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not acting chemically upon it (as the half-vitrified anhy-hydrated protoxides, just mentioned, by mere contact drous oxide of zinc), and this mixture be spread over with the oil in very minute proportional quantities, the same area, the oil will dry sooner than in the former at once break through this state of equilibrium, or instance, probably in 18 hours; and this result is due to power of resistance, and the oil thereupon begins at an increased area of exposure of the same weight of oil, once to dry; that is, this contact initiates the action or consequent upon interstitial action of the mixture; that series of actions, or removes some obstruction against is, each particle of oxide of zinc is enveloped in a their exercise, and these then proceed with all the raglobule of the oil, and the consistency of the mixture pidity that unimpeded external or internal influences is such that the air finds its way into the mass as well are capable of. This peculiar action of these hydrated as merely upon its surface, as when the oil is used only oxides is analogous to, but by no means chemically idenper se. This is the third kind of action, or that due to tical with, that of fermentation, that with saccharine matter structure.
is initiated by addition, in minute quantity, of the ferStill using the same kind of oil and area of exposure, menting agent, and which then, without further addition, if a composition be exposed to dry, consisting of three- proceeds to completion. The addition to the oil of only fourths by weight of the oil, and one-fourth of turpentine from 3 to 5 parts of the hydrated protoxide of manplus the oxide of zinc, this will dry in a time considerably ganese to 1,000 of the oil, gives birth to these peculiar shorter than either the first or the last, because the changes; and by the simplest of methods of after treatevaporation of the turpentine adds an element of ment, this chemical fact is made applicable to the promechanical disturbance, and because that, over the saine duction of any required kind of drying oil. area of exposure to superficial and interstitial action,' It is scarcely necessary to remark that this hydrated there is less oil to react with the atmosphere, and its protoxide is, in every respect-in its mode of application, reaction resulting in the drying of it, is concluded in a l'action, and results-different from the old peroxide, shorter time, which will probably be about fifteen hours. which at ordinary temperatures exercises no action what
If with the oil, plus the oxide of zinc, there be mixed, ever upon oil. Whilst the latter is used to give oxygen to in equivalent proportions, some acetate of baryta and the oil, the property of the former is to abstract it. The crystallised sulphate of zinc, the oil in this mixture will protoxide is a powerful deoxidising agent; and had the dry sooner than that per se, and probably about the same wiiter been guided by the old theory of giving oxygen to time as the last, that is, in fifteen hours; not through the oil, the hydrated protoxide would never have been any chemical action, for they exercise none upon the tried, nor, probably, these curious results obtained. The oil, but because of the molecular disturbance caused by manganese protoxide is selected out of the others having the combining of the two salts, and the throwing of a similar specific action, because of the peculiar property some portion of the water of crystallisation present. it alone has, conjointly with its powerful drying action,
Again, if with the oil there be ground up, to form of bleaching the oil finally. The iron oxide gives to the the paint, sulphate of baryta, and to that be added some oil a permanent brown stain; the cobalt, a reddish; the crystallised sulphate of manganese, this, too, will dry nickel, a greenish tinge; and the manganese oxide is somewhat sooner than the oil per se, because this salt, readily and cheaply obtained through the medium of the being efflorescent, and parting with three of its equi- beautiful rose-coloured salt, the crystallised sulphate of valents of water, throws off those on exposure, although manganese. the salt itself (that is, the sulphate of manganese per se) has no action whatever upon the oil at common tem
V.- Manufacturing Arrangements and Products. peratures.
