lead-on that dread eternity on whose threshing trail of his character and the great hold he stood, speak of the covenants of object of his life. A commission was God, and pray in tones that made the appointed to purify the Church of ungodly listener tremble, to sustain his character ministers, and religion received his first to the last. No, his death-struggle and attention. Parliament was opened with glorious departure in full hope of a blessprayer and a sermon, and Cromwell ed immortality stamp the insinuation as scarce made a speech without allusion to false.
That was a solemn hour for England, still we do not think he has fully appreand strong hearts were everywhere be- ciated his character. How such a neolsieging Heaven to spare the Protector. ogist and German religionist as he could But the King of kings had issued His ever be brought to tolerate what is called decree, and the spirit that had toiled and K a canting Puritan,” is to us passing endured so long was already gathering strange. To do it he has had constantly its pinions for eternity. “ It is a fearful to look at him through a false medium thing to fall into the hands of the living to practice a sort of self-deception; and God !” broke thrice from his pallid lips, we sometimes imagine we can see him and then he fell in solemn faith on the shutting up his eyes, and resolutely covenant of grace. Just before his death launching forth into praise against his a fearful storm arose, and amid the dark- own convictions, when some expression ness, and tempest, and uproar of the ele- of Cromwell crosses so abruptly his ments, the dying Cromwell prayed. Bo- tastes and sentiments. But he needed naparte, dying in the midst of the storm, this dogged determination to see no fault shouted forth, “ Tète d'armée,” as his in bis hero, to balance his natural dislike eye fell once more on his mighty col- to “ Puritan cant,” in order to give umns, but Cromwell took a nobler de- Cromwell fair measure. parture. Not in the delirium of battle He has rendered history a service, and did his soul take its final leap, but with done a great man justice in this work, his gaze fixed steadfastly on the “ Eter- which, we doubt not, will effect a pernal kingdoms," he moved from the shore manent revolution in public opinion reof Time, and sunk from sight forever. specting the character of Oliver Crom
Carlyle has done Cromwell justice, well.
BY CALEB LYON, OF LYONSDALE,
Methought I slumbered on the shore of a lone moonlit lake,
Like creatures of the Elfin-land waked from a soft repose,
Their rainbow wings seem quivering, in rapturous delight-
They looked to me as sculptured forms rejoicing in their birth,
Augusta's form now slowly rose, as rises dear Giesselle,
She faded as a roseate cloud from my bewildered sight;
Around in magic circles flew her form with art divine,
Taglioni, like a spirit, rose upon that glittering wave,
Like some freed bird, her twinkling feet just kissed the lilies fair,
Her lips apart, a gentle smile around them dazzling shone,
She vanished, and the music fell faintly upon my ear,
Awake, deluded worshiper of fashions' luring glass,
We have received from the publishers which to most readers will be highly two volumes bearing the above title, con- charming. We cannot yield assent to taining an interesting narrative of the many of the author's conclusions and personal adventures of the author in one inferences, particularly in his remarks of the secluded islands of the Marquesas. concerning the Missionaries of the SandThe style is plain and unpretending, but wich Islands which we think are prejuracy and pointed, and there is a romantic diced and unfounded; but his own adinterest thrown around the adventures ventures carry with them an air of truth
* Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life during a Four Months' Residence in a valley of the Marquesas, with Notices of the French Occupation of Tahiti, and the Provisional Cession of the Sandwich Islands to Lord Paulet. By Herman Melville. New York. Wiley & Putnam,
VOL. III.-NO. IV.