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Cheaply mounted objects for beginners, suitable for the smaller prize microscopes, are supplied at ls. per dozen.

A discount upon these prices will be allowed to Members of the Society, and to Institutions and Schools in Union.

Messrs. Heylin, of 28, Paternoster-row, have been appointed Agents in London for the sale of these articles.

FRIDAY, JANUARY 2, 1857.

POSTAL ARRANGEMENTS.
The Postmaster-General, anxious to promote rapidity

RATING OF INSTITUTIONS. and correctness in the delivery of letters, has, for The following letter has just been sent to all the postal purposes, divided London and its environs into ten Literary and Scientific Societies and Mechanics’ Institudistricts, each to be treated, in many respects, as a sepa- tions of the Kingdom, so far as they are known:rate town; and, to render this arrangement effectual, he RATING OF LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES earnestly requests that every means may be taken by

AND MECHANICS INSTITUTIONS. the public for causing letters to be directed according to

Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, the district for which they are intended. Initials will suf

and Commerce, Adelphi, London, Dec. 29, 1856. fice.

Sir,-In the course of last Session a bill, prepared The house of the Society of Arts being situate in under the direction of the Society of Arts, for amending the West Central district, letters on the business of the Act 6 and 7 Vict., c. 36, to exempt from local rates the Society should be addressed thus:

Land and Buildings occupied by Scientific and Literary

Institutions, was brought into the House of Commons by The Secretary of the Society of Arts,

Mr. Ewart, Mr. Hutt, and Lord Stanley, Vice-Presidents Adelphi.

of this Society. The bill, having in the face of a strong W. C.

opposition passed the second reading, was dropped, owing

to the late period of the Session. or, when from the country thus :

In the coming Session of Parliament this bill will be

reintroduced, with such amendments as the experience of The Secretary of the Society of Arts,

the last Session and the suggestions of the Institutions Adelphi,

will enable the Council of this Society to supply

The subject having for some time been under the conLondon.

sideration of the Council of this Society, the following W. C.

Minute was passed at a meeting of that body held on the The Postmaster-General suggests other means of in

17th inst., and I am instructed to invite your attention

to it:ducing this practice, that, when convenient, each resident

“ The Council having taken into its consideration the in a district should add the name of the district, or the

present unsatisfactory position, with regard to the rating initials, to his own address inside his letters when writing

of Mechanics' Institutions and other like public bodies ento correspondents, and on his address card. Also, that

gaged in the advancement of education, as also the present if in business, he should give the name of the district,

indefinite state of the law as enacted in the 6 and 7 Vict., or the initials, in the heading of bills or invoices, in ad

cap. 36, do hereby resolve that petitions under seal from vertisements or placards, and on any article of manufac

the Corporation of this Society, shall be presented to both ture which may bear his address.

Houses of Parliament early in the ensuing Session, prayIf the initial letters be thus regularly appended, the

ing that Mechanics' Institutions and other like public Department will be able to assort, with facility and cor

Societies established for the promotion of education and rectness, the country letters, according to their respective

the advancement of knowledge, shall be exempted from districts, before they reach London in the morning.

the payment of rates.

"That to enable the Society to present a strong case MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS.

for the favourable consideration of the Legislature, it is

necessary that the Council should be in a position to Messrs. Parkes and Son, 5, St. Mary's-row, Birming

state with accuracy the names of all the Mechanics' Inham, are prepared to supply microscopic objects suitable

stitutions and other like Societies now in operation, the to the Society's prize microscope, at reduced rates, to

present number of members belonging to each, the members of the Society, and to Institutions and Schools

number of volumes in their reading-rooms, the average in union, forming an “ Educational Series."

number of lectures annually given, whether there are The following preparations have just been completed, I classes for day and evening instruction, in what subjects. every object is numbered and named, and a descriptive and the average number of pupils aitending each class.i essay accompanies each set:

In accordance with the foregoing Minute, I am directed “Class A” is an introductory set, consisting of 24 to request the favour of your furnishing me with the necespreparations of various kinds, neatly fitted in a leather sary particulars (see form on the following page), to enable case, accompanied by a descriptive essay, entitled | this Society to include your Institution in the tabular re* Microscopic Revelations," 10s.

