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cerned in the production of wool, he display what he could do. When themes brought to this subject all the knowledge, of ordinary interest were before the and confidence, and zeal which personal House, he was little disposed to hinder interest gives. The argument was worthy action by speaking. Yet once more, in of note for its clearness and cogency, and January, 1833, he again made a speech the aptness of his abundant illustrations. on the tariff, in which he took a more It had the fault, if fault it be, of being general view of that subject, and which, too purely an argument, or rather too as marked with his usual ability, was abstract, for the place even in which it thought worthy of being given to the was delivered. As a specimen of rea- public. soning, admirable as it was, it was per On his retirement from the House of haps better fitted for careful consideration Representatives, as he imagined, to the in the closet than to sway the delibera- quiet of his farm and the more congenial tions of a popular assembly, where flashes business of his profession, his services of eloquence and bursts of passion are were found too valuable to the State to more likely to be appreciated than a be dispensed with; and he was appointed, course of continuous thought. The lat- in October, 1835, by the executive of that ter, indeed, is in some respects of a higher commonwealth, the agent to prosecute order, and implies, which the other does the Massachusetts claim. To this most not, something of what he used to say difficult business he devoted much time was the true sense of Demosthenes' triple and labor. After all the attention which rule of “action”—mental action, per- others, his predecessors, bad bestowed petual onwardness. The disposal of the on it, there remained an arduous task for Îndian tribes, a subject which agitated him. A huge variety of documents were the public mind very deeply for several to be consulted, cases almost forgotten in years, and engaged the anxious attention the lapse of time to be vindicated, princiof Congress, was one which appealed too ples to be discussed and settled, and the strongly to his sense of justice, and to whole to be arranged for a jealous scru. all his sympathies with humanity, to be tiny. This was done by him, and the lightly regarded by Mr. Bates. He en entire subject presented repeatedly, with tered zealously into the plans that were great clearness and force, to the War devised to prevent their removal beyond Department. The honor, no less than the Mississippi. He carefully investi. the interest, of his native State was ingated their title to the lands they occu. volved in his success, and he spared no pied, and found it valid. He regarded pains to bring it to a prosperous issue. with deep indignation the attempts which He at length, in December, 1837, obtained were made to bribe and coerce them from from Mr. Poinsett, then Secretary of War, their birthright. He held the faith of a report to the House of Representatives treaties sacred, and mourned over the favorable to the allowance of the claim, threatened violation of our national honor. and finally from the House a partial apHe sought by every means to avert what propriation. While engaged in this busi. he deemed so melancholy a consumma ness, and away from home, he was nom. tion. Among those who eloquently re inated by the Whig convention of Hampmonstrated against this measure, his voice shire county their candidate for the Senate was none of the feeblest. In May, 1830, of that Staté. On his return he promptly he presented his views to the House, in declined the nomination, as the duties of a speech in which the legal merits of the that station would interfere with the question were most ably set forth, and execution of his commission. the iniquitous wrongfulness of their en In 1839 he was chosen a delegate from forced exile from the burial-grounds of Massachusetts to the convention which their fathers most feelingly portrayed—a met at Harrisburg, in December of that speech not inferior, in the full grasp of year, to select a candidate for the Presithe subject and in completeness of argu- dency of the United States. He was ment, to any which grew out of that great elected to preside over that body, during national interest, and which closed with its preliminary organization; and though a brief strain of lofty sentiment, and entirely without experience of such a burning rebuke, and subduing pathos, post, (and the choice of one so unused hardly surpassed in any oration of mod. was a token of their ample confidence,) ern times. The excitement of the occa- he performed its delicate duties with great sion called out all his powers, and he courtesy, promptness of decision and perhaps needed such an excitement to firmness. He was afterwards one of the
vice presidents of the convention. The ings of personal interest. We need only result of their deliberations was the nom- allude to a few touching remarks which ination of General Harrison. The desire he offered to the Senate in June, 1842, and hope of Mr. Bates had been that the on the bill for the relief of the widow of nomination might be given to another, General Harrison ; to a speech pregnant to whose hands he would gladly have with noble feelings on a motion to refer confided the destinies of the country; yet the plan of a fiscal agent;" and to one such was the great interest at stake, and delivered June 6th, 1842, "on the dissuch the need of unanimity in the Whig tricting clause of the apportionment bill,” counsels, that, with many others, he felt which was a fine specimen of constitubound to sacrifice his own preferences, tional interpretation. In February, 1844, and acquiesce in the decision of the ma- he embraced the opportunity given by jority; and on his return he did much to Mr. McDuffie and Mr. Woodbury, to reconcile the people of New England to address the Senate “in defence of the a result so unlike their anticipations. In Protective System.” It was a most able the summer of 1840 he was chosen one defence, urged by arguments derived from of the electors at large, and, with the the history and origin of that system, its college, gave bis vote for what all saw present
vital necessity to the prosperity was now inevitable, and which he now of the Eastern States, its general influence believed was for the best.
