range of chemical actions, can be given of its imparting with two puff-adders of the deadliest reputation, procured oxygen to another element. Between the two sets of from the Zoological-gardens. For more than ten minutes actions—those of this hydrated protoxide upon oil, and the snakes endured the presence of the intruder, but at those with the oxides of nitrogen in sulphuric acid-length they flew fiercely at him, and one of them bit making-there exists not the most remote analogy. him in the mouth. On being taken from the cage the The doctor's reasoning and his illustrations are, both of same infusion was again administered, and the wound them, equally and most singularly at fault. The doctor was fomented; but the hind legs becamera pidly paralysed, also utterly mistakes his (Mr. Binks's) explanation re-tetanic convulsions supervened, and the animal lanspecting the peculiar action exercised upon the oils. Mr. guished and died in thirty-five minutes from the time it Binks distinctly stated, that the hydrated protoxide unites was bitten. Owing to the contraction of the jaws but both with the colouring matter of the oiland with its oleic little of the second dose of the infusion reached the acid, forming a reddish matter with the former, and stomach of the rabbit, and Mr. Temple was of opinion an oleate of the oxide of manganese with the latter. that the tincture would have afforded a fairer test, inasMr. Binks did not need to be reminded by Dr. Longstaff much as it had been prepared from the herb in a comthat both these actions must be accomplished under the paratively fresh state, whereas the infusion was made operation of the inevitable law of combination in from the dry root, which may possibly be of inferior equivalents. What Mr. Binks had distinctly stated and strength. meant, and obviously so, in his description of the oil's ultimate solidification, was that these actions initiated The following letter has been received from Mr. those changes, but did not issue through the transfor- Temple :mation of the whole of the oleic acid of the oil, into

| an oleate of manganese.

SIR, I have received the following most interest

ing letter from Dr. Chambers, relating to the late expeThe Secretary announced that Messrs. Wilson, riment which was made at the Society of Arts for the of Liverpool, had promised to deposit at the purpose of testing the reputed virtue of the snake-root in Society's House, for inspection of the members, a curing snake-bites. With the doctor's permission I

forward it to you for publication :series of samples of oils prepared by Mr. Binks' process.

1, Hill-street, Berkeley-square, Nov. 29, 1856. The Secretary further announced

MY DEAR SIR-I must not delay to thank you for the opportuwivu onnity of sceing your experiments on the effect of snake poison yes

that on Wednesday, the 10th instant, a paper, by Mr. terday. Though unsuccessful in proof of the antidote possessing W Fothergill Coole would be rend i Ön the any preservative power, I think what we saw was not without in

struction. From what I heard and saw, I became satisfied that a Utilisation of the Sewage of Towns by the repetition of such experiments must always be inconclusive, Deodorising Process established at Leicester, and whether successful or not—that is to say, whether the rabbit to the Economical Application of it to the Metro- which the antidote was given recovered or not. Suppose

(First.) That the rabbit dies; then a fallacy may existpolis.” On this evening Dr. Lyon Playfair, (A.) In the possibility of the antidote being itself a poison to C.B., F.R.S., will preside.

the animal

(B.) In the small size of the animal selected not giving sufficient natural reaction

(C.) In its powers of vomiting up the nauseous drug. EXAMINATIONS PRIZE FUND.

(Secondly.) Suppose, on the other hand, that after taking

the antidote, and being bitten, the rabbit recovers, or does not The following additions have been made to suffer; then a fallacy may exist

(D.) In the fact that animals bitten are pot always wounded. the Prize Fund :

We ourselves saw the second rabbit bitten in the back, where J. W. Gilbart, F.R.S.............. £10 10 0

the fur is thick, and not hurt. And pigs never suffer from snake Chas. Wye Williams. . 10 10 0

bites, because of their dense skinThomas Martin

... 5 0

(E.) In the fact stated by the keeper, that an animal, even if 0

wounded so as to absorb some of the poison, does not always die. The symptoms may commence and not prove fatal. This must be still more frequently the case in the larger animals than in

the smaller, because of their greater powers of resistance; and EXPERIMENTS WITH SNAKE ROOT.*

probably depends on the quantity of poison injected. Some experiments were made at the Society's House, on