The arrangements for manufacturing the drying oils Now, these examples of various actions will sufficiently on this principle that, under the writer's direction, have indicate the kinds referred to under the third and fourth been adopted by the well-known firm of Messrs. J. heads; but the most important are the induced actions and W. Wilson, of Liverpool, will fully explain the (the second kinds), that is, those which, through some process of manufacture. A large wooden and lead-lined special addition to or treatment of the oil, advance its vat, holding several tons of oil, is furnished with a false drying rate both beyond its natural and beyond its bottom or compartment, through which steam is passed to mechanically-produced rates.
warm the oil; and with a contrivance for passing into the Now, the practical results of this long course of ex- oil a large volume of atmospheric air, sent into it by a perimenting were, first, the discovery of certain materials double-action air-pump, attached (capable of being or forms of materials never previously so used, that thrown in or out of action at pleasure) to the main shaft exercise specific drying actions upon the oil. Next, to l of their grinding mills machinery. The oil, used in very show how very few of all those resorted to experiment- large quantity at a time, is mixed with hydrated proally exercise any drying action at all. Then to reduce toxide of manganese, or materials yielding that, in quaneven these few to two or three, whose properties fully tity ranging between 5 and 14 lbs. to the ton, and the oil admit of their use for all practical purposes; and finally, warmed up to from 100 to 150 degs. Fah. In a very short to demonstrate what the kind of action really is that time-10 or 20 minutes the oil loses its peculiar yellow thus issues in the solidification of the oil.
colour, passing through a greenish into a brownish tint, It was discovered that the hydrated protozides of whilst the oxide disappears, being dissolved in the oil. certain metals pre-eminently exercise a specific drying In this state of " solution, as it is called, the oil has action on the oil. That it proceeds in the cold with already had given to it, by this simple, rapid, and inexsufficient rapidity to render the aid of heat not neces-pensive operation, a very considerable amount of drying sary, though the application of heat quickens, and is power, and is fit, in this state, to be applied to expedient in the operation. The hydrated protoxides à multitude of purposes. If, at this stage, the of iron, of nickel, of cobalt, and of manganese, are the operation be stopped, and the oil left to cool, it most remarkable of the class; but it is through the latter will let fall a very small quantity of reddish-brown de(ie., the hydrated protozide of manganese) that all the posit, the result of a combination between the manganese singular and happy effects upon the oil are to be prac-oxide and the colouring matter of the oil, whilst tically accomplished.
| throughout the oil is diffused an oleate of the oxide of Linseed oil in its normal condition-raw oil-does manganese, giving it the brownish tinge. On exposure not dry per se under 50 hours. In this, its normal state, ot' this “solution” to air, this tinge, in the first init appears (as it may be expressed) to exercise a certain stance, passes into a deep brown, as deep as that of power of resistance against external influences, that would | common boiled oil; then there follows a deposit of tend to disturb its equilibrium, and transform it from sesqui-oxide of manganese, and the oil begins to bleach, and the fluid to the solid state. It yields to these influences gradually, as those changes go on, increases in its drying only after a few days' struggle, as it were. Now the ate. The extent to which the bleaching may finally
proceed, may be to produce an oil equal, or better, in and requiring, consequently, both large quantities and colour, than refined linseed; or it may terminate in many varieties of drying oils) conduct these new oil opeproducing a fine amber-coloured oil, these results being rations on a very large scale, on their new premises in Orinfluenced by the quantity of the manganese employed. ford-street, Liverpool, and find themselves delivered from These are the effects of exposure to air after formation troublesome dealings with oil boilers, produce, with perof the solution." With small quantities of oil they fect convenience, any quantity they require for their own will be completed in a few hours ; with larger quantities use, and receive back, in one useful form or another,
