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On Tuesday, the 4th inst., the members were occupied as we felt now, that the mental resources of the people in visiting the Art Treasures Exhibition.

of this country required to be developed, and, therefore, On Wednesday, the 5th, upwards of 80 members and they came among us spreading intelligence, and enfriends of the Society left Manchester, at a quarter before couraging us to proceed with all the energy in our power nine o'ciock, and proceeded by the Lancashire and York-in promoting the common instruction of the people at shire Railway to Bradford, and thence to Saltaire, where large, and also the superior instruction, by means they were received by Mr. Titus Salt and his son, and of art, of the higher classes of the community. From courteously shown over the whole of their extensive and 1754 to 1857, the career of the Society of Arts had magnificent works. A luncheon was then served in the been one of continuous and uninterrupted applicadining-room adjoining the counting-house of the works. tion to the great and solid interests of the people

The party next proceeded to Leeds, where some of the of this country, and it was only doing them an act of jusmembers visited the works of Messrs. Marshall, flax- tice to acknowledge the services they had rendered. spinners, and others went to see the machine works of In 1851 they promoted, most successfully, the Great Mr. Peter Fairbairn. A special train, leaving Leeds at Exhibition, which shone like a beacon through the civilfour o'clock, brought the party back to Manchester. Atised world, and attracted alike the people of Europe, eight o'clock, a soirée was held in the rooms of the Asia, Africa, and America. And the material interests Royal Institution, to which the members and their of Lancashire had not been overlooked by the Society of friends had been invited. The time occupied in the Arts. After the Exhibition of 1851, the Prince Consort above visits and the arrangements on the railway did not suggested, and the Society of Arts adopted the suggespermit an inspection of Messrs. Akroyd's worsted mills, tion, that comments should be given, in the shape of

On Thursday, the majority of the members occupied lectures, on the branches of industry that were displayed themselves in visiting the mills, &c., in Manchester in the Exhibition, and that called forth some remarks conand the neighbouring towns. At 8.40 a.m., a train nected with the industry that employed the people of Lanstarted for Rochdale, where the party visited the cashire. The subject of cotton had not been neglected, but Carpet-works of Messrs. Bright and Co., the Flannel- the Society had been the constant friend of the promotion works of Messrs. Kelsall and Kemp, and the spacious of an increased supply. He was glad to see his friend Mr. Cotton-shed of Messrs. Radcliffe and Sons. From Roch- Clegg present, who had done so much to promote the dale one portion proceeded to Oldham, to inspect the growth of cotton in Africa, and he believed that they Machine-shops of Messrs. Platt, Brothers, whilst the other owed Mr. Clegg's presence amongst them to the services portion proceeded to Middleton, and went over the Dye- of the Society of Arts, especially in reference to an inworks and Silk-reeling establishment of Mr. Thos.creased supply of cotton. He hoped that, as this was a parDickins. The party was hospitably entertained by this ticularly practical age in which we were privileged to gentleman. Another train, at 9.45, conveyed a number of live, that the labours of the Society of Arts would be the members to Bolton, for the purpose of visiting the directed to everything that could tend to develop the factory of Messrs. Gardner and Bazley, cotton-spinners, mechanical, moral, social, and mental progress of the in that neighbourhood. Mr. Bazley accompanied the people of this country. The Chairman then alluded to party over his works, and afterwards entertained them at the certificates of merit granted by the Society of Arts, luncheon. The schools in connexion with these mills end expressed a hope that the Society would have the excited much interest. In the evening, Mr. William co-operation of the people of Manchester and of the Fairbairn entertained the Vice-Presidents, members of United Kingdom, in the great objects it had in view, the Council, and the Secretary at dinner.