Fallacy A might be counteracted by trying the effect of the Friday last, with the view of testing the efficacy, as an an

antidote alone ; Fallacies B and C by experimenting on horses, tidote to the bite of venomous snakes, of a root recently

which are as large as men, and cannot vomit what they are

| drenched with. A knacker's yard would affordample facilities. brought to this country by Mr. Temple, Chief Justice of Fallacy D cannot be avoided in using living snakes ; the best Honduras, and which, if not the veritable guaco so famed way would be to get imported a sufficient store of snake-fangs among the Indian tribes for its medicinal properties, to impregnate a lancet at will, and wound the animal at one's resembles it closely in appearance, belonging to the same leisure. Mr. Waterton says that the Macousbi Indians of class of serpentaria, and which is universally reputed Demerara always have a store of the poison from the Labarri throughout Central America to possess similar virtues. and Counacouchi snakes, to be used in the preparation of Whether the powers ascribed to this herb by the snake. Wourara. (See “Waterton's Wanderings : First Journey," charmers and natives of Central America were real or 2:

p. 55.) It might be preserved either by using the precauimaginary, and whether the efficacy of the plant was

stions employed for keeping vaccine virus, or by mixing it with universal, or limited to the bites of the reptiles indi- the main activity lies, doubtless, in the spake venom).

vegetable matter (as is done in preparing the Wourara, of which

The genous to that part of the world, were problems which greater command we should bave over the experiment would yet remained to be solved. and which assuredly deserved | much reduce Fallacy E. the attention of pathologists. Unfortunately, the expe All this will take time, and money, and trouble, but anything riments were not so successful as might have been short of it can only lead to fallacy. You see the question we anticipated. It was determined to test the potency of ask Nature is this: “Do the recoveries after the snake bites the plant, and for this purpose some eight or nine arise from the employment of antidote, or from uncertain opedrachms of the infusion were given by Dr. Chambers to | ration of the venom?” The question, so far, has purely & a healthy rabbit, which was then put into the same box

scientific interest, not a practical one; for I understood you to

say, that the plant grows universally, and is universally used * See Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. III., page 161.

as an antidote-so that our belief will not extend the belief of the parties mainly concerned. But some truly practical ques


tions might be solved by the opportnnity of trying experiments visible winged dragon is much more formidable than any creepmore accurately. First, " Will artificial respiration, carried on ing monster. for a sufficient period, restore a bitten animal in the same way

Believe me, my dear Sir, as it will one wounded by Wourara?” (I refer to Lord Derby's

Yours faithfully, donkey, experimented on by Mr. Waterton.) Secondly, “Is a

THOS. K. CHAMBERS. person once bitten equally liable to be again infected, or is the R. Temple, Esq., &c., &c. snake poison like that of small-pox, vaccinia, scarlatina, &c., incapable of acting twice in the same individual?” This inquiry

I quite agree with Dr. Chambers in thinking that the is suggested to me by the fact that persons much bitten by experiment which we tried the other day was inconclu

lice, and I believe by bees. do not suffer the same sive, and that even several experiments might be so; but it amount of inflammation as we do. Á flea-bite in the denizen must be admitted that it is by experiments alone that we of a low lodging house is simply a little puncture, barely visible, can arrive at facts. Wearedesirous ofascertaining whether without any halo of redness. “ If such is the fact, inoculation there is any ground for the supposition, so generally enwith the venom ot some of the milder snakes might preserve tertained, that the snake-root is a remedy for snakeagainst the more deadly, as vaccine virus preserves against bites. We can only do that by making experiments small-pox; or snake-venom might be a preservative against upon animals which have been subjected to the envenomed hydrophobia. Again, “ Is the venom of different animals of a different nature, or is it merely the degree of concentration or

tooth of those reptiles, and the means within our reach

are extremely limited. It will not be denied that such the quantity injected which makes the effects various ? What leads to this suspicion is, that the local effects of wasp or hornet

experiments should be confined to animals in a healthy stings on the neighbouring nerves (viz. numbness and paralysis) state ; for, if tried upon condemned cattle, either on and the erysipilatous inflammation they cause is identical with account of disease, or old age, it would be impossible to the more extensive results of snake-bites. If the suspicion were say, if the creature died, whether death was the result of true, we should have in our own wasps and hornets a diffused the disorder, or of the poison. We are then compelled agent, which might be concentrated into a most powerful one to have recourse to rabbits, Guinea pigs, dogs, cats, “ rats by artificial preparation.

