Puid. Mysteriously, if not reasonably. susceptible of pain and pleasure. Or is It seems by what we have admitted that it so ? the magnanimity and greatness of a man Phid. Not so, my friend ! is not like that of a Deity ; but rather be Soc. It appears, therefore, that infamy longs to him as an accident or condition causes no pain to the infamous. of the present life.

Puid. By Zeus! their pains are terriSoc. Why not? Is not all human ex ble; they pine and waste away, as if cellence liable to loss, like lite itself, and touched with a pestilence. like all other possessions ? Or, may we Soc. Infamy, it appears, is a pain of suppose that a skillful mathematician the body; but this pain cannot be inflictwill be the same in Hades, or that a good ed upon brutes, because they are devoid rhetorician or dialectician will find these of a spirit. The spirit, therefore, not qualities serviceable among the Gods and only governs, but punishes the body. genii; or that any extraordinary virtue Like the votaries of Isis, remorseful spiin business, or justice in the affairs of rits wound and destroy their bodies, in the city, will avail much in Elysium ; honor of justice. where there is no business and no city ? Phim. But if any man is naturally un.

Puid. The spirit of man, 0 Socrates, fitted for the perception of justice, shall seems to me divine; but this is a new he go unpunished as having no conopinion of yours, that justice and the science ? other virtues are among the accidents of Soc. Answer me again, that I may anher mortal state.

If my eye is blind, must I be punSoc. Consider, and answer me. Does ished for not seeing, or is this blindness any work of the hands seem to be of its own sufficient penalty ? much worth?

Phip. It is a sufficient penalty. Phid. No, not even the best!

Soc. But if I am blind, shall I be perSoc. But how is it with a just judge; mitted to walk alone, to the danger of my does he take a pride in decrees, when he life; or would you have some one to athas lawfully divided an estate, or en- tend and instruct my steps ? forced the payment of certain dues ? Or Puid. I would have you attended and do these acts, and all others, appear con instructed. temptible, compared with the power of Soc. But if any person, through an inthe spirit ?

ward blindness, lives injuriously, hurting Puid. They do, indeed !

himself and others, shall he, too, be Soc. The spirit of man, therefore, de- watched and restricted, or shall he be sufspises its body, and desires to be pro- fered to go at large and commit injuries? vided with a better. But can the uni. Puid. He shall be confined, and cured, verse itself ever satisfy the desire, or if possible, of his blindness. exhaust the capacity, of such a spirit ? Soc. But if the disease is incurable,

Prip. If all that you say is true, it and the unjust man continue to be unfollows that the spirit of man is not an- just, and watches opportunities to deswerable for wrongs done by it in the stroy his keepers, so that all are in terror body; but if all virtues and all vices are of their lives because of his incurable stuthe fruit of this marriage between body pidity and ferocity, shall he be permitted and spirit, why are men punished for in- to live? justice for the fault is not of their spirit Phjd. I think it would be unjust if the but of their body?

law should suffer it. Soc. Answer me; is punishment of Soc. It seems, therefore, O Phidias, the body or of the spirit ?

that the blindness of the wicked is its Phid. Of both.

own punishment, as the virtue of the just Soc. Say, then, death a punishment is its own reward. of the spirit ?

Phid. Are we to conclude that pun. Phid. Of the body, rather; for a death ishment belongs altogether to the spirit, of the spirit is as impossible as a birth of and that the spirits of the wicked shall the spirit.

torment them while they are scorched So

When a person is declared infa- with the fire of Tartarus ? or, are the tormous, is that a punishment of the body? ment and the fire one ? Phid. Of the spirit, as I think.

Soc. We have reason to believe that Soc. The shame of infamy is, then, a remorse is the true Tartarean fire. pain of the immortal spirit; and it fol Puid. Why then, if the faults of men lows, that this immortal spirit is a being are sufficiently punished by remorse,

should other punishments be inflicted on knows that by the pains of the body, and them by the laws ?

the loss of its liberty, the just are protectSoc. Answer me, is not law established ed, and the unjust prevented. If any are for the protection of the innocent? ready to excuse their crime with this plea,

Paid. It is; and for the punishment of that being made evil by nature they are the guilty.

blameless, and cannot justly suffer penalSoc. But the punishment of a crime ties, the legislator may answer, that he should be equal to the crime; or should intends not punishment but protection; it not?

that punishment belongs to God alone; Phid. It should.

but that if the just and the innocent are Soc. Say, then, if I am willing to en- injured, those who injure them, or slay dure the penalty of a crime for the plea- them, must be prevented from a repetisure of injuring my neighbor, whether tion of the crime ; even, if that he necesthe penalty would be of the least avail. sary, by their death. From the robber