-tons—they require two or three days, when it is only every particle of oil they subject to these operations. the action of the air upon the surface of these quantities I cannot close this paper without expressing the oblithat is brought to bear upon the oil. But if the air, by gations these new processes lie under, alike to another any mechanical means, be forced into the oil in abun- gentleman-Mr. Thomas Hubbuck, of London, and to dance, when slightly warmed, say to 100 degrees Fahren- the Messrs. Wilson, for the congenial encouragement heit, and thus be brought in contact with every particle given to them during the transition period—that is, of it, these changes are then accomplished with sin- during their journey across that debateable ground that gular rapidity. A few .gallons will pass through all always intervenus, in chemical researches and applications, those changes, and be finished in from half-an-between the laboratory and the manufactory. hour to one hour. A few tons require only from four to six hours to be thus converted into fine-drying, or into bleached, or refined drying oil, requiring only,
DISCUSSION. after this, to be left at rest, for subsidence of the Mr. Thos. Wilson, of the firm of Messrs. Wilson, of insignificant deposits before-mentioned; or, to have these Liverpool, writes thus:-"I may say I have never had separated immediately, and the oil is at once fit for use one single complaint of our oil not drying; and I think or sale. If, after accomplishment of these changes and the the best I can say to show that we approve of your method bleaching effects, and separation of all deposits conse- is, that we have put down a new apparatus, more than quent upon them, the oil be further subjected to the double the size of the old one, and we now do between action of air by surface exposure, or by the blowing ap- four and five tons at a time, and have never had a drop paratus, it gradually thickens, that is, it passes from its of oil boiled on the old principle since we adopted your Huid towards its solid form, and can have given to it any plan, now nearly eighteen months ago. We grind the degree of viscidity ranging between that of refined lin- materials together in oil, and add the water when we seed and that of honey, in fact, it may, in this manner, make each lot. I have now nearly a ton of material be almost solidified, -effects, it is needless to say, of no ground, so that I do not require to give it much attention, small value for a variety of purposes.
as our man now knows the quantity." If, in place of specially and previously preparing the Mr. VARLEY said, nothing had been stated in the paper hydrated protoxide, as assumed so far to have been with regard to the action of drying oil upon the piginent done, one of its salts be taken, preferably the sulphate white-lead, which, properly prepared, he considered was of manganese, and this be mixed direct with the oil, the whitest pigment known. He wished to know how along with some other compound capable of decomposing the water was extracted from the oil? the sulphate, and of liberating, whilst in contact with Mr. Laing said, in an experience of thirty years he had the oil, and under its nascent conditions, the hydrated found nothing so good as pure linseed oil, and he had oxide, then there come into play operations and effects adopted the process of throwing in litharge, which carried of great value and convenience. The agent of decom- down the mucilaginous matters containing the water. position of the sulphate, in this case, may be lime, Practically he found litharge had that effect, and at the or magnesia, or ammonia, &c., but the most readily same time did not produce any injury to the oil itself. manageable, and which yields the most powerful of the Mr. HANHART said he wished to ask Mr. Binks drying oils for all common purposes, is the hydrated pro- whether he considered that, in the mode of boiling or toxide of lead, or the anhydrous protoxide, with water heating oils by which they acquire drying properties, used along with it, or used simply when the manga- and are thickened without the addition of any metallic nese sulphate has in it its water of crystallisation. oxide, the change was entirely owing to the absorpThese operations, as will be apparent to any chemist, tion of oxygen from the atmosphere, or whether it admit of a great variety of modifications, and of the might not be partially owing to the decomposition of use of many different materials. For the sulphate may the oil, and the numerous reactions that took place when be substituted the chloride—the nitrate or the acetate the temperature was considerably raised ? Could the oil of manganese, &c.
rendered drying by Mr. Binks's process be made of the With the hydrated protoxide of lead and the manga necessary consistence for lithographic purposes? There nese sulphate as the elements, there is, of course, the was a great objection to the use of driers in the manuformation of sulphate of lead, and this yields a large facture of lithographic varnish, for although it was deposit from the pil at the end of the changes. But the necessary it should dry when on the impression, yet, mixture thus obtained is itself one of the best as a drier owing to the absorbent nature of the leather rollers, they (for coloured paints, &c.) that can be found.
