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dering over the country. Persecution of England—it met, with the stern purcommenced--a system of espionage was pose of taking the management of affairs carried on, and a petty tyranny practiced in its own hands. The King saw, at a by that incarnation of all meanness and glance, that he had got to retreat or close villany, Laud. The Puritans began to a mortal struggle with his Parlialeave in crowds for other more tolerant ment. The respect they showed him at countries. The people were enraged— his opening speech was cold, and even even the country nobility and wealthy haughty. The proud determination that gentlemen took fire at these accumulated sat on their countenances awed even the wrongs, and all was ripe for an explo- monarch, and the fierce indignation that sion. Men were put in the stocks for broke forth after his departure told his circulating pamphlets that denounced the friends that a crisis had come. Every injustice of the times, and their ears member had some petition from his concropped off in presence of the people. stituents to offer, and the eleven years of But the elements were only more deeply arbitrary rule that Charles had tried, and stirred by every act of tyranny, and at now was compelled to abandon, received length they seemed to reach their full a terrible review. Monopolies, shipheight when John Hampden, who had money, illegal arrests, the despotism of refused to pay the ship-money tax and the bishops and the action of arbitrary demanded a trial, was condemned. courts, came up in rapid succession, each
In the mean time the attempt to force adding to the torrent of indignation that the English liturgy down the throats of was about to roll on the throne. One the sturdy Scotch Calvinists had raised a of the first acts of this Parliament was to whirlwind in Scotland, and the self-con- declare every member of their body who ceited Laud found he had run his hand bad taken part in any monopoly unfit to into a hornet's nest. Edinburgh was in sit with them, and four were immediately a blaze, and the excited crowds from excluded. This decision fell like a every part came thronging through the thunderbolt on the King and his party, streets-highlander and lowlander, noble and revived the hopes of the people. and commoner, struck hands together, The Presbyterian preachers resumed and old Scotland stood up in her might, their livingssuppressed pamphlets were with her solemn Covenant” in her again sent abroad on the wings of the hand, and swore to defend it to the last. wind-Church despotism dare not wag The fiery cross went flashing along the its bead, and yet no legal steps had been glens, through the valleys and over the taken to produce this change. The peomountains, and in six weeks Scotland ple felt that Parliament was on their side, was ready to do battle for her rights. and took confidence in resisting oppresPoor Charles was frightened at the spirit sion. Strafford was impeached and sent he had raised, and strove to lay it, but to the Tower, and the next blow fell on failing in this he marched his armies the heartless Archbishop Laud. Things against the Covenanters. Imbecile, like began to look significant--the head of all Stuarts, the invasion ended in smoke, civil oppression and the leader of reliand the baffled King called another Par- gious despotism were struck within a liament in order to raise some inoney. short time of each other, and the characIt met April 13, 1640. Charles had got ter of the coming revolution clearly proalong eleven years without a parliament, nounced. The next step was still more but now was fairly driven to the wall. significant. A bill was carried making But during eleven years of dissolution it necessary that a Parliament should asthe Commons had not forgotten grievances, semble at least once in three yeard and when the King asked for supplies, should not be dissolved till fifty days he received in reply, “ grievances.” No. after its meeting. The King, though thing could be done with a Parliament filled with rage, was compelled to sancthat talked only of grievances, and in tion it. No sooner was this done than three weeks it was dissolved. This was the Star Chamber, ecclesiastical court of in May; in October Parliament again high commission, and all the extraordimet--the famous Long Parliament. Ex- nary tribunals which the King had erectasperated at its last dissolution-enraged ed were abolished. Last of all, Parlia. at the falsehoods and tyranny of the ment declared that it had
alone to King-perceiving, at last, that he with terminate its sittings. Thus tumbled his favorite the Earl of Strafford were down stone after stone of England's huge bent on breaking down the Constitution feudal structure, and such men as Hamp
den, Prym and Holles began to look his carriage headed, “ To your tents, 0 toward the abolishment of kingly power Israel.“. altogether. Religious matters also came Here is the beginning of the war. The up, and petitions were poured in demand- Parliament found that it must surround ing the entire abolition of Episcopacy. itself with armed force for self-protection. The people had begun to think, and the And armed force begatarmed force, till civ. quarrel which had commenced with il war broke out in all its fury. Hitherto Charles and his Parliament had been Charles had professed great affection and taken up by the people, and the struggle respect for the Parliament-made endless was between liberty and oppression in promises and broke them “on the word of every department.
