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this theorist admits the necessity of by which the spirit is able to govern and external circumstances to develop these compel the right action of the body, powers, and says nothing of any spon. throws expression into the face, grace taneity in them. Now add the progres- into the motion, and, in fine, to perform sive to the Mulderian hypothesis, and the all the proper functions of a man, and not dead atoms are presently able to begin of an animal; this organ, whatever we life saving the help of a very little miracle. choose to name it, must be the specific And now the dust begins literally to mark of the human body. If the body crawl and grow. Parcels of ammoniacal, of an ape ever comes to be the body of carbonic and other particles coalesce to a human spirit, it must be by the addition make germs in every sea, and in every of this Element. Whether high feeding, damp soil.
or a warm climate, is likely to plant this Is there, then, an individuality of element in the bodies of apes, is a part of species, or do they differ only in degree? the question at issue. The other part is, If they differ in degree only, there seems whether there are certain rudiments of to be no reason why a species should this organ in apes, or in animalcules, or not go on improving by effect of mere even in dead matter. Or, lastly, whether warmth and nutriment; just as a tree creation proceeds by a miraculous supergrows, by favor of air and soil. But it induction of this moral quality upon the seems more agreeable to observation, if fætus of an ape, causing its sudden transwe conclude that species are a something formation to a human shape. quite fixed and immutable; and that no To extend this inquiry of species to growth of (one will improve it into an the inferior kinds—what is the specific other. A species may vary in size, and “element” by which a dog may be known in other particulars, through wide limits. from a wolf? The answer is, docility, Compare, for instance, the lap dog with fineness of temper, quickness and force the Newfoundland ; the garden rose with of affection. These qualities being by the wild kind; the cabbage with the cauli. no means accidental, but proper to the flower. But in these and all other cases, whole species of dog, distinguished from the difference is in degree, only. The the whole species of wolf, belong to it internal specific form remains unchanged. intrinsically, and appear in the whole There is no example of a change of one conformation, and in every habit of the species into another. Dogs become wild animal. Even the so-called wolf-dog is dogs, but not wolves. Varieties that not wolfish in disposition. The brain, diverge far from the type, are usually which is the least variable part of an feeble and perishable. Varieties of a animal, is for that reason the true mark species resuli from changes of tempera- of its species. The researches of Owen ture, food and habitat: as from hot to and other physiologists, show that the cold, from dry to moist, and the like. brain is the specific part of an animal. Mechanical causes can produce only If the brains of two animals have premechanical effects; the causes of organic cisely the same number and relation of variation may, therefore, affect the or- parts, though they differ considerably in ganism mechanically, but cannot change shape and size, like the brains of large it essentially. They may increase the and small dogs, the two animals will rebulk of cellular tissue, diminish the mus semble each other, and are one species. cular power, and variously affect the A conclusion not mathematical but anaquantities and activities of the parts ; but logical; like all physiological conclusions. they cannot add a new element to the If two birds, the two wood thrushes animal; they cannot make it a new for example, though alike in most parspecies.
ticulars, yet differ in habitat and song, it is But what do we mean by a new ele- a proof of a specific difference ; in other ment, and a new species? What is the words, of a difference of nervous and essence of a species—of the species man, cerebral anatomy. Their brains will be for example? The “ element” which found different; and this is the material distinguishes the body of a man from all mark of species to be looked for in them; other bodies, must be an organ of moral other parts, the bills of birds, teeth and conception, the material eye of spirit. claws of quadrupeds, scales and jaws Spirit cannot act without a body, nor of fish, are but secondary marks to see without an eye, nor feel and perform know species by; because they are no without muscles, nerves and brain. The more than instruments for the service of element of the material organ of thought the brain and nerves; these, in turn,
being organs of the Instinct and animal their operations, it shows us that the Soul.
forces which compose matter originate Add to the brain of a crow an organ in mathematical points, from wbich they for the sense of sweet sound, and to this act; some, like cohesion and elasticity, add the clear throat and physical power in a narrow sphere; others, like gravity of a singer-a new species would at once and electricity, through the whole uni. appear. Every part of the body, for the verse. And this is the characteristic of sake of unity, would undergo changes, dead matter, that every motion of its that all might be in harmony with the least particles is felt throughout infinite new organ.