the promotion of the arts, science, and manufactures. On Friday, the 7th, the Society's Dinner took place at The toast having been drunk, the Art Treasures Exhibition Building. The chair was The Rev. Dr. Booth responded. He said it was true occupied by Thomas Bazley, Esq., president of the the Society of Arts was a very old Society, and he might Manchester Chamber of Commerce, and he was sup- perhaps illustrate what the chairman had said by calling ported by the Bishop of Manchester; Sir John Richard-to mind one or two of those matters in which the Society son, F.R.S.; the Mayors of Salford, Bolton, Stockport, might be said to have done the state some service. It Preston, Oldham, and Ashton; Mr. William Fairbairn, was peculiarly proper he should first call their attention F.R.S.; Mr. Thomas Fairbairn, Chairman of the Execu-to the fact that the first exhibition of paintings in this tive Committee of the Art Treasures Exhibition ; Messrs. country was held in 1760, in the rooms of the Society of Joseph Glynn, F.R.S., George F. Wilson, F.R.S. ; ] Rev. Dr. Booth, Chairman of the Council of the Society sum for purposes of charity by the annual exhibition of of Arts, and Mrs. Booth; Messrs. Matthew Marshall, their works. This was followed by another of a similar Thomas Winkworth, and Miss Winkworth; Messrs. character in the next year. The consequence was, that Roger Fenton, Edmund Potter, Joshua Radcliffe, two years afterwards the foundation of the Royal Alger, R. L. Chance, J. Leighton, F.S.A., S. Sterne Academy of Painting was laid. A charter was sub(Ashton), D. Chadwick, R. T. Fauntleroy, Thomas sequently granted, in which it was expressly stated that Clegg, J. Dillon, J. Vavasour, H. Newall, T. Dickins, while it should cultivate the art of painting, it should P. Palmer, W. B. Simpson, W. Muir, J. Hambleton, not infringe on the arts connected with manufacture or John Wilson, Dr. Watts, &c. Grace having been said commerce. The Society of Arts was the first to stimuby the Bishop of Manchester,

late the production of wine in Australia, having The CHAIRMAN proposed “The Queen," which was offered a prize for the first specimen which was brought drunk with the usual honours. He next proposed “ The to this country. The Society also introduced gutta Prince Consort, the President of the Society of Arts, percha, after specimens originally sent from Singapore and the rest of the Royal Family."

had been declared valueless, and returned. He might The Chairman then proposed " The Society of Arts." mention many other matters, but he must refrain. He He said this Society deserved the thanks of the commu-might say, however, that the true province of the Society nity in that great district. They came here as the was not to work out details, but to be the expounder of pioneers of progress, on a pilgrimage to this palace of new principles, and leave the application of those princithe treasures of art, and he ventured, on behalf of the ples to others. The Society was the first to acknowledge inhabitants of Manchester, to thank them for their pre- the principle of international competition and comparisence on this occasion. The Society had had a youthful son, first exhibited in that great display of the industry existence of more than a century, and yet he believed of nations which, as it was the most original in its conits career was only in reality beginning. But a century ception, so it was the most successful in its results. The ago the Society indicated what we still felt the need oi, Society was the first to show the country an educational a national and general education. The Society felt then, exhibition, such aswas now being shown at South Kensing