a king.” His duplicity was no longer of In the mean time Strafford's head rolled avail. The mask was off-hostilities had on the scaffold. This was in 1641. In commenced; and though peace could be, August the King visited Scotland, and and was, talked about, Parliament would devoutly attended Presbyterian churches never let power again rest in the hands -heard the long prayers and longer ser of a monarch who seemed to have no mons of Presbyterian preachers with be- moral sense respecting truth and falsecoming gravity, and Parliament adjourned. hood. The word of a London pick pockIn the fall, however, it assembled again, et could be relied on as soon as his. Beand a general remonstrance was drawn sides, the leaders of Parliament now lived up setting forth the grievances of the with a halter about their necks, and let kingdom, and defining all the privileges Charles once gain the power he formerly that freedom demanded. Amid a storm wielded, he would make summary work of excitement it passed. Cromwell with them. backed it with his stern and decided ac With the departure of the King and the tion. The King returned, and was again commencement of the civil war, Parliain collision with his Parliament. In the ment proceeded to assume more and more mean time popular outbreaks commenced power; and though negotiations were in London-the houses of bishops were still kept up, reformation had yielded to in danger of being mobbed, and Charles revolution, and the elements were unfound himself on a wilder sea than he bound. The battle of Edgehill opened had ever dreamed of. The Parliament the tragedy, which in its bloody performnow began to reach out its hand after ance was to see the throne of England the control of the army, and there seemed go down, and the head of its king roll on no limit to the reforms proposed.
the scaffold. Cromwell now presents The next year, 1642, five members of himself on the stage to some purpose, the House were suddenly accused of high and there is little danger of his being lost treason for the prominent part they had sight of again. The years of 1642 and taken in the affairs of the kingdom. The '3 were eventful ones, for the sword of King sent his sergeant-at-arms to take civil war was drinking blood on every them in custody, but the House would not side. At the end of 1643 the reformagive them up, and declared that consider- tion was complete, Parliament had done ation was required before such a breach of all it wished ; but things had gone too privilege could be allowed. The next far to stop. The army had gradually acday the King came with an armed force quired power, as it always does in war, to arrest them. At the news swords and its leader was carried on towards the flashed in the Hall of Parliament, and control of the kingdom. In 1648 Charles brows knit in stern defiance. But better I. was executed, and kingship in Eng. counsels prevailed, and the five members land for the time ended. were hurried away, before Charles with The progress of things during the civil his armed guard approached. The birds wars we design to take up again with had flown, but the King made a speech, Cromwell. But in this condensed synopdeclaring that he expected the accused, sis the career and separate steps of the as soon as they returned, would be sent revolution may be traced out. First, to him, and departed. As he strode Parliament wished to place some restricthrough the door, Privilege ! privi. tions on arbitrary power--nothing more. lege !” smote his ear. The next day the The resistance and madness of Charles citizens rushed to arms, and all was in aroused indignation, and boldness and discommotion ; and as the King passed cussion. The natural result was, clearer through the crowd, it was silent and views of their own rights, and of the incold, and a pamphlet was thrown into justice of the King's arbitrary conduct.
The King, instead of yielding with grace, he utters the same religious sentiments, multiplied his tyrannical acts, and in- indulges in the same phrases which, recensed still more the Commons of Eng. peated in public, bring down on him
the land. Not satisfied with pleasing the im- charge of cant, hypocrisy and design. becile and driveling Laud, he under. These letters and speeches show him took to fetter the consciences of the peo- consistent throughout; and Mr. Carlyle ple, and force episcopacy down their has forever removed the obloquy that throats. As if bent on his own ruin, he covered him, and given him that place in transferred, or rather extended, the quarrel history which should have been granted from Parliament to every town in the long ago. The triumph is the more comland, and thus made the excitement and plete, from its being effected not hy euopposition universal. Slight reforms logies, but by the man's self lifted up in were sought in the first place, but the his simplicity and grandeur before the principles of justice on which the de- world. No one can read this work withmand for them was based, soon brought out obtaining a clear and definite view of grievances to light whose removal would Cromwell he never can forget. Perhaps infringe on the sovereignty of the King. some of the very faults we have menThe King resisted, but the Commons tioned in it have rendered the picture more stood firm; and as soon as the people complete. Mr. Carlyle has given us found they had a strong ally they brought Cromwell as he was, and as he will be in their grievances on religious matters. received by future generations. We see Broken promises, falsehoods, secret apy him in every step of his progress; there open tyranny, practiced everywhere bn are the same massive features, and grave the King or Bishops, rendered the countenance, and serious air, with here breach between the monarch and his sub- and there indications of a volcano withjects wider—until at last royal bayonets in. Whether wandering by the banks of gleamed around the Parliament. As- the Ouse-gloomy and desponding as he sailed by physical force, Parliament attempts to look into that mysterious sought to protect itself by force also, and eternity to which he is bastening—or civil war took the place of discussion riding all fierce and terrible amid his and remonstrance, and revolution suc- Ironsides through the smoke of battleceeded reformation. There was nothing or with hat on his head standing on the unnatural in this. The same result will floor of Parliament, and hurling defiance follow in every despotism of Europe, so on all around—or praying in the midst soon as there can be a representation of of the midnight storm as life is receding the people bold enough to ask justice. -we still stand in his presence-live,