would soon become hard and perfectly useless. Any The final effect of the passing into the oil large process that could supply a perfectly colourless varnish volumes of air, after that has been contained for some from pure linseed oil (or any other oil that had the time, is to increase the weight of the oil. Before it be- proper printing qualities) would be a boon to the manucomes, in this way, too viscid for common use, it is facturer of printing inks, especially for chromo-lithofound to have had added to its weight from 2 to 3 per graphy, where the dark colour that linseed oil acquired cent. There is, therefore, no loss, but a gain, by this when brought to a high temperature was very objectionoperation. The original cost of materials needed to able, as it spoiled the purity of the delicate tints. produce the most powerful oil does not exceed 3s. to 4s. / Mr. THOMAS HUBBUCK remarked that he had seen per ton ; but every particle of these, as subsequently re- samples of the oil prepared by Mr. Binks before the procovered after the process, is of equal or greater value than cess was perfected, and he must say, that the specimens the original cost. The cost of a few hours of steam which he saw in the first instance were very crude, as warming the oil, and of attendance, is very trifling; so compared with those now in the room. Some of them that the process fully meets all the requirements of the were dark, and others perfectly white, but there was a manufacturer on the score of its extreme economy. varnish smoothness about them all, different from what
The Messrs. Wilson (who, besides being paint and was usually seen, none of the watery particles being left. colour manufacturers, are extensive ship and house He did not know how they evaporated, but such was the painters, probably the largest ship painters in England, I case, and the water was completely taken out of the oil. In the treatment of linseed oil, the opposite of the com- that epithet ; for he was sure that it required but mon process of refining appeared to be required. The little knowledge of chemical science to tell, à priori, usual process was by acids, which were afterwards blown what would be the results of three-fourths of the exoff by steam, and there was always a considerable por-periments detailed to them that evening. Genetion of water remaining, even in the transparent and rally speaking, scientific discoveries were made by a clear oils. But the oil prepared by Mr. Binks's pro- series of experiments directed to a particular end, founded cess was perfectly anhydrous, no particle of water upon some known chemical evidence. They were told remaining in it. The drying properties of the oil de- that the art which they (the boilers) pursued was also pended upon the will of the operator. His experiments unsuccessful ; that they did not produce the article dehad not gone to the extent stated by Mr. Binks—that sired. He would appeal to any gentleman conversant quantity had nothing to do with it; for he (Mr. Hub- with the article to be obtained in this country from rebuck) had found that the power of the oil to dry was in spectable oil-boilers, whether it did not answer the purproportion to the quantity of ingredients he put in. It pose desired? Whether, when properly applied to paint might be made to dry in six or eight hours, or, if de- properly prepared, it did not dry within a reasonable sirable, in half that time. The experiments he had time? They could not only produce oil, drying within made had never been sufficiently accurate to give him a reasonable time, but that which would dry within a the means of knowing on what that depended, and he specific time. They could have an oil that would enhad never produced any oil so limpid and crystal as that sure the paint drying within four hours, or within eight now exhibited. He had used it with snow white, and hours, and so on, till they could furnish them with a his experience did not agree with the opinion expressed paint that probably would not dry in less than 50 hours. that evening, that sulphate of lead was the whitest pig. If he could produce them oil that would answer these ment known, because snow-white (the white oxide of purposes-however empirical the system by which it was zinc) threw the sulphate of lead into the back-ground in obtained, at any rate it was not unsuccessful. Thererespect of whiteness, and with that he had produced a fore, he thought that the author of this essay, colour applicable to mastic varnish. Mr. Hubbuck added instead of depreciating the processes already in existence, that he had no doubt as to the value of Mr. Binks's should have confined himself to bringing before this Soprocess.