ton. The Society had also established the Trade bers of the Executive Committee of the Art Treasures Museum. It was in that way that the Society was Exhibition,” which was responded to by calculated to do the greatest service. The Society had Mr. THOMAS FAIRBAIRN, the chairman, who said the in former times encouraged the arts, manufactures, and committee had done all in their power to ensure the commerce of this city of Manchester ; but the day had success of the Exhibition, but there must be still half a long gone by when any society, any voluntary associa- million of people brought to Manchester before the Extion, or even the Government could encourage either hibition closed, and he hoped the railway companies the manufactures, the arts, or the commerce of this would bring the people from all parts of the country at locality. It would be impertinence in the Society of as low a rate as would be remunerative. Mr. Fairbairn Arts to presume to do so. Was not the glorious display by concluded by proposing “ The Mayors of Manchester which they were surrounded a proof of the promotion of and Salford, and the neighbouring municipalities." art in this locality? Did not these forests of chimneys dis- The MAYOR OF SALFORD acknowledged the toast. play the manufactures of Manchester? And did not the Mr. WINKWORTH said that as one of the vice-presidents, railways which run from this centre towards every point of he rose to propose the health of the chairman, who as the compass bear witness to the extent of her commerce ? President of the Chamber of Commerce of Manchester, Dr. Booth then referred to the interesting meetings he emphatically represented in that great city the special had attended at Huddersfield, in connection with the objects of the Society, namely, arts, manufactures, and certificates of merit presented to the deserving members commerce. The interests of humanity were powerfully of the Mechanics' Institutions, and said that he did not see subserved by the correct working of those true principles why the Society of Arts should be any longer exclusively of political economy which were professed by that importa metropolitan institution ; he did not see why it might ant association, for it was upon their greater or less adopnot visit annually, in succession, the large towns in the tion that the moral, social, and intellectual welfare of kingdom in the same way as the British Association did the community at large mainly depended. The claims of There were men of great originality of thought and of Mr. Bazley to the esteem of that assembly were too patient research residing in the country, who, at the So- well-known and appreciated, as well by his fellow-citiciety's provincial discussions, might throw new light on zens as by the members of the Society of Arts then premany of the subjects, in the consideration of which the sent, to render a more extended notice of them necessary; Society of Arts were now engaged. These men could they had to thank him for the readiness with which he not be expected to spend their time and money in attend. had consented to preside on this occasion, and for the ing the usual weekly meetings of the Society. The So- intelligent and agreeable manner in which he had disciety might be divided into sections, have papers read, charged the duties of that position. Mr. Winkworth reports made, and discussions held, on questions of com- concluded by proposing the health of the chairman. merce, the colonies, inventions, education, sanitary im! Mr. BAZLEY, in replying, proposed - The Ladies," and provements, and the like. Thus a week in autumn might called upon the Mayor of Ashton to respond. be passed pleasantly, and not without instruction. But as The MAYOR OF Ashton returned thanks. he was now speaking only his own individual sentiments, Mr. WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN then proposed “Mr. Foster, he would not enlarge on this, which, in his opinion, would Secretary of the Society of Arts," and Mr. Foster acbe a second era in the progress of the Society. He knowledged the compliment. concluded by remarking that Manchester, besides its

Saturday, the 8th, the members visited Peel Park pre-eminence in the arts, manufactures, and commerce, la

ce, and Museum, the Salford Free Library, and various mills had claims upon the respectful attention of the Society

ciety and establishments in Manchester, and thus terminated of Arts, because there the first provincial literary and

the Society's visit. philosophical society in the kingdom was established and because it was a city equally pre-eminent in litera- Those members of the Society who were preture and science, as in manufactures and commerce. He sent during the visit to Manchester, and who had to propose " The literature and science of Manches-lavoiled

hes) availed themselves of the opportunity of visiting ter," coupling with the toast the name of the Bishop of Manchester.

the various mills and manufactories, so liberally The LORD Bishop acknowledged the toast, and called thrown open for their inspection, cannot fail to the attention of the meeting to the paucity of the at have been impressed with the advantages which tendance of the working classes at the Exhibition. It would reenlt from noriodical visite of a similar was not that they were not interested in it, but because they had not been properly educated to appreciate its character, to the various manufacturing district treasures. He would impress upon the Society the of the kingdom. The opportunities thus afnecessity of giving greater instruction in art, and pro- forded to the Society of witnessing the providing some means for making the schools of art more gressive development of the industries of the intellectual, and furnishing the students with some acquaintance with the records of the past, which would

| country, the introduction of new raw products, enable them to enter more fully into the spirit of the and the modification in the treatment of those scene which they attempted to pourtray on canvas. After already known,-opening up new sources of en• passing a panegyric upon the late Bishop Blomfield, his inlovment -wonld enable the Society m

field, his ployment,—would enable the Society more effeclordship said he referred to his deceased friend now, because he had occupied an office which had been for years

| tually to promote the great objects for which it a sinecure, and with respect to which the Society of Arts was established. should earnestly urge upon the attention of those who elected to it, the necessity of making it efficient. Why were the professors of the Royal Academy never per

CONNECTION FOR GAS, WATER, AND STEAM mitted to lecture, except on painting and sculpture? It

PIPES. was true there had been the discourses of Reynolds, Messrs. Smith and Phillips, of West Smithfield, have Phillips, Opie, and Flaxman, on subjects connected with recently patented an expeditious and economical method art, and why should not the highest branch of historical of connecting pipes or tubes, which is said to obviate, by art be duly developed by the person appointed to teach very simple means, the defects of those plans now commonly history in the Royal Academy of England ? He hoped in use-namely, the common socket pipes, with lead and this subject would receive the attention which it de-yarn, and the turned and bored joints. The first of these served.