turns it is proposed to lay before Parliament, and to " Class B” consists of 24 insect preparations, in a establish a general system of united action, with a view leather case, accompanied by a popular description of to induce the Legislature to encourage the multiplication the structure of insects, forming a practical introduction and development of Institutions, which, rightly conducted, to the study of Entomology, 15s.

tend so powerfully to amend the social condition of the " Class Č” contains an interesting and valuable series people." of 35 vegetable preparations, in a leather case, illustrat- /" I am further instructed to add that, should you desire ing the Microscopic structure of plants, each object being to be supplied with suitable forms of petition to the numbered and described, so as to form a practical intro- Houses of Parliament, to be presented by those members duction to the study of Botany, £1.

of the Legislature who are locally connected with your Other series will probably be issued, comprising fossil Institution or neighbourhood, I shall transmit the same infusoria and sponges, anatomical preparations, illustra

to you on your returning to me the annexed form duly tions of adulterations in articles of food and commerce, filled up. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, &c., &c.

P. LE NEVE FOSTER, Secretary. Anatomical injected preparations are to be had at 16s. ** Should there be any Institution or Scientific per dozen.

"Society in your neighbourhood to which a copy of this

circular may have been omitted to be sent, on your for- Friendly Societies and Benefit Clubs, Savings Banks, warding to me a note of the name and post town, a copy Pawn Houses (Monts de Piété), Trades Associations, Land shall be transmitted.

and Building Societies, Allotment Societies, Societies for the Protection and Guidance of Emigrants, Societies for

the Patronage of Apprentices. The following is the form of return required, and if

ed! As it is the evident interest of the foregoing Instituany Institution has not received a copy, it will be supplied

tions to become more extensively known, it is hoped that on application :

their Secretaries will be disposed to favour the Society of (Return Paper.)

Arts with their respective papers. Name of Institution (in full)

II. Publications and documents relating to the Do

mestic Economy of the Working Classes, including Post town

Building Designs and Materials, Fittings, Furniture

and Household Utensils, Clothing, Food, its production, When was the above Institution founded ?

commercial supply, preparation, adulteration, &c.;

Fuel, and other domestic requisites. What is the present or average number of paying members in your Institution?

III. Publications and documents relating to various What is the number of volumes in your

departments of Sanatory Economy, such as Drainage, reading-room or library?

Sewerage, Water Supply, Ventilation, Removal of Are lectures given in your Institution ? |

Nuisances, Prevention of Casualties by Inundations, If so, what number was delivered last year? |

Shipwreck, Fire, &c.; Protection against the effects of Are there day or evening classes in your

Hot, Cold, Dry, Damp, or changeable Climates; PreInstitution ? If so, in what subjects, and

vention or Relief of the Accidents, Injuries, and Diseases what is the average number of persons at

which attach to many handicraft occupations; Organizatending each class ?

tion of Medical Assistance. What is the average annual income of

IV. Essays and other Publications relating to the your Institution ?

Social Condition of the Industrious Classes ; the relations Is your building rented, or is it the pro

of Employers and the Employed; the Organization of derty of your Institution ?

Labour, &c.
Are there any suggestions which your
Managers would desire to make with re-

V. Acts of Parliament, Official Reports, Statistical spect to the provisions which should be

Returns, &c., bearing on the before-mentioned subjects. introduced into the Bill now in course of

VI. Manuals and Hand-books for Special Classes or preparation by the standing Counsel of this

Trades. Society? If so, please to transmit them with this form.

VII. Publications describing or illustrating the condiDo you desire draft forms of petitions to

tion of the Working Classes in the Colonies or in Foreign parliament to be forwarded to you to be

Countries. presented by your local members ?

VIII. Periodicals intended for the use of the Work

ing Population or their friends. This form is requested to be returned not later than

Further indications will be found in a printed list of the 19th of January, 1857.

papers already presented to the Society of Arts, of which copies may be had on application to the Secretary.

