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Saltem, si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset ness of the reproach seems to us finely Ante fugam soboles ; si quis mihi parvulus characteristic ; although this very cir. aula
cumstance, we believe it was, that moved Luderet Æneas, qui te tantum ore referret; the heavy industry of the commentators &c. &c.
to seek the substitute for “tantum” which “Had you deferred, at least, your hasty we have been discussing. But Virgil flight,
probably was of the prevalent, however And left behind some pledge of our delight, allant, opinion, that such is naturally Some babe to bless the mother's mournful woman's pique: and a queen is still a
sight, Some young Æneas to supply your place,
woman-especially a queen in love.] Whose features might express his father's
To leave this enormous parenthesis :
we have remarked that the language face, &c. &c."
and wish of Dido was entirely in char[By the by, why does Professor An- acter, as well as in nature. She desires thon, from whose edition we transcribe, the solace of a living image of the lover adopt the stupid reading of tamen for she is to see no more. Here the situa“ tantum ?” Tamen is a relative term, tion of Campbell's heroine necessitates and it is preceded here in the sentence by an awkward departure from his original, nothing upon which it can be construed Gertrude wishes the solace, not for herto bear. Its reference then, if it have self, who in fact is the party leaving, not any, must be sought in the general tenor the deserted; she consequently has to of the discourse; as if Dido, winding up wish her own the image to be transmither upbraidings of the faithless Trojan ted in the “one dear pledge.” This with the wish that he had left with her, seems, indeed, more unselfish ; but we for her consolation, an offspring of their have a great deal of doubt that it is quite love, should add : “ qui tamen, who yet so natural. -that is, notwithstanding your perfidy More obviously questionable, how. would retain to me your image.” But ever, is the propriety of the imitation at this interpretation seems to us strained, all. Diversity of times, ranks, circumin the first place, and in the second, stances have not been duly considered. tautologous, the expression “ parvulus Dido had a double prerogative of free exÆneas” implying sufficiently this resem- pression; she was a widow and a queen. blance. Tamen then, would, in grammar Gertrude was a newly-wed and a country and sentiment, be unworthy of even (nay, desert) bred girl
. The earlier Ro. Campbell, not to say of Virgil.
man manners were less corruptly fasBut what can have been the objection tidious than ours; add to which the to the established reading, “ tantum ?” dignified frankness of the Latin tongue. It not only has a meaning much more Whereas, with the modern manners and plain and proper than tamen-it has two the prudery of our English dialect, the of thein; and, what more rarely happens, mere expression of such a desire would both equally natural, according as you appear to be of more than doubtful delisuppose the one or the other of the fol- cacy, in a woman of the lowest refinelowing dispositions to be that of Dido: ment, or of the highest rank. Upon the If we take her to design conciliation, or whole, then, we do not fear to pronounce merely to yield to her tenderness, “ tan- this lengthy “ address” of Gertrude no tum” will signify so much as, at least, in better than a clever school-boy represencountenance. Or 'it may, on the other tation of book-learned sentiment; evinchand, be dictated by resentment; and then ing certainly, (or we are greatly misinthe sense of “ tantum ore,” &c., will be formed,) no very deep or nice acquaintance -who should resemble, but only in face, with the female heart. his faithless father. The latter construc In compensation of the preceding striction has our own preference, for two rea tures, and in order to quit Campbell sons: it seems to accord happily with the good-humoredly with a smile—or more import above assigned to Dido's employ- flattering still to a poet's memory, as to ment of the name Æneas, as implying the his vanity, with a tear-we subjoin a paternal likeness; but which her pride, passage entirely worthy of even the exalarmed lest she should be thought weak aggerated fame which we have sought to enough to include the moral qualities, correct, not to disparage, and which, all hastens to modify by restricting the re- things considered, is perhaps one of the semblance to the physical features. The best-earned in these times of factitious second reason is, that the silly spiteful- and whimsical reputations:
“Hushed were his Gertrude's lips! but we do not hesitate to answer. As Ficstill their bland
tion, as Philosophy, as Eloquence it may, And beautiful expression seemed to melt of course, and commonly does, so rank; With love that could not die ! and still his but these merits would be referred to
hand She presses to the heart no more that felt. this as in most cases, view the nature of
their proper classes, if men did not, in Ah, heart! where once each fond affection dwelt,
things through their popular titles. We And features yet that spoke a soul more might pursue this induction indefinitely, fair,” &c.
where the sentiment of mankind seems
to confirm our position; and we may reTo conclude. The fundamental, and as sume it on some future occasion. Is not we conceive a fatal, defect of Campbell, Sappho as immortal, aye, and as exalted was want of passion: he had all the ac
(see Longinus) in her ode of some twenty cessories which accomplish a poet. Ex. lines, as Homer in his Odyssey and Iliad? actly the reverse is Mrs. Welby's case. What makes the Iliad itself unapproachUsing few or none of the aids from intel- ably the first of Epics ? Because it is lect or art, she is the very creature of the only one that has been produced by passion-passion, indeed, in those its Passion, in exclusion of Thought and Art. gentler moods, which take the names of Because it was composed at a stage in the Feeling and Fancy ; but, nevertheless, mental development of mankind, when passion pure and perennial. And thus this exclusion was not only entirely are we conveniently brought back to the practicable, but even necessary. And main object of the discussion ; this rather hence the literal truth of what Butler long excursion from which, will be meant for satire, speaking of those found, we hope, a digression only in learned critics, appearance.