| is expensive, taking both labour and time, and has also Mr. Joseph GLYNN proposed the health of "The mem- the great disadvantage of always requiring a fire. The joints are sound only so long as they remain undisturbed, in figure 1, and to enclose the gasket, as shown in figure 2. and the lead being neither compressible nor adhesive, in The following is the process of fastening together the the event of the earth settling and the consequent sink- pipes :-Place the ends of the pipes together, as at figure ing of the pipes, it becomes loosened in the socket, and i, either straight or on the bevil, as may be required, leakage ensues. In the method with turned and bored and so as to rest steadily in their places. • Measure & joints, when the ground settles, the pipes in many instances piece of gasket from the roll just sufficient to go round break, and if this does not take place, there is always a the pipe twice; spread on one side freely with a mixture great amount of leakage; the pipes must also be laid of red and white lead; draw it tightly over the space in a very perfectly straight line, which is in itself a great roarked b, b, between the collars in figure 1, as shown in disadvantage.

figure 2, and finish in the second fold exactly at the point In this invention, all these disadvantages are stated where the gasket commenced, as at e, e, in figure 2, so to be remedied by a very simple process. The pipes that there may be no overlapping. This is of the are all cast with both ends alike, that is, with two utmost importance, in order to maintain a uniform spigot ends (see figure 1). Where the ends of pressure all round. Having covered the interior surFig. 1.

face of the clip freely with the mixture of red and white lead,, lace the lower clip on first, following the folding of the gasket, and then apply the upper clip in the same way, so as to secure the end of the gasket; the bolts may

then be worked alternately until they are 3 16

quite home; the joint is now complete and fit for immediate use.

The simplicity of the plan is at once obvious; it is said to have been successfully tried under every possible contingency. Leakage, if not altogether removed, is greatly diminished, The pipes may be laid at a greater inclination than under the old system, for the

material of which the joint is made will yield Fig. 2.

to the sinking of the pipe. There is no ne-
cessity for a large excavation for repairing, and
a fire is not required. In the event of fracture,
instead of having to cut away the part with a
chisel, a work of labour and time, a new length
of pipe can be easily inserted and fastened.
This effects a saving in the number of workmen
employed. By the substitution of this con-
necting joint for the old lead and yarn, a saving
of at least 75 per cent, is said to be effected. This
plan is suitable for gas works, for locomotive
purposes and large manufactories, for builders
and contractors, for conservatories, breweries,
and distilleries, and for all other purposes what-
soever, wherever a pipe is required.

In the early part of 1856, about six 'miles of pipes, of various sizes, were laid down in the town of Halifax under the direction of the borough engineer. After a trial of twelve

months, the pipes were laid bare for examinaFig. 3.

tion, and in every instance the joints were found as sound as when first laid down. Numerous other trials have been made, with the same satisfactory results. The pipes have also been subjected to a severe test above ground, with a pressure varying from 150 to 160 feet head of water, the joints remaining firm under the trial.

[graphic]
[graphic]

A SHORT-HAND FOR THE ELECTRIC

TELEGRAPH. two pipes are placed ready for being joined they may

| By Hugo Reid, of DALHOUSIE COLLEGE, Halifax, N. S. be either straight or on the bevil. A short distance from That the very great advantages which the telegraph the end of the pipe a ring or collar is cast round the is capable of conferring may be extensively diffused, and outside, as at a, a. A space between the collars, b, b, is not shut out from any class, it is necessary that teleto be covered with gasket, as shown in figure 2. This graphic communication be cheap. The great obstacle flat-wove gasket is manufactured especially for this pur- to this cheapness is the time its operations require, caused pose, so as to fit the space at b, b, which varies in by the number of words necessary, and the number of width with the diameter of the pipe ; this, when distinct characters in each word. To reduce the number applied, is to be covered freely on one side with a mix- of words requisite to convey a thought, and to reduce ture of red and white lead. Figure 3 shows the construc- the number of letters necessary to form a word, are the tion of the clips for containing the gasket and fastening! great desiderata for extending widely the uses and ap'the ends of the pipes together; c, c, are two grooves on plications of the telegraph. In endeavouring to make a

either side, to fit on the collars, which are on the move in this direction, I have aimed at a system which outer surface of the pipes, as at a, a, figure 1. d, d, is does not depart much from the existing forms of our the cavity between, to correspond with the space b, b, as words and arrangements of sounds in their leading fea

tures, and which therefore may be casily and gradually 1m.. January. 7 m .. July.
introduced. I am aware that if a great change would

m ..
February.