In absence of the publications themselves, particulars of ECONOMIC LIBRARY.

them, and of the address where they may be obtained,

will be thankfully received. It is desired to form, in the Library of the Society of It is contemplated to form a classified list of all that Arts, a special collection of English and Foreign publica-has appeared in print within these last five or six years, tions, relating to the condition of the Working Classes, of a nature to interest the friends of the Working Classes, and the means for improving it.

and to continue this catalogue from year to year. This collection will particularly include the pro- ! It was agreed at the International Congress lately gramme and annual reports of the various Provident and held at Brussels, that each country should forward such Benevolent Institutions in the metropolis and the pro- a list once or twice a year to a Central Committee at vinces, and other minor publications, which are fre- that place, in order that the whole might be published as quently required for reference by persons practically an International Bulletin. engaged in promoting the improvement of the physical The Right Hon. W. Cowper, M.P., President of the and social condition of the people; but which, from their Board of Health, and Mr. T. Twining, jun., one of the inconspicuous appearance, are not generally classed among Vice-Presidents of the Society of Arts, were requested the available contents of a public librarv.

to undertake the correspondence with the Central ComAs the plan can only be carried out to full advantage mittee on behalf of England, and they will gladly avail by extensive co-operation, persons who can supply or themselves of the assistance of persons taking a special obtain through their friends publications or documents interest in any department of Social Economy or Pracof the nature pointed out in the following summary, are tical Benevolence. invited to forward them to the Secretary.

A list of French publications, which may prove valuN.B. The following indications are not to be con- I able to the friends of the working classes in this country, sidered as exclusive. Other subjects will suggest them- has been published in the Annales de la Charité, and may selves by analogy.

be referred to in the Society's Collection. I. Programmes, Regulations, Annual Reports, &c., showing the organization of, and results obtained by, the various Institutions established for the benefit of the Industrious Classes, such as Model Dwellings, Dormitories, Sailors' and Servants' Homes, Baths and Wash-UNITED ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOLMASTERS. houses, Soup Kitchens, Working Men's Coffee Rooms, The Third Annual Meeting of this body was held Fourneaux Economiques, Dispensaries, Hospitals, Asylums, l in the room of the Society of Arts, by permission of Eleemosynary Institutions, Reformatories, Schools forthe the Council. Blind, Deaf, and Dumb, Creches, or Public Nurseries and The Rev. Dr. Booth, F.R.S., Treasurer of the Society Infant Schools, Ragged Schools, Industrial Schools, I of Arts, delivered the inaugural address, which was as Evening Classes, Mechanics' Institutions of every kind, follows: Village Libraries, Clothing and Provision Societies, ! On the invitation of your president and committee, now two successive years conveyed to me, I appear here they wrote; that by their enthusiastic admiration of before you this evening to handle questions of the highest forms of government that had been abolished, they ininterest to all classes, but in an especial manner such to directly censured the enormities of the grinding despot. you. I will not enter into details of school management, isms under which they scarcely could call even their or argue questions of school discipline, matters in which lives their own, and that the tone in which they lauded I should hardly venture to advise you, much less presume the liberties they had lost was the surest index of the to dictate to you. I will rather use the short time placed slavery under which they groaned. The same tone of at my disposal to enlarge upon topics of more general saddened retrospection pervades the fine preface of Livy's interest and more pressing importance.