| and mice and such small deer," in order to try the effiNumerous other questions, whose solution would benefit cacy of the real, or imaginary remedy. It would be a bumanity, or at least give us that power which springs from hopel ess request to ask for a fine healthy racehorse, or knowledge, might arise in the course of a series of experiments

hunter, or even a respectable cob, from Tattersall's; and I on deadly venoms such as I suggest.

fear that our country friends would have a strong objecThe failure of plants of this sort to prevent the effects of tion to "linding us the loan" of their milch cows and snake poison on animals, is further confirmed by some experiments made (on rabbits, bitten by the whip snake) by Mr. Cæ

pigs. It might, however, be a matter for consideration sar Hawkins, in 1830. These rabbits were thoroughly dosed

whether a few ticket-of-leave men, and others of that and rubbed over with guaco, yet they died, just as yours did : genus, might not in this way be made subservient to nor did the reputed antidote seem to have the slightest effect on science and the welfare of man. I merely suggest the symptoms, nor to have any infuence in repelling the snake this as a hint, which, as parliament will ere long from the animal. The guaco was also tried in five cases of hy- / reassemble, I have no doubt will be acted upon. drophobia, without any effect on the symptoms, or at least with Dr. Chambers is of opinion that the experiments must an effect very inferior to the palliation which hydrocyanic acid be inconclusive, whether they be successful or not. First, affords. Two of these cases were in dogs, and three in the hu.

if the rabbit dies, there may be a fallacy. (A.) “ In the man subject. (See London Medical Gazette, Vol. VI., p. 507; Vol. VII., p. 594; and Vol. VIII., p. 237.) So that, the

possibility of the antidote being itself a poison to the * true guaco” seems as little to be trusted as “ false guaco," if,

animal." It is very difficult to say what is, and what is indeed, they are not the same plant.

not, a poison. Almost every plant may be said to be The doubts thus thrown on the efficacy of reputed antidotes

poisonous, if a sufficient quantity be taken. In this sense, should lead us to look in other directions for protection of the

probably, a strong dose of the tincture of the snake-root lives of our countrymen, whom it may be necessary to send out might be poisonous to the rabs

might be poisonous to the rabbit, inasmuch as it is a in large gangs, to clear the forests of the Isthmus for an inter- powerful stimulant. In the ordinary acceptation of the oceanic railway or canal. And I think, even the short oppor- term, I do not think that the herb would be poisonous to tunity we had of observation on Friday may teach us some- a rabbit, or any other animal. It grows wild in the woods, thing towards it.

and every animal, large and small, has ready access to it. 1st. The snake could not bite through the skin of the rabbit's | I have heard it stated by intelligent and observant men, back. Stout boots, hedgers' gloves, and leather breeches, would, who had long been companions of nature in her wildest therefore, be a complete guard to the parts covered by them. A short fang would not penetrate even a woollen jersey.

forms, that if the snake-root, or guaco were very abun2nd. It often took a bad shot at the part intended to be

dant in any place, that circumstance amounted to a notice tounded. If the snake is seen first, I am sure a moderately

Spatels of “ beware of the snakes ;" for most assuredly in that active man may keep it from biting his face, and destroy it favoured spot those ancient enemies of the human race, with the well-known weapon, a carter's whip.

like the merchants on the Rialto, “most did congregate." 3rd. The snake would not bite, so long as he was warm and If this be true—and I must admit that it sounds very comfortable. When he had his blanket, or the rabbit's fur, to romantic-it would seem that nature, whilst she sent le against, he was quite placid. Flannel bags, then, would be the poison, beneficently placed the antidote near at hand. most efficient traps. The principle of making a comfortable There are certain birds in Central America which feed place for a trap is that of the wicker-work bug-traps.

upon snakes and lizards, without being at all particular . It would not be necessary that the whole population should

whether they are poisonous or not. These birds are frebe equally protected. One or two patrols, with a few pigs, trained, as they easily may be, to obey the voice, could clear

quently observed to partake of the leaves and bark of the the diggings of snakes every morning. The sleeping camp

guaco. Does the instinct of these animals—a quality in might be guarded with wire net, or perhaps by a ditch, filled

the inferior orders of the creation so much superior for with the broken bottles which always accumulate in an Anglo- self-preservation, to human reason-direct them to this Saxon encampment.