8 m . . August. be consented to, a more philosophical system might be

3 m., March.

9 m .. September. contrived. But I have aimed at what is simple, easily 4 m . . April.

10 m . . October. learned, easily practised, and therefore a practicable in

5 m., May.

11 m . . November. novation.

6 m .. June.

12 m .. December. Not only do the demands of the telegraph call for a condensation of our language-the literary man and the

16. Thirdly-having exhausted the combinations ot man of business find that the mechanical process of writ

writ. two letters, we could proceed to those of three letters.

By the rule of combinations. we could command 20.000 ing occupies too much of their time, and cry out for

combinations with the twenty-eight letters, and some quicker method of putting their thoughts upon paper. The mind is restrained by the mechanical drag

deducting several thousands for combinations flowing of the pen. The simplification and shortening that will from the preceding, and for words of three letters, there suit the telegraph, may also be available for the pen

would remain ten or twelve thousand words, which could man; and some short method that will reduce very

be expressed by only three letters; and three could almost greatly both the words in the sentence and the letters in

always be chosen, the combined sounds of which would the word, seems one of the wants of the age.

be a guide to the word they represent. Having little time and but scanty space, I proceed

1 7. In par. 21, I have given a list of words, which, it without further preface, to explain my plan.

appears to me, would be suitable for selection, to be exIt presents two principal features.

pressed by one letter each; and in par. 2 a few specimens 1. A system of abbreviations.

of the words which might be expressed by two letters 2. Dispensing altogether with certain words or gram

each. But I have not entered on this further than offermatical forms not really required.

ing these as examples, as I do not think that any one

individual, nor that any number of individuals, laying I, SIMPLE ABBREVIATIONS INVOLVING NO GRAMMATICAL their heads together, can do this so well as the experience CHANGE.

of the existing telegraph companies. I should therefore 1. Notwithstanding the immense number of words in I propose that a careful examination be made of the the English language, it will be found that the greater

words employed in the telegraphic messages, say for a part of ordinary discourse is composed of a few words

whole year, and that the number of times each word is frequently repeated, representing common things and used be ascertained. The product of that number by common ideas relating to them. Let us suppose that the number of letters which can be saved by abbreviating the telegraph can easily supply separate signs for twenty- | the word, would show the proportionate importance of its eight letters.* Then. let each of the twenty-eight words / abbreviation. Thus, if a word from which four letters most in use be represented by one of these twenty-eight | can be cut off is used 100 times; and another from which letters ;-the letters selected for each being, if possible,

only 3 letters can be saved is used 200 times, the its initial letter, or some leading letter in it. Thus, ó | greater saving will be effected by abbreviating the would stand for buy; s for send; m for make; t for tell;

11. latter. h for have; and so on as in paragraph 21.

8. An examination should also be made of the com2. The second abbreviation which I propose, is, for ( parative frequency of use of the different letters, that the next class of words in point of frequency of use, to those most used may be represented by the simplest telesubstitute two letters each-these two letters being. if graphic signs. These investigations must be considered possible, the initial, and another leading letter, so that as at the foundation of any effective system for a shortthe sound of the two letters shall be a guide to the word hand

word | hand for the telegraph.

9. Besides the preceding, the following abbreviations gl for quality. on for quantity, qs for question, and so on.

should be made: leaving out Each of the 28 letters may thus be combined with 27 |

1 All silent letters. others, giving 756 combinations, which, lessened consi

One of all double letters. derably for words of not more than two letters and for

The e before the d of the past tense and past parti. combinations of two letters arising from the development ciple, before the r of the comparative degree, es before of the first abbreviation (1) will leave about six hun- of the superlative degree. dred words in very frequent use to be represented in the The 2 and g of ing in the present participle; the parti. telegraph by only two letters each. This, with the pre

cipial inflection ing to be represented by n alone; or, ceding and the derivatives would give us short simple | better still, by a separate character for the sound ng, " signs for about fifteen hundred of the words most com- | the telegraph will admit of such additional simple sign. monly employed.