| immortal history. I may, however, be permitted to make this one obser- But, independently of these considerations, there is a vation—that it should be your object to implant princi- legitimate cause for this admiration of antiquity, and ples, and not to follow the example of those who waste you will bear with me while I develop it at some their pupils' time over mere matters of detail. How length. Let us in imagination go back to the year often do we see boys' minds loaded with dry statistical 1500 of our era, or thereabouts; let us suppose a man facts, and tabular results, which are but of little value, somewhere in the South of Europe, or on the coast of unless strictly accurate, which can never long be retained Western Asia, within sight of that purple sea, beyond so, and which always can be had in some handy book of whose sunny shores civilisation had never yet been able reference when required. A lad might as well be set to to advance. Let us further suppose him to be proget by heart a table of logarithms, as some of the foundly versed in all human learning, and acquainted statistical information he is required to commit to me- with every cardinal event in man's history. What, let mory. When one has mastered the few broad principles me ask, are the reflections that would naturally arise in which constitute the foundations of a science, he will be the mind of so accomplished and philosophical a specin a position, if he has but energy and perseverance, to tator taking a comprehensive view of the annals of build up, so to speak, with his own hands the edifice it- mankind, and of the progress of civilisation, from its self, instead of looking on with the vague notions of a earliest recorded dawn down to his own time? He would spectator, and seeing the work done by others. Rules have seen all human knowledge either absolutely stationare but the last results of a profound knowledge of the ary or actually retrograding. He would have seen that principles, whether of a language or a science. To start the science of his own day had not made a single step in with committing rules to memory, instead of developing advance during the long period of 1,700 years, from the principles by the understanding, is to invert the order of state it was left in by Archimedes and Euclid and Aponature, who first teaches the language by the ear, or in- lonius; that the science of medicine had dwindled down forms us through the senses of those common facts, in into a mere empirical art since the days of Hippocrates the sagacious appreciation of whose value every experi. and Galen; that there was no body of laws worthy of the mental science has more or less originated. "Thus the name but the Roman code; that alchemy flourished, for greatest linguists, such as Murray, Magliabechi, first chemistry was not yet; that astrology had displaced learned a language by nature's process, and then educed the little astronomy that was known; that there was abits rules. Galvani, or rather Volta, developed the laws solutely no such thing as physical science; that the of that mysterious science, galvanism, setting out from a multitudinous facts of natural history had yet to be fact, which, or some one cognate to it, must have been observed and noted. That in poetry, oratory, architecobserved before. The electric telegraph owes its inven- ture, and the kindred arts of painting and sculpture, the tion to an observation made by Ersted, the Swede-but ancients transcended rivalry or even successful imitation. I stop short-I might occupy the whole of my time in In short, that the whole sum of human knowledge, scant illustrations of this kind.

as it was, had continued absolutely without sensible augIt has often been objected to the friends of education mentation during 18 long centuries of man's eventful and progress in our own time that they do not retain history. That the acutest wits and the most subtle inthat traditional reverence for antiquity, chat veneration tellects, were forced to move round and round in the same for great names, which distinguished the promoters of dull circle, and thresh the straw that had been threshed intellectual advancement at the birth of modern civil- a thousand times before. That the profoundest genius isation, that we no longer feel that exclusive admira- failed to make even the shallowest discovery either in art tion for the literature and science of Greece and Rome, or science; that the most learned men occupied them. which, three centuries ago, was a marked characteristic selves century after century in piling up pyramids of of everyone who professed to cultivate either literature commentaries on those wondrous men, Platoand Aristotle, or science. Now, this veneration for ancient wisdom is who, like the Pillars of Hercules in the old mythology, founded on an erroneous comparison. The young natu- separated the clear, the definite, the settled, and the rally confide in the experience and knowledge of the old; known, from the dark, the vague, the boundless, and the and as the old have preeceded them in point of time, we obscure. When, moreover, our supposed inquirer, con. are led by the seeming analogy to look upon the early tinuing his survey, would have learned that whole regions period of the world as its old age instead of its youth. of the earth's surface were passing clean out of the knowLord Bacon, in his “ Advancement of Learning," says, ledge of civilized man; that the ideas which learned "Certainly, our times are the ancient times when the professors and adventurous travellers formed about world is now ancient, and not those which we count countries not far remote, were vague and contradictory; ancient, ordine retrogrado, by a computation backward that less was known four centuries ago about the geofrom our own times." Again, an exaggerated admira- graphy of the world than in the time of Herodotus, tion of antiquity, and a sort of longing regret for times Strabo, Ptolemy, or even Agatharchides; that many passed away, are by no means hopeful signs of a present inventions and curious processes in the arts had actually healthy progress. It has sometimes been remarked of perished, and which have never to this day been redisthose who have descended from a long line of ancestors, covered. When, moreover, looking to the political and degenerated in the descent, that they were satisfied aspect of the world, he would have seen the very fairest to place their claims to consideration, not on the grounds and most hallowed regions of the earth's surface overrun of personal merit, but on the greatness of those who have by the wild fanatics of Arabia, and trodden down by the gone before them. The same is as true of nations as of barbarian hordes of Turkistan, who, with wide unbroken individuals. Mitford, in his “ History of Greece," if I front, were advancing like the ocean tide rushing up the rightly recollect, somewhere observes, that Diodorus and narrow estuary, to overwhelm, in one undistinguishing Plutarch, by their extiavagant eulogies on the extinct flood, all that had remained of the ancient civilisation; republics and legendary heroes of antiquity, tried to con- and when, lastly, it is recollected that to such an ideal sole themselves for the degeneracy of the times in which spectator, contemplating the history of man's progress