For taking part in such a movement of move, speak with him. There is no the English people—fighting bravely for English writer that equals Carlyle in this the English constitution and religious pictorial power-revealing rather than liberty, and finally bringing the revolu- describing things, and bidding us look on tion to the only peaceful termination it them rather than conceive them. could have bad, Oliver Cromwell has Born in 1599, Cromwell was thirty-six been termed a regicide, a monster and a years old when the first Parliament was tyrant. This work of Mr. Carlyle's puts convoked by Charles I. Unlike most the mark of falsehood on these accusa- distinguished characters he entered on tions, and presents the man before us in public life late, and was forty years of his simple majesty and noble integrity. age before he took any part in the scenes The speeches and letters of a man—both in which he was afterwards to be the public and private—must reveal his char chief actor. His history is a forcible ilacter, and if there be any hypocrisy in lustration of the effect of circumstances him it will appear. But here we have a on a man's fortune. Had England rehundred and sixty-seven letters written mained quiet, Cromwell would have in various periods of his life, to persons spent his energies in draining the fens on of every description--even to his wife his farm, and improving his estate, and and children and relatives—and yet no died a good, straight-forward English inconsistency in his character is seen. gentleman. But the field which the rev, Those who term him a hypocrite would olution opened to him soon scattered do well fo explain this fact
. Before the his plans for the improvement of his lands idea of power had ever dawned on his to the wind, and the too thoughtful, too mind, or he had ever dreamed a letter of contemplative religionist, entered on a his would be seen, except hy his family, life of action that left his disordered fancy
little time to people his brain with gloomy in the castle of Cambridge, and preforms.
vented the plate of the University from Of Cromwell's early life very little is being carried off by the King's adherknown, but Mr. Carlyle has doubtless given all that ever will be discovered, The same volunteer system was carand traced his genealogy to the right ried out in every shire of England sasource. Cromwell appears in the third vorable to the course of Parliament. An Parliament of Charles, 1628-9, in which army was organized, and the Earl of Esthe famous petition of Rights before spo sex was placed at its head. In the list ken of was carried. He seems to have of troops made out with their officers, taken very little part in the stormy pro- Cromwell's name was found as captain ceedings of the several Parliaments, and of troop sixty-seven. His son was cornet during the first two years of the Long Par- in a troop of horse under Earl Bedliament nothing is heard of him. He ford. The battle of Edgehill was fought went home to his farm a few weeks at --the first appeal to armsand Cromthe adjournment of Parliament, during the well's sword was there first drawn for King's visit to Scotland ; but is found in his country. The victory was doubtful, his place again when it is assembled. and both parties claimed it. The counHe witnessed the stormy debate on the try was now fairly aroused, and asso“Grand Petition and Remonstrance," ciations were formed during the winter when the excitement waxed so high that in various counties, for mutual defence. members came near drawing their swords Cromwell is found at the head of the on each other; and gazed--one may guess “ Eastern Association,” the only one that with what feelings-on King Charles, as survived and flourished, and is riding he came with his armed force to seize hither and thither to collect troops and the five members accused of high trea- enforce order and repel invasion. The son. The lessons he learned in these hidden energy of the man begins to deagitated scenes, like those which Bona velop itself, and his amazing practical parte received from the tragedies of the power to be felt. At the battle of EdgeFrench revolution, were not forgotten by hill he saw the terror the royal cavhim in his after career.
alry carried through the Parliamentary When the King and Parliament final. horse, and he spoke to Hampden about ly came into open collision, and both it after the conflict was over, saying, were struggling to raise an army, Crom- “How can it be otherwise when your well's course for the first time becomes horse are for the most part superannua. clearly pronounced. His arm is better ted domestics, tapsters, and people of than his tongue, and as Parliament has that sort, and theirs are the sons of genpassed from words into action, he im- tlemen, men of quaility. Do you think mediately takes a prominent position, such vagabonds have soul enough 10 which he ever after maintains. Charles stand against men of resolution and is still regarded as King of England, and honor ? the Parliament has sent to him to know “ You are right,” replied Hampden, if he will grant them “power of mili. “ but what can be done?” tia,” and accept the list of Lord Lieu "I can do something,” said Cromtenants which they had sent him.“ No, well, “and I will. I will raise men by God," he answers, “not for an who have the fear of God before their hour;" and so militia must be raised in eyes, and who will bring some consome other way than through royal per- science to what they do, and I promise mission.