3. The days of the week and the months are of im-1. WORDS AND GR. portance and frequent occurrence, and will be expressed

WITH. by combinations of only two letters each.

10. Besides abbreviations, the English language may 4. For the days, the first and last letters of each are be considerably simplified by the entire rejection of cer taken-except for Sunday, which having the same initial tain words and inflections, which, though convenient, letter as Saturday, 1 (Lord's day) is substituted.

perhaps, in spoken language, are not at all essential ; so ly . . Sunday.

thy .. Thursday. that they may be entirely omitted in telegraphic com. my .. Monday.

fy .. Friday.

munications without any loss of force or precision. ! ty . . Tuesday.

sy . . Saturday. propose then, that the short-hand for the telegraph should wy.. Wednesday.

at once dispense with the following:The combination my is not to be used for the common

11. (1.) The ARTICLES, a, an, and the. These can word my-see par. 21.

he spared. The Romans did without them; and the 5. For the months, the numeral denoting which month

Russians do without them; and so may we in telegraof the year it is, and the letter m, will be sufficient;

phie discourse. meaning first month, second month, and so on.

12. (2.) The signs of the plural, e, es, ies, and ves, whenever any accompanying word denotes plurality, as

occurs in almost every case. Thus, we should say ten • If possible, two should be added to the present twenty-six,

box, not ten boxes. We have words in the language one for th. as in the Greek or Anglo-Sason. one for sh: with which take no plural form, as deer, sheep, without a out attending to the distinction between their flat and sharp | terial inconvenience. sounds.

| 13. (3.) The to or for before a place to which some

anot.

OS AND GRAMMATICAL FORNS TO RE DISPENSED

one has gone : as He has gone London, They set out l'aris J, of. - She went Germany.

g, go, goes ; (9 d, went, gone; gn, going.) 14. (5.) Distinctions of person and number in the h, have, has; (h d, had; h n, having.) same tenso, as am, is, art, arte, in the present-was and 1, l, me; (is, my, mine.) were in the past of the verb "to be"-eniploying only k, know, knows ; (k d, knew, known; k n, knowing.) one word or sign for all parts of the same tense-dis 1, loso, loses ; (l'd, lost; In, losing.) pensing with the s at the end of the 3rd person singular m, make, makes; (md, inade; m n, making.) of the present tense in all verbs. These distinctions are n, no, not, none. unnecessary. In the present tense of any ordinary verb, o, on, as “ to write," we say I, you, we, they write; adding 8 P, pay, pays; (pd, paid ; p n, paying.) for the 3d person, he writrs. He wrile would do equally T, write, writes; (rd, wrote, written; rn, writing.) well; and in the 3d person of other tenses, there is no 8, send, sends; (8 d, sent; s n, sending.) such difference—as I, you, he, she, they wrote.—This t, tell, tells; (t d, told; t n, telling.) change, then, would cut off an 8 in every 3d pers. sing. U, you; (u s, your, yours.) of the present tense—a part of the verb in very frequent w, we, us, ; (W 8, our, ours.) use, and would simplify greatly the verb “to be," that 2, box, boxes. means of assertion and expression of simple existence ly, yes. in such constant request; retaining one sign for am, art, th, they, them ; (th 8, their, theirs.) is, are, and be; and one sign for both was and were.

and were. It

It sh, she, her. is proposed also that one form should suffice for both Thus, at once, we provide the shortest possible symbol past tense and past participle, as is the case in all for each of twenty-eight of the words in most frequent the regular verbs. This would simplify the signs for use; and, as many of these have two or more words dethe irregular verbs, which abound among our words in rived from them (as, write, wrote, written, writing,) common use. See par, 21.