plant as a remedy for the poison of the snakes which they Any man who moves timber, or anything likely to be a may swallow? It is not a violent presumption. hiding-place, without gloves on, should be fined, and a reward (B). “In the small size of the animal selected not given for spakes' heads.

giving sufficient natural reaction.” That is unquestionI feel sure, that further observation of the serpents' habits,

ably a difficulty which we have to contend against. But would lead to such further means of safety. that fear wo

although, from that circumstance, a failure in proridiculous. At present, the danger arising from snakes concealed on branches of trees level with the face, seems a formid

ducing a cure would not be a fact conclusive against the able one, and suggestions on this point would be valuable.

supposed remedy, one successful experiment would be very If many Englishmen go out as navvies to South America, Il powerful evidence in its favour. expect that the proportion of deaths from snake bites, to that “(C.) In its powers of vomiting up the nauseous of deaths from jungle fever, will be as 1 to 10,000. That in- drug." If the stomach of the animal did reject the tincture, or infusion, that fact would, of course, snake, died within an hour-he was a confirmed drunkard. be observed, and the dose might be repeated. In In a healthy person the venom would be much slower in the case of the rabbit on which we experimented its operation. Very much also will de pend upon the a few days ago, I certainly thought that the fluid part which is bitten. A wound inflicted on the ancle, or which proceeded from it, after it was put into the snake's the calf of the leg, will not be so rapid in its effects as one den, came from the stomach, and that it was the infusion on the thigh, or the throat. Dr. Chambers advises perwhich had been previously administered to it. After sons who are called by their duties to be much in places the rabbit had been bitten, very little, if any, of the which are infested by snakes to wear thick, high boots, infusion which was given to it went, down its throat. and hedgers' gloves. This would, undoubtedly, be a Dr. Chambers thinks, on the other hand, that, supposing very wise precaution. But a thick leather boot will not . after taking the antidote and being bitten, the rabbit re- always protect a person from the bite of a snake. A very covers, or does not suffer, that a fallacy may exist." singular example of this was related to me. A man This is, no doubt, true; but still, I think, the question wearing a pair of stout boots, which came up to the would be decided by a number of experiments. If the knees. shouldered his axe one fine morning, and proskin of an animal like that of the pig, or the rhinoceros, ceeded to the forest to cut wood. After he had aimed a few or the armadillo, is so thick that the tooth of a snake strokes, a snake, not approving of his proceedings, bit him would not penetrate to the blood-vessels, there is no in the calf of the leg. Our woodman, however, thinking question that a bite would be harmless, for the poison, that his boot had sufficiently protected him, laughed at to take effect, must come in contact with the blood. In the snake, and went on with his work. But after a little such a case, therefore, if the tincture were administered, time a feeling of sickness and stupor came over him, and the non-dying of the animal would be productive of a he thought it advisable to wend his way home, which fallacy, if it led to the belief that its life had been pre- he did, and died in about an hour after he had got there. served by the drug. Again, it is not difficult to believe The boots--they were capital boots-were sold. The that the most poisonous snake may not at all times be fortunate possessor, as he thought himself, carried them able to inflict a deadly wound. But this may be ac- home, and then put them on to see if they would fit. In counted for. It is an ascertained fact that the poison of a few hours he was a corpse. This was considered very the snake is deposited in a small sac, which is placed at the strange—some thought it was apoplexy, some paralysis, root of a moveable fang situated in the upper jaw, immedi- and some thought it was an affection of the heart-but ately under the eye. This fang is hollow, and when it is nobody thought of suspecting the boots. In a short time pressed down upon the sac the poison is ejected from the they again had an owner. It will scarcely be credited point. If a snake, under excessive irritation, has bitten -but it is a fact, this man died also. At length the anything savagely, it is not unreasonable to suppose that boots were examined—what caused the investigation I it may have parted with the whole of its valuable stock do not know, but I suppose the fell Atropos thought on hand, and that time may be required to produce that she had done enough mischief with a pair of bootspeculiar combination of animal juices which constitutes and in one of them was found sticking the tooth of a the poison, and to re-supply the reservoir with the fatal snake, in such a manner that in drawing on the boot the fluid. If, then, a snake were to bite any animal before leg must inevitably be scratched by it. But mosquitoes its malevolent mechanism had produced a fresh supply even will bite through a boot, unless it be very thick for the market, it is probable that the injury inflicted indeed. There is a species of mosquito called the striker would not be more serious than an ordinary wound. In a large, greyish, villainous-looking monster-against trying an experiment with a venomous snake, care should which scarcely any clothing is a protection. therefore be taken that it should not bite anything for a Dr. Chambers is doubtful whether the “true guaco" considerable time previously. What are the constituent and the “ false guaco”-the plant with which we experiparts of snake poison? In this scientific age, when mented, are different plants. They are certainly very analytical chemists so very much agree as to the nature different indeed, although the one which we used and effect of all poisons, especially those which, like would be called guaco by most of the natives in Central that of the snake, produce " convulsions with tetanic com- | America. I shall give you a very particular account of plications," why does not some person analyse this deadly the real guaco in a short time, and state a number of product of the animal world, for the purpose of discover- cases to prove its title to be considered a remedy for ing a decisive antidote? Dr. Chambers asks whether a snake bites. In the meantime, I think it will be very person once bitten is liable to be again infected, which desirable to try some more experiments with the "snake inquiry is suggested by the fact that persons much bitten root," and, if we arrive at the conclusion that it is worthby fleas, &c., suffer less inflammation than those who less, to cause that fact to be disseminated as widely as are not inured to it. My experience in such matters does possibly in Honduras and Central America, in order that not enable me to support that theory. I have had much no unfortunate recipient of snake venom may lose practical knowledge of bites of all kinds—mosquitoes, valuable time by indulging in delusive hopes that it will sand-flies, doctor flies, centipedes, cockroaches and I prolong his existence. must confess that I never could get used to them. It There is much food for thought in the interesting is a singular thing that the negroes, who are said to have letter of Dr. Chambers; and the observations which I an additional cuticle, and whose bodies are constantly have made are not intended to express any difference of exposed to every species of attack, feel much more opinion from him, but to promote discussion upon & acutely than Europeans the bites of mosquitoes and matter of paramount importance to all those whose sand-flies. I have witnessed 100-or 150 black soldiers destiny leads them to pass much of their time amongst at parade on a calm, hot, cloudy morning, when the the jungles of India, or the dense forests of Central mosquitoes and the sand-fies have vied with each other | America.