upon earth, that great renovating institution, the Church, which a scientific appreciation of the simplest law of the would have presented herself, not as the living breathing equilibrium of fluids, now known to every schoolboy, incarnation of the Gospel, giving health and vigour to would have shown to be superfluous. Need I do more the worn out and used up nations of antiquity, but, like than allude to steam, or to the steam-engine-that great Niobe of old, petrified into stone, and become herself a modern Cyclops—or to the improvement and cheapening huge stumbling-block in the way of progress-a rock of of iron, that most valuable of all the metals, or to the offence to those who saw not that her corruptions and innumerable inventions in machinery, bearing on the errors were in some measure at least due to the trying cheap manufacture of textile fabrics, or to the applicatimes through which she had to pass.

tion of mechanics and chemistry to agriculture? Only From such a retrospect of the past, one could scarcely consider the facilities afforded to the poor man of condraw, with regard to the future, other than the most de- veying his labour, his only capital, to the uttermost sponding conjectures. Men could scarcely foresee that parts of the earth by steam navigation and railway locoas the night is darkest before the dawn, so out of this motion. The great in every age could travel luxuriously dense moral night and darkness of the human under- if not expeditiously, but now the artisan can travel with standing a new order of things was soon to arise, as much personal comfort as the gentleman could 30 and the light of a higher and better civilisation to years ago. Suetonius, speaking of Augustus, says, “ He gladden our humanity. It is no wonder that men, look- was borne along by slaves, and the gentle motion allowed ing back through the long vista of time, and seeing that him to read, write, and employ himself as in his cabinet. all that was worth preserving in literature, art, and Though Tivoli is only 16 miles from the city, he was science-whether it be poetry, oratory, or the drama always two nights on the road." Well, then, to bear whether it be architecture, sculpture, or painting, was the out my argument, there is gas more brilliant than waxcreation of comparatively a small number of gifted men, light and cheaper than the tallow dip. Electroplating and the birth of a few remote centuries, it is no wonder, I and photography bring the finest models and the most I repeat, that men in those days had come to the con- truthful landscapes within the reach, if not of the labourer, viction that nearly every thing that could be known was at least of the mechanic. While, on the other hand, but already known. In fact they had a special name for it. little advancement is to be found in those things which They called it the "omne scibile." They called it not minister exclusively to the luxury of the rich. Marble " omne scitum,” but “omne scibile," not merely every must still, as two thousand years ago, be the material thing that was known, but that could be known. It is which, so to speak, encrusts the breathing statue. Oil not strange that for those who had at once touched the and canvass still "supply the material elements of our limits, and reached the very outer verge of human know- finest paintings. Pearls have not diminished in value ledge, a feeling of admiration apparently akin to hero- or improved in lustre since Cleopatra dissolved them in worship, should have been felt, as being the greatest the wine-cups of her guests to show the extravagance of benefactors of mankind.

her magnificence. Science has revealed to us the analysis Let us now shift our standing point to the present time, of the diamond, but art has not yet discovered the synand view the wonderful change produced in the aspect thesis of this precious bauble. So that the ruby and the of human advancement. I will not dwell upon the mul- diamond, the sapphire and the emerald, still continue as titudinous discoveries in natural knowledge, the glory untractable and as unchanged, as brilliant and as costly, of our age, because they are familiar to most of you, but as when they constituted, in the vision of St. John, the I will take the science of pure space or geometry as an foundations of that new and holy city which had no need example of this progress, and the rather as this science is of sun or moon, and neither light nor temple werethere, the creation of the pure intellect depending neither on This is, indeed, a very remarkable and striking chaexperiment nor observation, the great instruments of racteristic of nearly all our great modern discoveries, modern discovery. Within the last forty years mathe- that they tend to create or to cheapen, if already in exmatical science has received a far greater development istence, those things which improve the condition or tend than in the entire period that intervened between to promote the welfare of the masses of mankind. Other Archimedes and Newton. Such has been the fertility of discoveries, too, tend in the same direction. It is only a methods of research recently invented, that while for few days ago that in this room the intrepid and indemerly the discovery of a new theorem was enough to fatigable explorer, Dr. Livingston, gave us an account of render a man's name illustrious, now they may as easily regions never hitherto trodden by European foot. He be found, and with as little trouble, as nuggets of gold has opened up to us the only terra incognita which reon the other side of the globe. It is not, therefore. mained on the surface of the globe, if we except some strange that amidst the crowd and brilliancy of modern portions in the interior of Australia, which are even now, discoveries, those which have been so long before the while I speak, opening up their arid steppes and barren world should somewhat pale their brightness.