Every trace of crow, in space. The universe is, in this manner, color, contour, habits and size, would made a whole, by electric, and other disappear, and a new species be created material presences, penetrating and emat a stroke; as in the birth of a human bracing, exciting and balancing each fætus from an ape. That any law of other in the void of space. In the body progress in the organism itself could ac of a plant or animal, these forces are all complish all this, is logically impossible; present—as chemistry and common sense the whole force of an organic body end- can prove to us; but something more, ing in self-perpetuation and self-perfec- also, is present: for the body of an anition. All the forces of an organic body mal is a world in itself, working continunite in the production of a germ, the ually to sustain and continue itself in its epitome of them all; and if the germ ex- proper shape, subordinating the simpler ceeds its parent, it is not by the possession laws of matter to the higher laws of its of any new power, but by the greater per own unity. The result in plants is, the fection of the old. Thus are species building up and continuance of a mere perpetuated, and remain ; because each form, without motion or sensation. This of their powers is able only to impress form varies with the number and proporits own, and no other quality upon the tion of its elementary tissues, producing germ. As far as they have been com- many species. The third step upward is pared, the germs of all species are pe- into the region of nervous or animated culiar and specifically marked from the matter ; a something more than form, first moment of their existence. As one having a motion guided by sense and species resembles and differs from an sensation, and a variety of intelligences, other, so their embryos resemble and from dark instinct to clear understanding. differ from each other.* Nor does an By senses and perceptions animal bodies inferior complete species ever more than are connected with the outer world, and superficially resemble the embryo or by powers of motion change their place fætus of a superior species; notwith. in it as necessity impels. The forces standing many analogies and seeming of their life subordinate alike, the forces resemblances between the stages of of dead matter, and those of organizafætal life and the gradation of species. tion: every action of an animal flowing It is contrary to all science, to assert from a relation between internal sensathat a species of quadruped is, at any tion and external sense, is connected and fætal stage, either an animalcule, a mol- embodied with the whole, making the lusk, or a fish; though, from the rudi- universe a “body” to itself. Thus we mental condition of the organs, it may find that while the dead matter is a sysresemble those forms, passing through a tem of itself, and each organism a system series of such resemblances. In the very within itself, the animal perception comgerm of each species lie all the elements bines both systems; reuniting the isoof its perfect form in their just propor- lated life with the Extended and the Entions, else would it never reach matu- during. The instrument of this reunion rity.
of the limited with the unlimited is the Here, under our feet, are the forces of Nervous Matter, the most complex and matter, heat, gravity, cohesion, impene. wonderful of created things. A wave trability. The aggregate of these forces of remote ether, a ray of a twinkling acting in their way, in rest or motion, star, the delicate pulses of air, the influwe name the “inanimate” world, or the ences of gravity, electricity, elastic force, “material ” world : Chemistry discovers the forms and colors of all things, are all the conditions of these powers, and impressed upon this tissue of tissues, concludes upon their mode of distribu- this body of bodies, this thing of things; tion in the universe. Reasoning upon not only impressed and felt, but harmo
* Annal de Science Naturelle--various papers on development.
nized with the internal condition of the legum, which we name Justice, Faith, body, and retained there as efficient im- Truth, and their attendants; by which ages, working in memory.
the Supreme becomes apparent in nature, The influences of the world thus flow subordinating all things, all instincts, all in upon the organism. It responds to intelligences—making Mind and Matter these influences; first, blindly and in the mere exponents of His will. stinctively; then, intelligently; and last Invested with such a property in matof all, rationally, under the guidance of ter, made ruler over passions and intellia spirit. That power, whatever be its gences, Man governs his body with a essence, which employs the body in mere sovereignty delegated from God. Reaoffices of necessity, we name Instinct. son, his State and Constitution, becomes Instinct in the bee, associates sun-light, his mark of kingship over the rabble of the heat of summer, and the aroma of impulsive and passionate. Reason, then, flowers, with the inner sensations of its is the harmony of Spirit with matter, body-resulting in the production of through a human organism. The acts honey, wax, and the whole economy of that flow from it, bear witness to its authe hive. Instinct must, therefore, be re. thority; for they regard not individugarded as one of the great powers of the als, nor particular interests, but solely world, operating by strict laws in such the immutable, Justice, Obedience and bodies as were created for it. The spe- Love. To those who profess rationality, cies of inferior animals are stamped with the “ marks of the species Man” will of its marks in their degrees.
course be clearly known, whether in acRising into the region of those intelli- tion or in feature; and equally apparent gences, which may be named the rulers will be those “ marks of the animal,” and of instincts, we find the species of animals of brute instinct, which it is the function marked with the qualities of the passions of reason to subordinate. To recapituand affections; with cunning, caution, late the argument on this question : and inventive foresight; with a mirthful whether by any saltus, or sudden periodfancy, a memory, and with something like ical progress of types, inferior animals an understanding.