I am, &c. in tormenting sinful man. Nothing could be more

R. TEMPLE. grotesque and ridiculous than the actions of those sooty | December 2, 1856. warriors. First they would clap the backs of their hands, then slap their faces, and then, at the moment they were commanded to present and make ready, drop their muskets on the ground, and tear the flesh off their calves and ancles. I do not think that human nature can get reconciled to bites. As to the effct produced upon different persons, that, no doubt, will much depend! HUDDERSFIELD.—The annual distribution of prizes in upon the state of the blood and the general condition connection with this Institution took place at the Philoof the body. I knew a person who, being bitten by a sophical Hall, on Wednesday evening, the 26th ult.,

Proceedings of Institutions.

under the presidency of Lord Goderich. Prizes were country should be called on to make an united effort to given by his Royal Highness Prince Albert, by Lord establish a national system. Somehow it was taken for Goderich, by H. Tindal Atkinson, and other gentlemen. granted that, having levied a rate, and nominated Amongst the gentlemen present were, Viscount Goderich, the managing committee, and built the schoolhouse, M.P., the Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, Bart, M.P., and provided apparatus, and engaged the master, ali the Rev. Dr. Booth, F.R.S., from the Society of Arts, which can possibly be required is accomplished, and the Edward Baines, Esq., president of the Yorkshire Union, education of the children of the neighbourhood was thus John Hope Shaw, Esq., president of the Leeds Philoso- secured. But what if the children would not come to phical Society, Edmund Eastwood, Esq., president of the the school, or would leave it again before they had acHuddersfield Mechanics’ Institution, &c. Mr. F. Curzon, quired a smattering of the rudiments of the commonest the secretary, read the report. The distribution of prizes elementary knowledge; how was this state of things to be then took place; after which the meeting was addressed provided against ? This was no far-fetched anticipation by Lord Goderich, who said he was sure the many gentle- or doubtful apprehension. It was realised in all the men of eminence and distinction present could not have yearly reports of her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools. It contemplated the scene before them without a feeling of was the universal complaint that the children of the hope for the future of a district that could bring together poor left school earlier every succeeding year. That as between 700 and 800 students such as those before them, the quality of the education is improved, the time given and which could show some who had displayed considerable to school by the children is shortened, so that the final attainments. The distinguishing feature of the Hudders- result is a deterioration rather than an improvement. They field Institute was its classes. They heard in these days, might depend upon it, they would not sensibly raise the and heard most truly, of the worthlessness of testimonials; standard of education until they created a demand for it. but those members of this Institution who had just Let the Government of the country make intelligence received prizes had received a testimonial which could and industry the passports to employment, not private not be disputed; and he could not doubt that those in interest or family influence. Let the great public comthis district who had to engage the services of such panies, the great employers of labour, look only to the persons would be inclined to give great weight and effect fitness of the candidates for employment, and then they to a candidate for employment who was the holder of would see a very different state of things. Whether one of these prizes. On a recent occasion, when the they would have a state system of education, or a volunSociety of Arts established their examinations, they tary scheme, was a matter of very insignificant importsent circulars to the large employers of labour through-ance, compared with this,—whether the country at large, out the country, asking whether they would be ready not merely the Government, but the other great emto give weight to the certificates that might be awarded ployers of labour as well, shall insist upon education as by the Society, and they received to that invitation a a necessary passport to every but the lowest and least remost complete response. Now, what was done by them munerative employment. The schools they had at present on a large scale throughout the country would, he was were only half-filled. But if by any means they could convinced, be done on a smaller scale within that make instruction