plains to British science, energy, and enterprise. And Before I pass from the consideration of this, the second here let me further strengthen my argument by rebirth of human knowledge, far more prolific than the ferring to the mighty influences which at this very time first, there is a remark I would desire to make, and it is are being inaugurated by the operation of that mysterione of great interest. It is this, that all our disco-ous agent of civilisation, the electric telegraph. Is not veries, wherever made, in whatever art or science, all truth strange, stranger than fiction, when we are told tend to the advantage of the masses, as contrasted with that in this room we may have intelligence in a shorter the great ones of the earth. Books, that once were in the interval of time from Constantinople or the Pyramids hands of nobles and prelates only, sometimes worth even than from Primrose-hill. Why, the electric telegraph a king's ransom, are now, thanks to the art of printing, endows mankind with a sixth sense, and the fable of within the reach of the poorest of the community. Li Lynceus becomes a tame and vapid story. Let me add braries existed before the days of Caxton-the newspaper further yet, that foci of the language in which I now and the reading-room are of a subsequent date. Again, address you are being established all over the globe, consider how much human labour has been relieved by the whence in ages yet to come will radiate the language of application of gunpowder in great engineering and mining Shakspere and Milton, of Newton and Bacon, of Butler operations. Who shall compute the amount of human and Locke, and above all, the pure well of English untoil which a knowledge of the power of this agent would defiled, our standard translation of the Bible. The have saved in the piling up of the Pyramids of Egypt, whole vast continent of North America, with the chief in excavating the Temples of Ellora, or in cutting out islands of the Carib Sea, speaks the English tongue. In the Sculptured Shrines of Elephanta? How much suf- South Africa it is heard. Livingston has carried it into fering of the masses would a little of this chemical science the remotest recesses of that least-known of continents. have averted in the building of the Roman aqueducts, 'In the vast regions of India it is the dominant language from Cape Comorin to Cashmere ; the vast continent In the observations I have the privilege to address to of Australia speaks no other; it resounds along the you from this place, I may be permitted to assume that coasts of China, and like a watchword echoes from island you are the representives, at least for the present, of that to island in the great South Sea.

numerous, useful, and important body, the educators of Surely the cumulative force of all these arguments the youth of England. What this country shall be and considerations which I have placed before you give some 20 or 30 years hence, you have no small influence irresistible weight to this conclusion, and I cannot ex- in determining. You are the connecting link between press it so happily as in the words of the Royal President the present and the future. On a recent occasion I enof the Society in whose house we are met this evening, deavoured to show, what may have seemed strange to who, in his address at the Mansion-house to the mayors some, that learning the elements of knowledge depends of the principal towns of the United Kingdom, is re- rather on the moral than on the intellectual nature of ported to have said :- Nobody, however, who has paid man- that it is rather a question of energy, of perseverany attention to the peculiar features of our present era ance, of determined will, than of fine intellect or of will doubt for a moment that we are living at a period original genius. It is told of some old Greek philosoof most wonderful transition, which tends rapidly to pher--I forget just now of whom—that when he was accomplish that great end to which indeed all history asked what was the best education for boys, replied, points; the realisation of the unity of mankind! Not a “ That which will best fit them to discharge their duties unity which breaks down the limits, and levels the pecu- as men.” This is a great truth which ought never to liar characteristics of the different nations of the earth, be lost sight of. When this is practically forgotten, you but rather a unity, the result and product of those very ignore the very essence of education, which is to national varieties and antagonistic qualities. The dis 1 educe,” to “ draw out" the faculties, as it were, for tances which separated the different nations and parts of future use, and to “instruct," that is, to furnish the the globe are rapidly vanishing before the achievements faculties so drawn out with available and useful knowof modern invention, and we can traverse them with in- ledge. Remember, you are educating boys, who, when credible ease; the languages of all nations are known, they leave you, are not to become pleaders in the law and their acquirement placed within the reach of every-courts of ancient Athens, or candidates for office in the body; thought is communicated with the rapidity and Forum of republican Rome. No: but it may be their even by the power of lightning."