Passion as the efficient, Pleasure as the effect, these are, then, the
“ Who beauties view
In Homer, Homer never knew." two poles upon which revolves the poet's world. We foresee a thousand objec- He only felt them. Is not this obsertions to this, of course, and are sensible vation, by the way, of some force against that in truth the narrowness of our the anti-Homeric theory of Vico, and after original plan, as well as of our general him of Wolffe and other philological limits, has not permitted the needful de- antiquaries, which rests mainly on the velopment of the principle. We can now, assumed improbability, that poems of so however, but entreat reflection upon what much merit should have been composed has been suggested, and add a remark or by an individual, in so rude an age? This two to aid it.
rudeness of the age would, in our idea, Descriptive Poetry has always ranked be an aid, instead of an obstacle. As as the lowest grade of the art: the most of those words which are to us now reason is, it does not freely combine figurative, were, indubitably literal in (so to speak) with Passion. Yet we those early ages, so those conceptions have seen the note-book of a tourist, which appear to us efforts of imagiEuropean tourist, 100-a thing as re- nation, or combinations of intellect, were pulsive to the Muse, one would think, vivid realities of sensation, the vigorous
a lawyer's brief-turned into one perceptions of passion-peculiarly exof the finest poems in any language: cited, perhaps, by the beautiful climate need we name “Childe Harold.” By of Homer--in the glowing adolescence what alchemy has this been effected ? It of our race. This is the career of mancan have been but by the poetical mag- from the concrete to the abstract. It alone netism, or magic, of Passion. Have explains the beautiful fabric of Heathen not his love-sonnets placed Petrarch by mythology. But to show how, would ask the side of Tasso and Dante : Abstract a volume, and we cannot afford a page. the episodical Fourth Book, describing Poetry then is Passion ;- because pasthe loves of Dido, and who will read the sion is the vitality of the soul, the energy Æneid a second time, for pleasure? What of humanity, the reality, in fine, of the has preserved the sprightly frivolities of man. Whereas Thought addresses itself Anacreon amid a wreck which lost us but to the understanding; which is, in a some three-fourths of the most precious great degree, a thing factitious, superintreasures of ancient genius? Only the duced, extraneous (so to speak) to our amber of Passion, surely. Is it, you cry, essential personality, and formed only to that an Epic is not to take rank above a conduct us through the hollow masque. Madrigal ? Not necessarily, as Poetry; rade of external life.
THE ACTING STAGE-MRS. MOWATT.
[We have seen too little of Mrs. Mowatt's acting to be able to judge in all respects of the following criticism. The remarks, however, are from a thoroughly able critic. We observe by the papers, that Mrs. Mowatt has had unprecedented success in Southern cities; and we understand that practice has enabled her very greatly to improvewhere some had judged her to be defective-in the externals of acting. Such a deficiency results merely from a partial inacquaintance with stage business; but it is, in any case, of little consequence compared with the high excellences of spiritualized, ideal characterization.-Ed.]
The passion for stage representations but imperfectly developed in her writings, is almost universal. It has withstood and that her genius was more especially all the attacks which the abusers of the calculated for the stage than for any other drama have, in every age, excited ; and field in which her fine and rare powers it does not seem to have lost any vigor could be exercised. We happened to be by the changes of time. It is really ca present on the evening of her first appable of being made an instrument of the pearance, and received there a new im. highest and most refined pleasure. pression of her imaginative power, and Through the theatre, the great works of singular depth, intensity and subtlety of some of the world's greatest poets are feeling. She trod the stage with a seem. introduced to the people, and brought ing unconsciousness of the presence of home to the eye and the heart with pe an audience, and appeared to possess, not culiar vividness and power. To be a merely the power to produce an illusion good actor is a distinction limited to a in the minds of others that she was the very few. The person who can act character she embodied, but to be under Hamlet or Macbeth, Juliet or Cordelia, the influence of that illusion herself—the so as to impress large multitudes with a greatest merit that can be awarded to an new sense of their beauty and power, is actress on her début. entitled to no small amount of the ad The great merit of Mrs. Mowatt's act. miration and respect we award to intel- ing, and the highest merit of any acting, lectual achievement of late, it appears is the force and refinement of imaginato us, there has been a fresh interest tion she displays in the embodiment of taken in theatrical exhibitions ; and as it character. Her mind, we should judge, seems to be a settled point that there will is uncommonly flexible and fluid, and be a theatre in every large city, every- rises or falls into the moulds of character thing which indicates a revival of the with singular ease. She reproduces the true dramatic spirit, everything which creation of the poet in her own imaginaexhibits the theatre in a favorable light, tion-makes all its thoughts and emoshould excite no common pleasure. tions real to herself- stamps on the ex.