Phip. It would be of no avail; and, on and the wild beast alike, the law protects reflection, I think it would be impossible us: making no inquiry into the nature to inflict equal penalties. If it happens, of soul and body, or whether men are to for example, that a thief robs me of my blame for a naturally bad disposition; purse, he must be punished by a fine; but asking only whether the criminal is but if the robber has no property he can- likely to repeat his crime; and if it apnot pay the fine, and will therefore escape pears that he is bad and dangerous, he is free.

prevented by imprisonment or banishSoc. If the laws, O Phidias, are estab- ment; or, if necessary, by death. lished for the punishment of crime rather If the blame of evil is thrown altothan for the protection of the just and in- gether upon the body, no man will be nocent, they are miserably contrived, and any the less fearful of the pains which fail altogether of their purpose. But if follow iniquity, the diseases of lust, the we suppose them established for pro- shame of vice, the anguish of remorse, tection, and not for punishment, it seems and the insufferable anger of the Gods. possible to make them perfectly just. For, as it is impossible to act, so it is imLet us therefore give over the souls and possible to suffer, without a body. If we bodies of the wicked, in this life and in imagine a future condition of the spirit, the next, to conscience and the fire of we imagine her in another body ; nor is Tartarus, as is just; for we know that it it possible to conceive her otherwise than is impossible for a mortal to punish ade as capable, through a bodily existence, quately; and that if any man attempts both of happiness and misery. We think it, he is sure to commit injustice. But if of this body as of a gift of Heaven to the the law-maker aims only to protect the spirit, that it may not only be, but may helpless, and secure each man in his also EXIST; in other words, that it may right, he will have no difficulty in deter- be capable of happiness and misery. The mining what ought to be done with rob- bodies which the spirit animates were bers and murderers, or with those who given to it in the beginning. On each commit crimes against the state. Nor are of them certain energies were conferred, law-makers to be embarrassed with any to be the causes of life and death, of good sophistical subtleties regarding the nature and evil. To have eternal existence is of the souls, or whether men are, or are the gift of the spirit, and she imparts this, not, to blame for the crimes they commit

. in a manner, to the body-lengthening Whatever danger arises, whether from its life in time, and extending it over robbers or neighboring enemies, from se space, by the labors of glory and wisdom. dition or natural calamities, they must The elected spirit passes continually toprovide against it, endeavoring, by wis- ward a better life, ascending by steps, dom and the utmost vigilance, to insure and animating at each step a better and every one in the enjoyment of what is more powerful body. justly his own. If á robber is muti Puid. It is your custom, Socrates, to lated or beaten, it is to deter him and advance in this manner from the known others from a repetition of the wrong; to the unknown. But we have forgotten and if a murderer is deprived of his life, this science of expression, of which we it is for the safety of the innocent, and just now inquired, whether there could not for the punishment of the guilty. Nor be such a science. I am satisfied that need the lawgiver inquire whether spirit the body must express all the energies ; or body is more to blame; when he for, if it did not, how should we know


the existence of such energies ? since or less in this man and in that, as ii i that only is an energy which is the cause were a measurable thing, capable of inof an action or expression.

crease or diminution; but the spirit is inSoc. If you believe this, you believe capable of either. We say of a king, that in a science of the kind we are dis- he is a greater or less, according to the cussing. But would it be lawful to use width of his dominion ; and we say of such a science? If any man imagines the spirit, that it is greater or less, acthe Gods have assigned him a body in- cording to the excellence of the body in capable of the greatest virtue, would he whom it rules. If it could be given to fail to be corrupted by this belief-laying the spirit of a man to animate the body the fault of his sins upon the imperfection and govern the intelligences of a demiof his soul's

god, it could then discern and practice Puid. How is any danger to be appre- perfect virtue; but if, as with ourselves, hended from that cause? If the measure it is confined within a narrow house, and of a crime is as the greatness of the law looks out upon the world through imit violates, he who is naturally incapable perfect organs, as through the loop.holes of the law is equally incapable of the of a prison, hardly discerning what is crime. The degree of remorse, which is right; is it the part of wisdom to be enthe only divine punishment, will be, in raged and discontented, because things this life and the next, as the degree of are so ordered? It seems to me, thereconscience given to the criminal. fore, to be not only a lawful but a neces