ciety what he conceived to be an improved process. They Mr. HEYWOOD said, he had oxidised linseed oil under had also been told that the article as ordinarily produced pressure of oxygen gas of two atmospheres, so as to bring could not be used for either white paints or white zinc, it almost to a solid state, and without the use of the in consequence of its colour, and was only available for oxide of manganese. If nitrate of baryta were used, paints of a dark colour. It was, however, remarkable the oil would be destroyed, and combustion produced. that the contrary of this was the fact-for it was well The oil might also be dried by atmospheric air under known to painters that although boiled oil, of a dark pressure. Mr. Heywood stated that oil of turpentine colour, when applied to white paint, might, when first might be oxidised in the same manner as oil by means laid on, appear to have injured the colour; the paint of air, but never without the pressure of atmospheric air. would, in the course of a day or two, be found whiter If Mr. Binks's experiments had been carried on in vessels than that made with the ordinary oil which had not from which the atmospheric air was excluded, he might been boiled. This was owing to the chemical change it think that the air had nothing to do with it; but he had undergone. Much had also been said upon the inconsidered the process one of oxidation.
jurious effects to health of the process of boiling oil as Dr. Longstaff said he was sure the Society could not now conducted, and also with regard to its being an inbut feel obliged to Mr. Binks for having brought this tolerable nuisance, and that it could only be carried on very interesting subject before them ; especially for in localities where nuisances were tolerated. He was having detailed the elaborate series of experiments which surprised that a gentleman possessing the means of inhe had gone through with a view to arrive at some prac- formation which the author of this paper had, should tical result. He could not, however, but regret the have committed himself upon this point. It was welltone of depreciation in which he had spoken of the old known that oil could be boiled with ordinary care in aland the existing processes. He thought it was to be re- most any locality without affecting the health of gretted that in bringing forward matter which he con- the neighbourhood. It was done in situations little ceived to be important in theory or practice, he should dreamt of, and without its being discovered that such a introduce that matter by running down every other process was going on. Nothing was easier than to pass theory and every other practice; and he (Dr. Longstaff) the noxious va pours from the oil through a fire, thus defelt, as one deeply concerned in this subject,-being con- stroying all cause of the nuisance. It was to be nected with one of the largest manufactories of this arti- regretted that such statements as these should be cle,-he felt it due, not only to his own firm, but also to publicly made, for, unfortunately, the prejudices of the other firms who had long been engaged in the practice of public were sufficiently strong against manufactories. producing boiled oil, to enter his protest against the epi-He did not mean to say that the process might not be thet applied to them and the art they practised. They so conducted as to be a nuisance; and it was a nuisance,; had been told that the practice was not only unsuccess- no doubt, if not carried on under proper precautions fully pursued, but that to the present day it was em- but it might be conducted in almost any locality so as not pirical: nay, more, that it was impotent and uncertain. to be offensive or injurious. They had heard strong He most distinctly and emphatically contradicted these epithets applied as to the unhealthy nature of the process assertions. He considered that the practice of boiling of boiling oil, because it was taken for granted that in oil, as it was now carried on, by those most conversant boiling oil, lead was used in some form or other; and with the subject, was not empirical ; that it was founded they had heard a great deal about the injurious effects on a series of experiments conducted with as much care, upon workinen connected with the boiling of oil, the and with as much scientific knowledge, as those which grinding of paints, and other operations in which the use had been detailed that evening. If he were called upon of lead was concerned, but they found no difficulty in to define the word empirical, he should say it was a getting persons to manipulate not only in boiling oil, series of experiments without scientific indication as to but in white lead, and other processes; nor did they the results. He should be very sorry to apply any harsh find any greater degree of sickness or mortality about epithet to anything that had been said, but it struck persons so engaged than amongst those employed in many him as most extraordinary that a gentleman should em- other departments of manufacture. All that was required ploy the word empirical to any series of experiments was to use ordinary care in the exercise of those precauwhich, if entered upon by the most ignorant tions which experience had dictated. Mr. Binks had painter, could hardly be said to be deserving of been unfortunate in dealing in a wholesale, and, he thought, illiberal