a necessary, somewhat like meat, drink, district. Most of them were aware that in the course of or clothing, people would endeavour to procure it. next year it was the intention of the Society of Arts to Education, though essential, was not a pressing want, and hold in that town their annual examination of the mem-like religion, but too many were contented to live without bers of Mechanics' Institutions in the North of England. it. They should create a demand for education, and for the purpose of awarding their valuable certificates the supply was sure to follow. Let them promote only They would then have to compete with other students those who are well instructed, or who have instructed from the Mechanics' Institutes of Yorkshire and Lan- themselves, and a supply of the right men for the right cashire, and to maintain not only their own position, but places would not fail them. John Hope Shaw, Esq., that of their Mechanics Institution, to show to the seconded the motion. The next resolution, which spoke Society of Arts they had been right in selecting Hud- of the advantages of classes, was proposed by Sir John dersfield as the place at which their examination was Pakington, who said he rejoiced in the practical proof of to be held. The gentlemen who had consented to act as their success which had been shown that evening. He examiners to the Society of Arts were men of the greatest considered the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics’ Institutes distinction and ability in the various branches of know- an honour to the country, and he was glad of the opporledge to which they had devoted themselves. His lord- tunity of expressing his high respect for Mr. Baines, the ship concluded by speaking of the debt of gratitude they President of that Union. W. Willans, Esq., seconded the oved to those who had acted as voluntary teachers. motion, and said he should be happy to contribute a prize The Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution was engaged in next year. The next resolution was proposed by Edward the great work of popular education; and when they saw Baines, Esq., and was to the effect " That the measure euch zeal, such attention, and such results, he,for one, felt proposed by the Society of Arts to hold annual examinait impossible to despair, that in a good timecoming," that tions of students of Mechanics' and similar Institutions, work would be accomplished; and that the highest aspira- and to give prizes and certificates for proficiency, which tions and hopes of those who had permitted themselves has received the approval of a large number of employers to look foward hopefully to the future would not be dis-throughout the kingdom by the declaration of these that appointed, so long as men were found to study in the they will attach respect to such certificates, is an importspirit which marked the students of that Institution, and ant and valuable means of extending and improving the to teach in that yet nobler spirit which actuated its teachers. education of the people, as it will constitute an efficient The Rev. Dr. BOOTH proposed the first resolution, which practical stimulus to study on the part of members of was in favour of the introduction of the principle of edu- these Institutions." He(Mr. Baines) could remember when cation into the system of instruction at Mechanics' Insti- there was no Mechanics' Institute in Huddersfield. tutions. He had so recently, and on more than one They then met in small numbers in the ill-lighted Lanoccasion, placed before the public his views on educational casterian school; and at that time it was impossible for matters, that he would detain them only by a very few him to look forward to such a scene as had been witnessed brief observations. That the education question was the that evening. The speaker next adverted to the forthmost important social problem which awaits solution, did coming examination of the Society of Arts in June not admit of a doubt. It lay at the very root of every next. He looked upon the proceedings of the presocial reform. The great point of discussion at the sent evening as a rehearsal of those that would present time was this, whether education should be pio- | take place next year; and he advised the members still moted by efforts which are purely spontaneous and volun- to work on, as on that occasion they would have Leeds, tary, and therefore uncertain, or whether the whole Bradford, Sheffield, and Marchester, as well as others



To Correspondents.

from Yorkshire and Lancashire to compete with. With 2660. George Islington Bache, Glasgow-Improvements in lamps and reference to the prize fund, at least there would be £500

apparatus for affording or supplyiug artificial light.