Soc. It is necessary, 0 Phidias, if we sary knowledge, from the marks of the mean to understand this matter, by no body, to draw conclusions regarding the means to confound the body with the energies. If I observe the marks of cruspirit; or to imagine that a spirit is a elty in a brute, I avoid him ; but these being composed of parts, and originating marks are equally evident in men. Why separate effects. We are compelled, should they be overlooked ? Is it lawful therefore, for each power of the spirit, to to discover goodness in the action and provide a separate instrument; as, for speech of a friend, but unlawful to see it the sight, an eye; and for hearing, an in the features of his body? ear; and for the combination of these Phin. This kind of inquiry, Socrates, and all other senses, an organ of percep- already occupies the inquisitive. They tion; and for the combination of per- are incessantly prying into each other, as ceptions, an intelligent organ; and, lastly, if some mighty good might follow a disfor the unity of all, a rational organ, for covery. And now, by this new science, the actual perception of right. The body, they will be saved much labor, having a therefore, must represent each and all, certain rule by which to judge and be being their servant and exponent. If, judged. A vast advantage ! then, we observe that any person is just

Soc. When a new weapon is brought in all his actions, it is necessary to con home from the cutlers, the children seize fess that the eye of bis spirit, with which it for a plaything. Presently an eye is it beholds justice in externals, is bright put out, and the mother blames all weap, and far-seeing. But it would be absurd ons in general, not excepting knives and to say of his immortal spirit itself, that hay-forks. it has more of divinity or more of justice Puid. Have you seen this Egyptian, than the spirit of any other ; before God, who, for a piece of silver, gives you a all are equal: for we have agreed that list of your virtues by the signs of your the spirit of man is not a thing of parts face ? and qualities; and that it is, therefore, Soc. I saw him followed by a crowd. incapable of the more and the less; but Some questioned him for themselves, and if anything is immeasurable, it is also others for their friends or enemies. A unimaginable and spiritual--a source of young man, who aspires to the magispower without substance, and a cause of tracy, asked him whether Pericles' face form without shape. The spirit is, there. did not prove him a tyrant. The Egypfore, neither just nor unjust, good or evil, tian said that it did not; whereupon in her essence, but is the perceiver and Thrasymachus cried out in a rage, that if causer of these through the medium of his face did not, his body did; for that he her instrument. So, also, we say of God, carried it haughtily. The rest then crowd. that his justice is in his works, but that ed about and silenced him, by applauding he is more than justice. And of justice the Egyptian, who presently, on this enand other virtue, we say, there is more couragement, gave us what he styled an

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analysis of Pericles, and ended with de- and opinions at the wrong time and place. claring him a God.

We say that all things are excellent in Phid. How did the people take it, their order ; but it seems to me that the when he came to the apotheosis ? place and time for using physiognomical

Soc. They applauded ; and some said art, are easily known by a person of the they thought better of Pericles than of least discretion. The artist must employ Zeus, since the God had sent a famine it in studying human faces, or modeling upon Attica, but the man had relieved it. statues in clay. The master may use it,

Puid. A fine conception of Zeus, in- when he purchases a slave or hires a deed! My statue of the God is far servant. nobler than any mortal.

Phid. You begin to talk of this art as Soc. Perhaps so, in the form ; but for though it were founded in nature and nethe substance a worm in flesh is nobler cessity. than a God in the stone.

Soc. I confess to a belief in its possierns by the force of his spirit, not by the bility, but not to a true knowledge of it. beauty of his body.

Puid. Say, then, how this knowledge Puid. I am persuaded, Socrates, in re- may be acquired. gard to this science, that it is not only a Soc. When any person, with an expepossible, but a natural and lawful part of rience in the nature of things, practices knowledge: : nor, without some degree of accordingly, we say that he has a rule ; it, could I myself compose a statue or a a number of rules towards one end or picture. The Greek statuaries excel all purpose constitute an art; and he who others, because they have a quick appre can apply rules is equally an artist, whehension of the marks of character in men, ther he originated or learned them. To and have the art to represent them under originate, or to have the power of origithe appearances of beauty ; but beauty nating, rules, is named science or inven. is easily attained, expression not easily. tion. It is necessary, therefore, that the To combine both as I have done, is im- science of the marks of character should mensely difficult.

be invented, and reduced to rules, before Soc. The Egyptians, who, as you it can sustain an art. know, observe everything, have a theory, Phid. How would you begin to invent that men's haracters may be known such a science ? from their resemblance to brutes. They Soc. I am not addicted, 0 Phidias, to compare a coxcomb to a peacock, a fool the invention of sciences, but desire rato an ass, a glutton to a hog; as though ther to receive them from others; that I the same power impelled both. What may continue, uninterruptedly, in medi. think you of that?

tation and conversation. Nevertheless, Phid. As of the other, that it is true. if it is agreeable, I will say what seems What could produce the strut of a pea. fit to be said. cock other than the soul of a peacock ? Phid. Say on. or the malice of a wolf other than the Soc. First, then, we must observe and soul of a wolf ?

separate the actions proper to men and Soc. Men, therefore, are bears, wolves brutes, assigning each kind its proper acand asses to each other?

tions, distinguishing the superior from Phin. Yes, when they cease to be men. the inferior, and naming each by its com

Soc. I imagine that a power of repre mon and proper name. Among these, senting these marks of brutality in the the actions of instinct will rank lowesthuman figure might be useful to a statu- for they are common to all-and the acary. A smatterer would perpetually in- tions of reason highest, for they are jure both himself and others, by affecting proper to man.