on the morals and happiness of their In the autumn of the same year, as he people, and its intrinsic fitness to our had been the year before, he was chosen national condition. It was marked by one of the Executive Council; and a va- his usual perspicuity and force, by causcancy occurring in the Senate of the tic though courteous retort, and by much United States by the resignation of Gov. epigrammatic point and brevity of expresDavis, he was elected by the Legislature, sion, while it gave utterance to large and January 15th, 1841, for the remainder of statesmanlike views of public policy. It his term, and also for the six years from was delivered in a style of animated and the ensuing March. This election, en- impressive elocution, and excited much tirely unsought, and spontaneous on the admiration. It was not answered. So part of those who made it, and simply a highly was this speech esteemed as a tribute to his abilities and worth, was vindication of that great feature of our highly gratifying and honorable. He policy, that large editions of it were immediately took his seat in that body; printed for general circulation. Not less and with a mind trained by long experi. than thirty thousand were distributed in ence, he entered at once on the duties of Connecticut alone, and great numbers in that high office as if he had been familiar Pennsylvania. with them all. None there were more During the summer of 1844, the whole honest and steadfast to their sense of country was stirred with the activities of duty, more high-minded and self-sacri- a Presidential election. Mr. Bates parficing for the public good, than he; and took more than he was wont of the genthough many were more widely known, eral excitement. Such was his concepthere were few more intelligent to under- tion of the great interests depending on stand the right, or more resolute in its the issue of that struggle, and such his defence. Here he continued to act on confidence in the great man to whom he the same habit of abstinence from efforts looked for a safe and honorable adminto display himself, which had marked his istration of national affairs, that, as inwhole career-a habit not common in deed the leading spirits of the time were this forth-putting age, and which his doing, he suffered himself to be drawn friends used to complain of as the only from his seclusion, and was persuaded to hindrance to his earlier and more com- lend the influence of his eloquence to seplete success. The speeches which he cure the election of his favorite candimade in the Senate were mostly very date. He was often summoned from a brief, pertinent to the occasion, and yet distance to address large audiences on distinguished by their terseness of ex this exciting theme. The speech which pression and condensed fullness of mean- he gave to the “ Young Deus Whig ing; and some of them betrayed glimpses A-sociation” was the only one of them of the old Roman temper—a spirit of pa- that was published, excepi by newspaper triotism which scorned, in comparison reporters; and it is believed that few, of with the claims of country, all sectional the many which that canvass called out, and party preferences, and all the prompt- presented a fairer statement oi the princi
ples involved in it, or a more manly as they had delighted to honor. Not one sertion of the claims of the Whig party was there in that large community who to success. The election resulted in the did not feel, when the news of the sad defeat of Mr. Clay:
event reached him, that he had lost one Deeply disappointed, though not dis- whom he himself could ill afford to spare. heartened, by this untoward event, Mr. When the messengers of the Senate bearBates repaired to Washington at the ing his remains had arrived at the borders opening of the session. He had taken of the State, they were met by a company leave of his family in more than his usual of gentlemen, who escorted the body in health, and entered on his duties with solemn procession to his late home. his accustomed alacrity. But he had al- When they entered the village at night, ready passed that period of life when the telling of the bells admonished all labor is pleasure, and the anxieties and that he whom they had loved was refatigues of that session gradually under- turned to leave them no more. On the mined his strength. The Annexation of day of the funeral, all shops were closed, Texas had again been vehemently pressed and every hill and valley in that wide on the attention of Congress, and as the region poured forth its multitudes to join time for acting on it in the Senate drew in the last sad offices to the dead. Had near, his solicitude to avert it became in his