2662. Joseph Eccles, Blackburn - Improvements in machinery for to distribute in prizes ; but in Yorkshire they ought to

making bricks, tiles, pipes, and other articles made of plastic do more than this; and he sincerely hoped the gentry

materials. would send in subscriptions, and show that they felt an

2664. William Henry Balmain, and Thomas Colby, Saint Helen's,

Lancashire-Improved means of grinding various substances. interest in the education of the people. Where such

2666. James Apperly, and William Clissold, Dudbridge, Gloucestera state of things existed, there must be a greater

shire-Improved apparatus for condensing wool, cotton, and amount of moral excellence, and they would thereby

other fibrous substances.

38. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements raise the whole moral status of society. The reso

in the preparation of fibres for spinning, and in machinery lution was seconded by James Hanson, Esq. John

employed therein. (A communication.) Brooke, Esq., moved a vote of thanks to the donors 2670. Frank James Wilson Peckman, Puckeridgé, Herts, and Charles of prizes, which was seconded by Emanuel Eastwood,

Frederick Pike, Oxford-street-An armed glove or covering

for the thumb and fingers. Esq., president of the Institution. A similar vote

Dated 13th November, 1856. was proposed to the examiners by Joseph Rothery, | 2672. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields-Improvements Esq., and was seconded by Mr. Marriott. A vote of

in machinery or apparatus for cutting and folding paper. (A


2674. Charles Wastell Dixey, 3, New Bond-street-Improvements in Joseph Batley, Esq., and Dr. Cameron, and after being

double opera glasses, and other glasses of a similar nature. responded to by Lord Goderich, the meeting separated.

2676. Thomas Stephen Holt, Manchester, and Edward Earnshaw and The annual soirée was held on the following evening, and

James Barlow, Rochdale Improvements in certain parts of

steam-engines, steam-boilers, and apparatus connected there. was well and numerously attended. Lord Goderich again

with. presided, and the assembly was addressed by Sir Robert 2678. Thomas Earp, Newark-on-Trent-A tap for measuring liquids. Peel, Major-General Windham. Edward Akroyd. Esa... | 2680. John Kinniburch, Renfrew, N.B.-Improvements in moulding

or shaping metals. the Rev. S. Holmes, T. P. Crosland, Esq., Sir William

Dated 14th November, 1856. Milner, Bart., H. W. Wickham, Esq., M.P., as well as 2682. Peter Armand le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 39, Rue de by most of the speakers of the preceding evening.

l'Echiquier, Paris-An improved method of forming letters

and other devices on metallic surfaces. (A communication.) 2683. Joseph Hacking, Bury, Lancashire-Certain improvements in

machinery for dressing, polishing, and finishing threads and

yarns. 2684. Thomas Beatt Sharp, and Joseph Anthony Collet, Manchester

Certain improvements in locomotive steam-engines.

2685. Adolphe Emanuel Huart, Southampton, Surrey-An improved Mr. Chadwick's reply to Mr. Bridges Adams' paper on “ Men

toy for the use of children. and Manufactures" has been received, and publication is deferred 2686. Richard Emery, 6, King-street, St. James's-square-Improvefor want of space.

ments in springs for carriages and other vehicles. 2687. Richard Emery, 6, King-street, St. James's-square-Improve

ments in the construction of axles and boxes of carriages for

common roads. MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK, 2688. John Rock Day, and Thomas Rutter, Birmingham-A new or

improved metallic tile for roofing or covering buildings. Mon. London Inst., 7. Prof. Odling “On Organic Chemistry."

2689. Edward Money, 14, St. James's-square-An improved artificial Geographical, 8. I. Mr. J. 8. Wilson, “Extracts from a

manure. Journal of the North Australian Expedition." II. Mr.