In view of this, it is with peculiar sat pression of each the peculiar individuality isfaction that we hail the appearance of she is representing, and loses all sense an actress, who brings to the stage the of herself in the vividness of her realizadelicacy of feeling and the graces of mind tion of the part. She ensouls as well as and manner, nurtured and developed in embodies her characters.
This gives private life. Previous to her debut last vital life to her personation, and distinsummer, Mrs. Mowatt had been favor, guishes her from all those who merely ably known as an authoress. Her con- avail themselves of the mechanical contributions, in verse and prose, to various trivances of elocution. A vivifying soul periodicals, her comedy of “ Fashion," pervades and animates her acting, and and her novel of “ Evelyn,” displayed a makes itself “ felt along the heart” of brilliant, versatile and observing mind, her audience. By conceiving character with a fine feminine perception both of in the concrete, ihrough the instinctive the serious and ludicrous in character processes of imagination, she preserves and feeling. But giving all due credit to the unity of character amid all the variety her literary compositions, no one could of its manifestation. This can never be see her act, without deciding at once that done by the mere understanding. The she possessed capacities which had been custom of some actors, of deducing, by
logical rules, the character from the text, In the last act of “The Bride of Lam. and then personating that deduction, mermoor,” and, especially, in the fourth makes their acting mechanical and life. act of “Romeo and Juliet,” these latent less, and leaves on the mind of the hearer capacities of voice are developed with no unity of impression. This individu. wondrous effect. The exquisite beauty ality is especially difficult to preserve in and purity of her voice, however, are those characters, in whom there is going best evinced in the expression of sention, through the play, a process of change ment and pathos—in the clear, bird-like or development—whose minds are modi- carol of tone with which she gives utterfied by new positions and new motives ance to inward content and blissfulness -and in whom we trace the stream in the expression of affection gushing diof the same individual being from the rectly from the heart, or springing from moment it is first ruffled by passion to it in wild snatches of music-in the the period when it sweeps and rushes on sportive and sparkling utterance of with the mad impetuosity of a torrent. thoughts and feelings steeped in the The difference between understanding a heart's most gladdening sunshine—and part and conceiving it, measures the dif. in that wide-wandering remoteness of ference between the actor of talent and tone which gives a kind of unearthly the actor of genius. We may admire the significance to objects viewed through first, but we are conquered and borne the mystical light of imagination. away by the second. The actor of ima A few remarks on some of the characgination also performs with more subtlety, ters in which Mrs. Mowatt appears will, gives more pertinence to all the refine we hope, justify the high estimate we ments of the author's meaning, and fuses have expressed of her capacity, by a ref. the different parts into a more propor- erence to facts gathered from a scrutiny tioned and concrete whole, than can pos- of her acting in each. One of her most sibly be done by the most patient actor pleasing and popular personations is who follows the method of the under. Pauline, in Bulwer's “Lady of Lyons.” standing. As the understanding never In this we do not think she has even a yet created character, so it can never re rival. No actress that we have seen, present it. It will always work“ from English or American, approaches her in the flesh inwards, instead of from the this character. Her conception of it is heart outwards."