lot in far distant regions of the globe, in the face of In direct antagonism to this pervading principle of difficulties and dangers, under trials and temptations, to modern discovery—the benefit of the masses—to which uphold the great name of their native country-to show I have just now directed your attention, is a custom that as she is first in arms, she is second to none in arts which has grown up quite recently, and which would that while they carry with them the instruments of not have become a custom had the practice not been civilisation, and the truths of science beyond the reach abetted by wealthy amateurs and selfish collectors. It is of barbarous tribes to understand, or if understood, to the most signal instance of modern Vandalism on record, appreciate, they have not left behind them those qualities and deserving of your deepest reprobation. I refer to of justice, fair dealing, integrity and truth, which are the barbarous practice of plate-destroying to enhance the instinctively patent to the whole human race. "One value of the impressions already taken. The wealthy touch of nature makes the whole world kin.” collector is not satisfied with his proof impression of a To you a great trust is confided. On the character of plate before letters, unless he is assured that his poorer a lad which has received its impress from you, may some neighbour shall never enjoy even a ten thousandth im- few years hence depend the weal or woe of thousands. pression of it. No humble Englishman is to be per- The boy who on one of your forms has learned to rule mitted to point out to his eager children how here an himself, may undergo that discipline which will qualify uncle fell on the plain of Balaklava, or how there a him to govern a subject nation. This is no impossible brother died for England on the heights of Inkerman, contingency, when you consider that the whole of the lest forsooth some retired pawnbroker should be shocked civil appointments, hitherto in the gift of the East India with the intelligence that some mechanic or other low Company, have been by Act of Parliament thrown open person in the village had an engraving pinned up against to the widest and most unreserved competition. Bear the wall, just the very ditto of the one in the gilt frame in mind that you are not educating Italians or Poles, hung up in the drawing-room. Now, what should we say men whose education would have little influence either if a few wealthy book collectors had proposed to enter into for good or evil beyond themselves; but you are training an agreement with our illustrious historian that no second up the groat pioneers of civilisation, the men to whom edition of his great work should be published, and only under Providence it may be given to realise the coma limited number of the first, so that Macaulay's munity of nations. “ History of England” might be shown to the curious Again, if you consider education with reference to its behind a screen or in a glass case ? Such a proposal would bearings on the welfare of our own country and the kindle an universal indignation, yet how does it differ in security of its institutions, you cannot but agree with me principle from the case of Vandalism I have brought that the stability of everything we hold dear is based on under your notice? Of the genuine aristocracy of this the intelligent loyalty of our people, as this latter alone country, I will say this, they exhibit but little of that depends on their right education. What the people of contemptible feeling. Their galleries are thrown open this country will to be done, be it for good or evil, must to or are accessible to the public. They freely lend their be done. Need I refer to the Reform Bill, or to the remost valuable pictures for exhibitions, as just now at peal of the corn laws, or to the Russian war, all of which Manchester. They allow them willingly to be copied. were carried through by the people themselves in despite How often do we see a like churlish feeling exemplified, of the most strenuous opposition. Louis XIV. used to when some old castle or baronial mansion, approached say, “I am the State." "The middle classes now with through huge branching oaks, those grand old trees, much greater truth may say, “ We are the State," for through shady dells and living walls of verdure, passes when united on any question that question must be carinto the hands of some retired stockbroker or other ried. They are, therefore, the depositaries of that millionaire? The crumbling fence or ragged hedge, despotic, absolute, irresponsible power which in every which beyond man's memory let the poor wayfarer, or independent state must of necessity exist somewhere. the tired traveller, or the sketching tourist, contemplate Now, is it not a matter of the very highest importance God's beauties in the calm and quiet scene spread out that these classes should be instructed in their duties, before him, soon gives place to the sinug brick wall, that they should be taught how freedom, as it is the bristling with broken glass, and threatening notices to birthright of every Saxon, so is it in our day the excluall would-be trespassers.

sive possession of Englishmen and their descendants.

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