But there is a kind of to see deeply into men when such pene. action, intermediate between reason and tration is uncalled for. Every art and instinct, which is common to man with science has its place and its use.

some animals. Of this kind are all imat this moment, a knowledge of physic pulses of passion, love, cunning, fear, or astronomy would avail nothing ; for mirth, and pure intelligence. These, let we are neither pedants nor sophists. us name by the Intelligences or Powers But if we were at sea or sick, they would to which they belong. be serviceable. If the characteristic of a The acts of Reason are either in the just or wise man is, that he does all gesture and carriage of the body, in the things suitably to the occasion, that of a nobler expressions of countenance, in the fool is to go about thrusting in his acts conduct of affairs, the administration of

To us,


laws, and all that regards equally the we should know how to account for the future and the past. The acts of the In- omission. telligences, on the contrary, are transient Phid. None but a lover of true wisand impulsive. They vary with the dom would be able to complete a system condition of the actor. The same ani- of this nature. mal may be now in rage, and now in Soc. Though it might need such an love, with the same object. All the In one to invent it, the simplest might be telligences are of a nature which enables made to understand it, once invented. Am them to act in the absence of their ob- I wrong in thinking so ? jects. Love, for example, is powerful Phid. You seem to me, 0 Socrates, to even in the absence of the thing loved. be mistaken in judging that any but a

But for those instincts which impel true lover of wisdom could even underto sensuous acts, they require an imme- stand this system. diate presence of the object, and have no Soc. Let it be so: everything that is force in its absence. Light has no power useful is difficult. Be it supposed that with the closed eye, nor in silence is some one more fortunate or more laborithere any effect of sound. These, then, ous ihan others, has invented a true sysare the acts of sensuous energies, which tem of all the powers which govern the require an internal or external sensa- body of a man: he is now in a condition tion to bring them into action.

to judge of the marks of these powers. Having assembled the actions proper For if he did not know the power, how to instinct under their several energies, could he know the marks by which it is and those of the intelligences under theirs, to be known ? Observing each until he I would then consider with the utmost has a perfect knowledge of it and knows care, the actions of reason, which it its mark, he will presently recognize a seems proper to name divine. These are, certain harmony of features or marks, those of justice, of religion, of honor, contributing to the beauty of the body: ambition, faith, and humaneness; as Rectitude will appear in a firmness and they are seen in government, the care of perpendicularity of the whole figurea household, worship, and the liberal vanity in a toss or lolling of the headarts; not forgetting the occupations of obedience, in a reverent inclination of ittrade and manufacture—for these must cruelty, in a cold and slow-moving eye be regarded as perfectly rational. When -sensuality in all its proper grossness. the energies of reason are known, and Thus, the actions of the man will have severally named, they may be elegantly given an idea of the powers which conarranged as the governors of the intelli- trol him; and the knowledge of these gences. Thus, over cunning and pru- powers will enable a perfect determinadence we may assign justice to be the tion of their proper features. By excelgovernor ; over love and anger, honor; lent combinations of these features, every over the sciences and liberal arts, obedi. degree of beauty, force and expression ence, or reverence for the best.

may be given to the work of the statuary. In like manner I would place the in Puid. It shall be my prayer to the telligences, love, passion, cunning, intel- Muses, O friend, that some one may inlect and fancy, to reign over the several vent, happily, the science of this art, groups of instincts. Having in this manner while I am yet alive. I can think of effected a perfect order and subordination nothing that carries with it a greater of the energies, all human actions would promise of utility, and that, too, not for fall into a harmony. The ways of God me only, or those who work in ivory or would then appear reasonable and just. brass, but for poets and orators, for Any imperfection of character might then teachers of youth, and ministers of the be assigned to its proper cause; and we Gods. should say of this and that character, not Soc. Say, then, Phidias, in what manthat it is intrinsically bad, but that certain ner you think it may be made profitable. faculties or energies are feeble or imper Phis. I would have the orators know fect in it—that it is deficient, for example, what power they address-whether the in the quality of anger, but has an abun- reason or the passion, the vanity or the dant prudence, which is better, and less justice, of the people. At present, they barbarous, than to call it "poltroon.” imagine that the people are incapable of And then, if any such characters should justice, and seldom venture to address that happen to exert a philosophy of their power. Our new science would convince own, leaving anger out of their system, them that every man is more or less ca.

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