can become men ; whether we find any As the powers of instinct moulded the “ law” in dead matter which moulds it to bodies of the inferior classes to subserve become a body for instincts, or for inteltheir specific ends, whether of food, of ligences, or for reason: or, whether the reproduction, or of motion and habitat; reverse is true, namely, that Creative so these superior energies mould a spe- power by a word originate each species, cies fitted to their ends, propagating the whether material or organic-causing races of intelligent animals. The pow. them at once to be in their perfection, ers of instinct served only to place the and sustaining them unchanged; whether body in a direct relation with objects—a the inferior may, by any“ law,” be made relation which ceased with the removal of to originate the superior ? the object. But intelligence has a fore First, then, to this last inquiry. There sight and remembrance—though limited is no authentic instance of the generato particulars and to individuals. The tion of an animal out of dead substances. love, the memory, the passion, of an ani. The infusory animalcules are not promal, though able to rule and subordinate duced in water when it is effectually proits instincts, have no universality. They tected from the air. The air is known to are seasonal, transient, periodical, and be a natural conveyer of the seeds of limited to individuals.
plants, the pollen of flowers, and the The third and last stage of organiza. sporules of fungi ; why not then of dry tion, in the body of rational Man, subor- animalcular germs, or even of animalcu. dinating instinct and intelligence, and les themselves ? 'The vorticella, and othputting the present existence of the er minute kinds, may be kept dry in sand body in a mysterious connection with a for an indefinite period. In that condipast and a future--this energy we name tion they are a light dust, movable in the organ of reason, the mark of “the every wind. If a marsh dries up in the species man;” an image of the Eternal sun, it must leave a fine “animalcular impressed upon the Transient; the Evi- dust” upon the soil, to be taken up and dence of an Immortality; the material transported by the least breath of air. witness of an immaterial Spirit. Swayed If probability ever mounts to certainty, by a spirit operating through this organ, this is certain—that the atmosphere is Man's body is enabled to become the in- charged with animalcular dust, ready to strument of the Great Powers; the leges be vivified with the touch of moisture.
Hence the sudden appearance of animal- plex, and sometimes an inverted one. As cules in drops of rain, in pools, in every it now happens that plutonic rocks are exposed surface of water. Animals take found, in some few instances, above the these germs in with their breath. Par secondary strata, in an order inverted, the ticular kinds may operate as poisons, and same may have easily held true of ani. become the cause of endemical and epi- mals; that some of a superior, would demical diseases—though this is but a appear in their place before others of an weak conjecture. There is no part of inferior species. But if the order of nathe human body inaccessible to them. ture is that of a progress, one species risEven in blood animalcules are always ing out of another, this could never happresent; though there is reason to be- pen. lieve that these and other parasites may The impossibility that one species be generated by the body itself—the infé- should, of itself, originate another, will rior by the superior.
be easily conceded; and it becomes neIn the instance of intestinal worms, cessary to introduce a law without a fact and particularly of cystoid animals found to support it, a nisus in the species, or a in diseased flesh, in the brain of sheep, special miracle working in the manner and in the viscera of all animals, there is described. But that the Maker should no clear objection against the hypothesis have simply caused a species, willing its of their generation by a diseased action appearance in its place, seems no more of the part. The superior may be easily miraculous than that he should have admitted to produce the inferior ; though willed matter to exist, or that he should we allow the converse to be impossible. continue to will its existence, or choose The flesh of a highly organized animal to manifest his will by “laws,” so called, is capable of producing in itself a germ " of matter.” If we consider what is of its own species, susceptible of vivifi meant by “a miracle,” it seems to be a cation. Why should it not be able, in departure from the laws or order of matter; the diseased state, to originate obscure but the creation of matter itself is no despecies, of the lowest grade? To admit parture from “ laws of matter," nor is the that intestinal worms may be originated, creation of a perfect man—by the fiat of male and female, in the diseased body of Deity-either in accordance with, nor yet an insect or quadruped, is not to admit a departure from, the laws of nature. It anything in favor of that hypothesis is wonderful, stupendous, ineffable, but which creates animals out of dust by not“ miraculous.” force of electricity; or which places la And so of all species. A very weak tent in the germ of a monkey the moral objection has been offered, as though element of a man.
creative power should not condescend to Broadly, and without fear of contra- create vermin. They were made, then, diction, the naturalist may deny that any by a law, lest the creative power be disinferior species has been seen to ripen graced ! But mere atoms of matter are into one superior. There is no fact of clearly a less creditable work than a worm this kind. There is guess, conjecture, or a mushroom, which, if one looks fairly enough ; but no fact, not one. But what at them, are very elegant objects—beauis to be thought of a hypothesis founded tifully and amazingly contrived. Lookupon sheer vacuity-upon nothing ? ing upon man from a certain height of
That the order of creation began with speculation, even he is but a kind of the inferior animals, and rose through a creeping thing;” and, in that sense, as scale of species, ending in man, must be a much a disgrace to nature as any worm false opinion ; for the lowest of all the can be. He was created as he is, with parasitic tenants of the human body must all his members, some for honor and have appeared last of all, even after the some for dishonor; but he is not ashamcreation of that body. And so of the ed of his Maker on that account. whole tribe of intestinal worms, animal A word in regard to the famous nebucules of warm blood, and the great vari- lar hypothesis. We know, without aid ety of parasitic kinds. The fish-louse of prophecy, that this hypothesis can came after the fish, the whale-barnacle never be established, unless by a message after the whale. The fungi of dead from the stars. Those nebulæ that apwood are later, in a natural order, than the pear as light clouds in the interstellar forest trees; and so of a multitude of spaces, may possibly be composed of others.