2690. Jean Baptiste Heu, 15, Rue St. Lazare, Paris-Improvements W. K. Loftus, “ On the Determination of the River

in preserving animal and vegetable substances suitable for · Eulæus' of the Greek Historians."

food. (A communication.) TUES. Syro-Egyptian, 74. Rev. Dr. Hewlett, “On the Botany of

Egypt, as illustrated in the ancient Sculptures and Paint

Civil Engineers, 8. Mr. W. Bell, “On the Laws of the

Strength of Wrought and Cast Iron,"
Med. and Chirurg., 8.

November 28th.

December 2nd.

1303. Auguste Cadet. Zoological, 9.

1283. Fred. Luke Stott, Thomas

1314. George Josiah Mackelcan. WED. Literary Fund, 3.

Belward, and J. Findlow.

1315, Edwin Heywood and ThoLondon Inst., 3. Prof. Rymer Jones, “ On Vivaria and 1299. Gustavus Gidley and Wm.

mas Ogden Dixon. their Inhabitants."


1334. John Christophers. Royal Soc. Literature, 45.

1301. Bennett Johns Heywood.

1341. Andrew Edmund Brae. Society of Arts, 8. Mr. W. Fothergill Cooke, “ On the 1305. Victor Jean Baptiste Mau

1360, Samuel Dyer. Utilization of the Sewage of Towns by the Deodorizing


1377. Carlo Pietroni. Process established at Leicester, and the Economical Ap 1330. Edward Hatton.

1388. Alfred Vincept Newton, plication of it to the Metropolis."

1331. Duncan Morrison.

1425. Henry Holland. Graphic, 8.

1333. Duncan Morrison.

1426. John Sadler, Josiah Green, Microscopical, 8.

1349. James Somerville.

and Thomas Davis, Ethnological, 8).

1380. Armand Eugene Preux.

1440. Caleb Perry Sharpley. Archæological Association, 81.

1386. John Henry Johnson,

1475. IsaacAtkin and Marmaduke THURS. Philosophical Club, 54.

1438. Charles Clifford.

London Institution, 7. Dr. R. E. Grant, “On the Natural

1560. William Hickling Burnett. History of Extinct Animals."

1515. John Henry Johnson.

1598. Henry Bollmann Condy. Antiquaries, 8.

1550. Joseph Henry Van Hengel.

1608. Alfred Vincent Newton. Royal, 8.

1658. Jean Louis Lucas and

1680. Charles Barlow. FRI, Astronomical, 8.

Albert de Briges.

1.37. Thomas Barnabus Daft. London Institution, 3. Mr. T. A. Malone, “On Experi

1973. James Wadsworth.

2163. Robert Walker, jun. mental Physics, chiefly in Relation to Chemistry."

2120. William Henry Forster.

) 2214. John Roberts and James Royal Botanic, 3

2134. John Talbot Pitman.

Medical, 8.

2161. Alfred Vincent Newton.

2251. John James Russell and 2184. Thomas Callender Hinde.

Joseph Bennett Howell. 2223. John Morrison.

2282. George'lomlinson Bousfield PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT.

2249. Arthur Albright.

12382. Timothy Gilbert, APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED. [From Gazette, November 281A, 1856.]


November 24th.

November 27th. 2406. George Guillaume, Southampton-An apparatus for obtaining 2758. Georges Ed. Gazagnaire. 2772. Alexander Macomie. motive power by means of water or other fluid.

November 25th.

November 28th.
Dated 31st October, 1856.

2762. Louis Cornides.

2788. John Patterson. 2558. Benjamin Goodfellow, Hyde, Cheshire--Certain improvements

November 26th.

November 29th. in the construction of steam-boilers, and in the mode of sup 2771. John Carter Ramsden. 2784. Edward Keating Davis. porting steam-boilers on their seatings.

2778. Auguste Edouard Loradoux 2798. John Henry Johnson. Dated 12th November, 1056.

2810. Samuel C. Lister. 2658. John Patterson, Beverley, York--Improvements in apparatus 2783. Peter Armand le Comte de 2820. Squier Chevin. for churning, which apparatus is also applicable to the wash

Fontaine-moreau, ing of roots and other substances.

2804. Alexander Brown.


2778. Aurellford.in comte de 2820. Squien Robinson.

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