fresh and original, and in its embodiment In the most important intellectual re she supplies even the deficiencies of the quisite of acting, we therefore think Mrs. author, who is not much skilled in char. Mowatt to be preëminently gifted ; and acterization. Though we, by no means, from the extreme ductility of her imagi- think that her Pauline is a fair measure nation, she is capable of indefinite im- of her powers, her representation of the provement in her profession, and of em- part more than exhausts its whole capa. bodying, eventually, almost all varieties city of effectiveness. She has seized, of character. To this great mental ad- with the intuitive quickness of imaginavantage she joins singular advantages of tion, what Bulwer aimed to produce in person. Her form is slight, graceful and the delineation of Pauline, and converted flexible, and her face fine and pure, with his intention into a living, breathing realthat strangeness in the expression which ity. In the third, fourth and fifth acts Bacon deemed essential to all beauty. of the play, her acting is characterized In personal appearance she is altogether by great force, refinement and variety. the most ideal-looking woman we ever In the expression of that confusion of saw on the stage. Her voice well justic mind and motives, produced by a conflict fies the impression which would be re of antagonist passions, each maddening ceived from her appearance. In its gen- the brain and tugging at the heart-strings, eral tone it is the perfection of clear her whole action is masterly and original. sweetness, and is capable of great variety Scorn, contempt, love, hatred, shame, of modulation. She does not seem her- fear, hope, pride, humility, despair, meet self aware of all its capabilities, or fully and part, and chase each other in tumultto have mastered its expression. In pas uous succession; every emotion, as it sages of anguish, fear, horror, pride, sweeps abruptly across her heart, mirsupplication, she often brings out tones, rored in her face, speaking in her geswhich seem the very echoes of the hearts ture-giving significance to every moveemotions, and which indicate the most ment of her frame. The whole personaremarkable powers of vocal expression. tion, commencing with the vain, proud,
romantic girl-conducting her through and movement, with which she animates shame and mortification to the very verge every part—the unconscious tact with of despair and death-her heart, after its which she gives continually the impresfirst mad burst of rage, becoming the sion that, beneath all the vixenish outmore beautiful and noble the more it is breaks of the proud girl, there dwells crushed, and finally ending, after her purity and goodness of heart—make long ordeal of sorrow, in happiness and her personation of the character one of love-is most powerful and effective. the most delightful we ever witnessed. The character, as Mrs. Mowatt performs Throughout the play there is nothing to it, gives considerable play to a variety of interrupt the feeling of pleasure which emotions, ranging from ihe most grace. she gives from the first. No person can ful sentiment to deep passion, and is have an idea of the variety of her actalso full of ravishing beauties. In the ing, and the singular flexibility of her second act, she displays that singular mind, without seeing her in two widely power of expressing insight in the world different characters Juliana and Juliet. of imagination, which, in its various Each of these she represents to the life, modifications by circumstance and char- and yet, from her acting in one, none acter, lends a charm to all her persona- could suppose her capacity to impersonate tions. When Claude describes his im- the other. aginary gardens by the Lake of Como, One of Mrs. Mowatt's most pathetic she sees them as realities before her personations, is Mrs. Haller, in “The eyes—is blind to everything else; her Stranger.". This, to be appreciated, face has that fine indefiniteness of look should be judged by comparison with her which represents the triumph of the sens Mariana, in Knowles' play of “ The uous imagination over the senses—the Wife." The latter, as represented by bloom and fragrance of the flowers, and Mrs. Mowatt, is most exquisite for its the musical gush of the waterfalls, are moral beauty. It leaves on the heart the only objects before her mind—and and imagination an impression of sweether whole soul seems absorbed in a soft ness, simplicity, purity, devotedness and and delicious dream. The effect is most heroism, which cannot be forgotten. exquisite, and it is so perfect that its Though, in this character, she is not so meaning cannot but flash on the dullest perfect as in many others, in the minor and least imaginative auditor.
graces of stage effect, it is still one of her In the characters of Lady Teazle, Juli. very best parts, and one in which she ana, and “ The Duchess,” Mrs. Mowatt will eventually gain great fame. The exshows great talent for genteel Comedy. treme subtlety of her imagination, and Her Lady Teazle, played here last sum- her capacity 10 represent feeling of the mer to Placide's Sir Peter, was capital. most ideal purity, are finely shown in it. The Duchess, in “Faint Heart Never We never appreciated the beauty of this Won Fair Lady,” is a part to which she character until we saw Mrs. Mowatt emdoes full justice, and she makes it very body it. The contrast between Mariana effective and brilliant. Juliana, however, the Wife, and Mrs. Haller the wife, as it in Tobin's “ Honeymoon," is her best appears in her personation of both, is felt character in comedy. This gives more to be as great as it is in nature. In Mrs. scope to her powers than the others. Haller there is a stifled, broken-hearted Her personation of it comes very near sorrow and repentance for guilt comperfection. The felicity with which she mitted ; in Mariana there is hardly the keeps to the truth of character, is well consciousness of the idea of guilt. Her illustrated in this part. Juliana is sub- mind is one of those " sacred fountains” ject to some of the same passions and of purity, weaknesses as Pauline, though her indi. viduality is different. Mrs. Mowatt
“Which, though shapes of ill never suggests the character of the one
May hover round its surface, glides in light,
And takes no shadow from them.” in her representation of the other. Love, pride, shame, as she acts them in Pauline, The last scene of the play, in which have little in common with the same Mariana recognizes her brother, and the feelings as they appear in Juliana—so long, intense and soul-absorbing gaze strong is her sense of the individuality of with which she watches the last traces emotion. Her brisk, bright, sparkling of vitality in his dying 'face, is almost acting in Tobin's peevish and shrewish sublime in its affectionateness. heroine--the quickness of tone, gesture The character of Lucy Ashton, in the VOL. II-NO. II.