stars—a fatal possibility: Creation does not appear to have hap Meanwhile a real difficulty lies before pened in a simple order, but in a very com- the whole notion of a visible nebulous
matter. The light of the sun, and all lation. The intellect is put through its other spontaneous light, is known to purgation, and will be rid of the very proceed either from a solid or a liquid shadow of a mystery. It will have all mass; or, rather, a solid or liquid mass things traced back to their “ beginnings," is necessary to its existence. The sun
and never rests till, seemingly, it puts a must be either a solid or a liquid mass, girdle about the universe, a girdle of though its light proceed from electric or darkness. Here is a spirit quite differother aura about its surface. Rarefied ent from the scepticism of true science, air, on the contrary, gives out little or no founded in a distrust of human intellect; light. If nebulous matter be anything at a feeling of its inability to grasp the all, it is mere gas. A nebula composed of whole. The first kind is ever on a sea such gases as are known upon the earth, of speculation, sailing by some meteor would not give out the light of fixed light of a nisus, or factless law. The stars, the light of suns, or of the milky- other, distrustful of all appearances, way. And if the nebular light is like looks upon nature as a veil covering the the sun's light, we must think that there face of God. Presuming not to penetrate are solid bodies, solar spheres, to support his mystery, it is content with what is it. And so the nebular dream vanishes given to sense. The former mistakes into mere absurdity.
fancy for reality, the symbol for the Meanwhile, though we reject the ne- thing symbolized; the ideal for the real; bular hopothesis, nothing hinders a sup, and the nature in the thought for the nature position of vast bodies of uncondensed in the sense. Nay, it puts a factitious gases, floating apart or gathered about dream, for the Eternal Person, converting incipient solar systems in the vast of the Maker into a mechanist, the producer space. Nor would the vortical theory of the substance, into an artificer with of our world's creation have been rejected tools. so rudely, founded as it is upon excel True science rather sports with ideas, or lent proofs, if it had not come attended shapes them for certain uses, or for symby a load of false conclusions, as of a bols, but will by no means fall down and foolish “fire mist,” which is another worship its work. Both the true and word for “rarefied air.” Of “a law” the false invent theories; and we know going on from the creation of worlds by that on their right invention and use vortices, to that of species by a “ • law of hangs the whole progress of man: to know progress;” of God's being disgraced by and use them must be the part of all creating vermin; of men originating by who advance that progress; to feign and slow degrees from monkeys, “ a mode, abuse them, of all who retard it. By the indeed, to be ashamed of! with a crowd continuance of peace, and liberty of all of like absurdities following, pel!-mell, opinion, the natural tendency to ideal. at the heels of a nebular hypothesis, and ize and spiritualize has gained a leisure ending like that in mere vapor.
and a growth far exceeding any hope of Touching the reception of these books, antiquity. From a boundless curiosity the Vestiges and its Sequel, a cry of heaping up mountains of information, we atheism has been very loud against them, are come to a desire of using and assimas if it were a mark of atheism to reduce ilating what is gathered. The natural all things to “ a law.” Yes, that is the upward striving of the mind leaves us charge! As if none but a denier of God's unsatisfied short of a perfect reconciliaBeing would insist on the preservation of tion with nature; that the ways of God Order in God's Work, or insist that he may be vindicated in his work. We produced all things out of matter. But wish to accord with the Harmonist, and our author goes free on that charge; for be established with Fate. 'Tis the most that is no denial of a cause, which seeks urgent desire of the soul; to know the only the form and method of its working. reason of things, and their ends ;- not
That a charge of unbelief in the super. those little secondary ends, as of a tongue natural, and of a desire in general to for speech, and an eye for seeing, which shake off the whole idea of a super are obvious, but of the subordination of natural, may not be made good against matter to spirits, of the laws of nature these books, seems not so sure; but to to the laws of reason. By this desire assert this even without a deliberate in though we fall, yet by this also we rise vestigation would be unjust. A hatred again; as by steps attaining divine of mystery, and of the inconceivable, knowledge: 'Or rather, by humility in goes along with a love of scientific specu- search in attaining the sense of high