which are also abbreviated, being expressed by one ad15. (5.) The OBJECTIVE CASES OF THE PRONOUNS— ditional letter or sign, we have about seventy of the me, us, him, her, them, whom; the nominative case to most common words reduced so that they may be ex: be used instead. This is already done in our language pressed by extremely simple telegraphic signs. Should with you, it, and which, without inconvenience; these the telegraph, making allowance for numerals, &c., be are used indifferently for the objective or nominative able to supply more than twenty-eight of the simplest case; the position before or after the verb indicating I class of signs, we can employ these to extend the list of with sufficient distinctness whether they are to be re-words of the first series, represented by only one sign. garded as subject or object. The sound of he saw she, is! 22. It is difficult to find suitable words to be expressed a little strange to the ear; but it is quite analogous to by the letters j, 9, 0, 2. Telegraphic returns, as sughe saw you or he saw it; and if by dispensing with the gested above, would soon show, objective forms of these pronouns, we can inake a single 23. Further, there may be certain simple and easy and simple character suffice for twice the number of words telegraphic signs, which may be employed to express in common use, an important end is gained for the tele- common inflections, such as those for the participles, or graph. That there is in reality no necessity for a the possesssive case, those which transform an adjective separate form for the objective case, is shown by the into a noun or into an abverb, or common prefixes, affixes, English and French nouns, which answer their pur- as ment, tion, &c. By an analysis of our derivative poses well without this infection ; while the common words, methods of condensation would be found depenmistakes made by children and ill-educated persons as dent on general principles in the formation of such to the cases of the pronouns, unattended by any confu- classes of words. sion as to meaning, attest the little real importance of 24. In short, it appears to me that the conductors of the objective inflection. Two well known lines in Dib- the telegraphs might advantageously enter on a comdin's popular songs illustrate this:

bined system of action for gradually simplifying and "Sha'nt us go visit the island ?"-and

shortening their work by such abbreviations and modi. “ If you loves I as I loves you."

fications of the language as from time to time may ap16. (6.) The NOUN FORM8 of the POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS pear to be practica

| pear to be practicable. If this were made a business may also be rejected—mine, ours, yours, hers, theirs and a study by one having access to the experience already

using my, our, your, her, and their, instead. This acquired, the telegraph might extend its advantages so is already done with his, which supplies the place of both as to be within the means of all; and instead of conveythe adjective and noun forms of the possessive pronoun. ing only a few dry words in urgent cases, might be inade

17. The possessive case will be indicated by the simple cheap enough, and simple enough, to undertake the addition of an 8. Thus, if w be the sign for we or us,

mission of the letter, and to be employed in thousands ws will denote the possessive forms, our and ours.

of cases from which it is now excluded by its high cost. 18. (7.) The sign of the infinitive to, may also be 25. It is not proposed that these changes should be inomitted in almost every case.

troduced all at once. They could be taken up one by 19. These seven modifications may pot, viewed separ

one. After two or three months' preparation telegraph ately, appear to be capable of effecting a great saving

operators could commence on a given day with the subbut taking them all into account, there can be little stitution of the single letter for the selected words, with doubt that they would diminish very greatly the work the derivatives from those represented by double letters; to be done by the telegraph.

next, after an interval, they might adopt the change in 20. If there are a few simple signs within the reach of the pronouns; then the dispensing with the articles; and the telegraph, they might be used for such combinations so on, taking up only a little at a time, and becoming as br, tr, cr, si, sm, sn, et, &c., which are of very frequent

expert at one series of abbreviations before going to occurrence, and might be treated as simple sounds.

another ; printed sheets, showing every symbol, and 21. WORDS IN FREQUENT Use to be REPRESENTED

the word it represents, to be provided for the telegraph BY une letter each, WITH THEIR LEADING DERIVA

offices.

26. To recapitulate shortly, the following changes are TIVÉS, formed by the addition D, N, or s.

recommended. a, am, is, are, be; (ad, was, were, been; an, being.) 1. About thirty words, those ascertained to be in most b, buy, buys; (b d, bought; b n, buying.)

frequent use—to be represented by one letter each ; their C, can; (cd, could.)

immediate derivatives, as participles, or possessive foring, d, do, does ; (d d, did, done; d n, doing.)

to be represented by two letters each. e, he, him; (cs, his.)

2. About six hundred of the words which stand next in

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