you they shall not be beaten." This was in March, 1642; the next It was in this winter's efforts that the July we find Cromwelt moving that the nucleus of that famous body of horse town of Cambridge be allowed to raise to which he gave the name of Iron. two companies of volunteers, and appoint sides was formed. He selected for it captains over them, giving, himself, a religious men, who fought for conscience hundred pounds towards the object. sake, and not for pay or plunder; and
Here is high treason at the outset, and while he enforced the most rigid disci. if the King shall conquer, loss of life pline, he inflamed them with the highest and property will follow. But he has religious enthusiasm. Fighting under taken his course, and not all the kings the especial protection of Heaven, and for in the world can turn him aside. The God and religion, they would rush to next month he has seized the magazine battle as to a banquet, and embrace death
with rapture. Here was Napoleon's fa- ings, and listen to their psalms like one mous cuirassiers of the Imperial Gnard, who hears music around the lip of a volunder whose terrible charge the best infantry of the world went down. Borne From this time the revolution became up, however, by a higher sentiment than essentially a religious one, and the parglory, they carried in their charge great- liament and the army were both Presbyer power, and this body of a Thousand terian. Its character did not change but horse was never beaten. "When with the once to the end, and that was when the fearful war-cry “Religion !" Cromwell Independents overcame the Presbyteri. hurled them on the foe, the tide of battle ans, and finally obtained the supreme was always turned.
control. The causes leading to both of Nothing shows the practical sagacity these results were perfectly natural. of Cromwell, more than bis introduction After political reforms religious questions of the religious sentiment into the army. came up; and the king and the establishBonaparte could not do this, and so he ed church banding together, it was natudid the next best thing-instilled the love ral they should go down together, and a of glory. The former made religion pop- different political and religious governular in the army and in the kingdom, and ment be adopted. The former became a his bulletins to Parliament were more parliamentary government, and the latter like the letters of a clergyman to his a Presbyterian church. The religious presbytery, than the reports of a general character of this new church organiza. to his government. Scripture phrasestion became still more clearly pronounced came into common use, and custom by the league which Parliament made soon made proper and natural, what now with Scotland. Its help was sought seems to us the mere cant of hypocrisy. in the effort to overthrow the King, but It is not to be supposed that_the solemn Scotland would not grant it, unless Parlook, and nasal tone, and Bible language liament would subscribe to the Scotch of the Puritans indicated, as a general Covenent. This was done, and Cromthing, any piety. These things became well's voice was heard swearing to the the fashion--made common, it is true, by Covenant. But in revolution every ira strong religious feeling--and fashion regularity developes itself, the restraints could make the people of New York talk are taken off from the mind, its old barin the same strain. Cromwell had a deep riers are removed, and it is launched religious feeling, and felt himself an in- forth upon an unknown sea. When strument in the hands of God for the ac each one is allowed to think for himself complishment of a great work. It is a men are sure not to think alike; and little singular that all those great men there sprung up in England what is conwho have effected sudden and unexpected stantly seen here-numberless sectschanges in human affairs, have always each strenuous for its peculiar tenets. regarded themselves as under the influ. There were the Independents, who reuence of a special destiny. If a heathen jected the Scotch Covenant-demanded he has been the favorite of the gods; if more freedom of belief-repudiated the a Christian, like Cromwell, the mere established church organizations, and agent of Supreme Power; if an unbe asked for the same republicanism in the liever, like Napoleon, under the influence Church that had been introduced in the of some star.
State: the Brownists, and Anabaptists, These Ironsides were religious men, and Levelers (your thorough Jacobins who could hold prayer-meetings in their and modern Radicals): Fifth-Monarchytents, and sing psalms through their men, (modern Millerites,) and many still noses; and he who would walk over the unsettled in their belief. All these, the natutented field at evening, and witness their ral growth of a revolution that had become praying-circles, and listen to their nasal religious in its character, gradually conchantings, might think himself in a centrated their strength against the PresMethodist camp.meeting, and curl his lip byterians; and Cromwell himself taking at the thought of their being warriors. sides with the Independents, the army But whoever saw them with their hel was ranged on their side, and in time the mets on, and with their sabres shaking army, as it always must in a revolution, above their heads, and their flashing eyes ruled everything. bent in wrath on the enemy, sweeping
From 1642, when the first battle of like a thunder-cloud to battle, would ever Edgehill was fought, to 1653—when aster tread softly by their prayer-meet. Cromwell annihilated with his musket