colleague seen the universal sorrow, tense. Nothing but a feeling of the foul he could not have more truly portrayed it iniquity and danger of that measure could than he did. “ When information of his have induced him, exhausted and enfee- death,” said Mr. Webster, “shall reach bled as he was, to employ his remaining the beautiful village in which he lived, strength in a final effort at resistance. it will be a day of general grief. I see He was called to close the debate; and many an aged and venerable form, known he did so in a speech, whose eloquent to me, and better known to him, Jeaning appeals for his country's honor and tremulously on his staff, and shedding safety will be long remembered by those copious tears at the sad intelligence. who heard them. The effort, protracted see the middle-aged pause in their purlong beyond his wish by the refusal of suits, to regret the death of a neighbor, the Senate to adjourn, and yet sustained an adviser and a friend. I see the youth, by the deep enthusiasm of the hour, was of both sexes, lamenting that the mansion more than he could bear. He was in his always open to their innocent associaplace again the following day, and that tions, always made instructive by the night was seized with a violent pulmo- kindness and conversation of its head, is nary fever, which defied medical skill, now closed against its accustomed visitand in a few days all was over. He ors by the stroke of death; and I hear died March 16, 1845. To his associates the solemn tones which shall call afflicted in the Senate his loss was a severe families and an afflicted neighborhood shock—not only as the sudden taking into the house of God, to pay respect to one from their number, but as the sun his memory, and to supplicate the consodering of a private affection. He had lations of religion.” not an enemy among thein, and none Not only the people in the midst of were more warmly loved. He had won whom he dwelt, and the happy family their confidence, and they mourned for whom this bereavement has so sorely afhim as for a friend.
flicted, but the whole country may well Among his neighbors and friends at lament the death of such a man. And home Mr. Bates had always commanded the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, an almost unbounded love and venera rich as she is in able and faithful men, tion; he had been the friend of the poor, has few so worthy as he whom she has the defender of the oppressed, the frank, lost.
H. honorable, noble-minded man, whom Newbern, N. C.
THE TRUE PRINCIPLE OF POETRY.
CAMPBELL'S AND “AMELIA'S” POEMS ON THE RAINBOW COMPARED.
[The following observations from an able contributor are given, as affording some views, which many may agree with, on one side of the much-disputed question—What is Poetry? That we do not, ourselves, mainly agree with the sentiments expressed, is of little consequence, since opinions on the subject have always been so various. We have contented ourselves at present, with marking two or three important points of dissent in a note.-Ed.]
The comparison of two or more poems, cient, or by Vida, Boileau, Pope, in more as indeed of any other subjects to be in- modern times. telligible or even possible, implies two pre Poetry is a supplement to the reality requisites. It should first appear that the of life, and relates to the imagination, acthings to be compared are rightly referred cording to Lord Bacon-himself no mean to a common category or class, and, in poet, were this bis description receivable. order to this-secondly, What may be the Poetry says, or sings Campbell (Gernature of the general subject, and what trude of Wyoming) “ is the eloquence of its criterion of excellence.
truth.” Well, so is oratory, properly, the But these preliminaries, though indis- eloquence of truth. So is music, too; pensable in a regular dissertation on Poe at least in a qualified acceptation. And try, would be out of proportion, if not then, what is eloquence? what is truth? out of place, with reference to the present
Lord Byron,“ is but paslimited and lighter purpose. Some pre- sion;" which to us proves that his lordfatory explanation, however, seems to ship (or rather his bardship) could define, be necessary, in a matter so confused: as well as he could write it. He adds the more especially, since the views to be a negative compliment of the definition, offered here upon it may be found to differ intimating what is not Poetry, and equally from the prevailing. We are obliged to pointed for its logic, its satire and its truth: render these views intelligible; it cannot «Or at least was so, e'er it grew a fashion.” be equally imperative upon us to ensure their approval.
Here, Byron, with his usual sagacity What is Poetry ? seems to be a ques- and precision, has hit the nail on the tion akin to those posers of all times, head. Passion in the writer, Pleasure in What is the Supreme Good? What is the reader; Impulse the motive, Emotion Happiness? What is Virtue? Does Poe- the effect-such do we conceive to be the try consist in the rhyme or the metre, in two essential elements of Poetry. imagery, in eloquence, or in some or all The term passion we, of course, underof these together? Or does it rather lie stand not in any of its obnoxious accepin the subject matter, not in the form ? tations, either the moral or the theological, All this has been, is, and probably will or as designative of any excess whatever ; long continue to be, disputed. Then, but simply in a metaphysical sense, as there is a second set of questions, as to
an attribute of the soul and contradis. poetical rank: May the writer of odes tinguished from reflection and reasoning. be as great a poet as the writer of epics ? It is not that Poetry is not compatible Yet, with full knowledge, presumably, of with reason, according to a popular nothis multitude of doubts and distinctions, tion. On the contrary, there can, in our we every day hear the critics, as well as opinion, be no Poetry where there is not the crowd, pronounce apace upon the reason. Poetry has its logic as well as merits of poems and poets, absolutely any of the sciences. But it is a logic of and comparatively, without the least ad- its own, a logic secundum quid (to borrow vertence to any standard of judgment, a term of the trade); a log!c, not of rule, and as if Poetry was a unity as definite but of circumstance and instinct; it is and indivisible as a “primordial particle.” the winged reason of the passions, not Nor has a definition been furnished, the lagging ratiocination of the syllogism. that we remember at this moment-by This distinction between the reasoning even those who have written systematic of the head and that of the heart, totreatises on the art; by Horace in an- gether with the kindred one between an VOL. II.-NO, II.
erudite and an emotional imagination, seem suffused with indignant feeling. furnishes the best criterion of the true But considered more carefully, they will poetic genius. The distinction is not be found to be the deliberate result of always obvious; and as the recognition rigorous thought, of collected reason. For of it is of prime importance to our pur- it is only the manner in which all perpose, we will pause awhile to illustrate. sons, capable intellectually, might treat This, from the nature of the subject, is the subject. They are certainly the “elobetter done by example than by argumen- quence of truth.” They are fine rhetoric. tation. When Pope wrote to take a But they are not poetry; that is, they are strong case
Here is another passage from the same “ Dash the proud gamester in his gilded writer, which is not to be excelled in
fertility and fitness of fancy; but wbich Bare the base heart that lurks beneath a amenable to the same observation and star,”
test, it being, manifestly, the production
of a reasoned, not of a spontaneous imthe lines might, to ordinary attention, agination:
“ Avert it, Heaven! that thou, my Cibber, e'er
Shouldst wag a serpent-tail in Smithfield fair !
Now if (according to Bacon) imagina. Thought, an example or two of the elotion constituted the essence of poetry, quence and the imagination of Passion. this would be a poetical masterpiece. For this imagination, we shall quote from Nothing can be better imagined and ex. Racine part of the terrible monologue of pressed; especially the lumbering waddle Phedre, in the celebrated tragedy of that of the rolling-stone, as descriptive of name. For the present purpose an exact “Colly”-the manner and the man. But translation would, perhaps, serve suffiwe put it to the general mind, if what ciently. But there is none of any sort; strikes the reader he not, as in the former and we have not ourselves the heart, even couplet i he rhetoric, so in the latter ex we had the hand, to attempt one. tract the wit, or the satire, or the fancy; Phedre discovers that Hyppolytus, her never, perhaps, (rhyme aside,) the poetry. stepson, has given to another the love The reason of ihis effect seems to be, which he had disdainfully refused to her that the imagination of these lines sup own delirious and incestuous passion for poses no feeling ; that it is obviously the him. She breaks forth into an execra. texture of refined reflection and a cultiva. tion of herself, her nurse, the gods and ted intellect, not the natural imagery of all nature. The thought occurs of getting the passions.
her husband, Theseus, to put her rival in The distinction will be clearer if we his son's affections to death. But startled set in contrast with the preceding illus. by this new complication of her enormi. trations of the rhetoric and imagery of ties, she checks herself:
“ Que sais-je ? où ma raison se va-t-elle égarer ?