manner, with the gentlemen engaged in manner he would use the ingredient referred to. this injurious" business of boiling oil. They were told Mr. Binks said he found there was little difference in the that the oil was scarcely to be met with in a pure state, result whether he used five, ten, fifteen, or twenty parts; and that all sorts of tricks were played with it by the and, therefore, that the action which took place had boilers. Now, really these were hard expressions. He nothing to do with the doctrine of chemical equivalents. would not undertake to say that circumstances of this He (Dr. Longstaff) thought Mr. Binks ought to have kind had not occurred, but he would say they were very ascertained how small a portion it was necessary to use to rare; and he could name a large number of respectable produce the result, and he thought he would then have houses who would scorn to be guilty of any such trick as found that he could not go beyond a certain point, and that which had been imputed. He (Dr. Longstaff) must would have proved the same law obtaining in this operabe allowed to say that he thought these assertions had tion as in all other chemical operations, viz., that there been made without due consideration and without due is a law of chemical equivalents; and in using these knowledge. It was always a disagreeable thing ingredients, a certain quantity was necessary; that if to speak of one's-self, but he felt on this occa- they used less they would fail, and if they used more it sion that it was necessary to do so. He had been would not add to the results. He was sorry that he connected with manipulations upon oils for the last should have to act the part of the critic; but being contwenty years. Prior to that he was occupied as a public nected with this manufacture as now carried on, and beteacher of the important science which had given rise to lieving as he did that such processes were conducted upon all the improvements connected with oil and its combi- as scientific principles as any of the ordinary chemical nations. He therefore did not bring to bear upon the processes of the day, he thought he should have failed experiments which he had conducted twenty years ago, in justice to himself, and in justice to the author of the and which he had continued more or less up to the pre essay if he allowed the statements he had made to go sent time, a small amount of the necessary theoretic forth without some explanation, if not without the conscientific knowledge which he conceived was essential tradiction which he had ventured to give them. before commencing these experiments. There had been Mr. Rowney (in reference to some specimens of oils brought before them to-night a number of articles that exhibited by him) said they were not what was termed could be used advantageously in bringing about this de- boiled oils, but dry oils from oxidation, having been sired article, viz., oil that would dry, and that could be subjected for a given time to atmospheric action, and manufactured with ease, and without injury to health. then filtered, by which means all the properties of drying He was perfectly acquainted with these articles, and had oils were obtained without chemical additions. If drying used them in a variety of ways, before he knew Mr. oil was required for artists' purposes the drier should be Binks, or heard of the process which he had submitted lead, because white lead being used in painting other that evening to the Society. Neither the articles mineral ingredients would be apt to produce a chemical which were used, nor the process which was described, change. was new. Mr. Dunn patented, twelve or fourteen Mr. HYDE CLARKE wished to ask Mr. Binks a question years ago, a process for passing through the oil a certain upon the economical part of the subject, which he had amount of atmospheric air
not yet explained. He had understood the author A MEMBER-Palm-oil, not linseed.
of the paper to state that the ordinary process of boiling Dr. LONGSTAFF-It was not likely that any one con- was not equally applicable to the new class of linseed oils, nected with manipulations upon oil, if he knew it could or, rather, the adulterated samples which had been be done with palm-oil, would not try the same process received from the East Indies. It was a matter of great with other oils. The experiment was tried, not only of importance that they should have a larger supply of blowing air through the oil, but also of blowing the oil those oils, and, therefore, he was desirous of learning through the air, with the same effect. The patentee had from Mr. Binks whether the result of his process was to not thought of that evasion of his patent. There-extend the class of oils which were applicable for the fore it would appear that the result of the researches purposes of the arts—whether, as compared with the of Mr. Binks that evening was merely to bring ordinary process of boiling, he was enabled to make use together (and he gave him credit for it) a series of a larger class of oils than those now employed ? of facts which were known to individuals before, The CHAIRMAN said, that the author of the paper just but which were not published in the shape in which they read, was entitled to thanks for bringing the results of had now been given. It was well known that every his researches before the Society. It would be expected of manufacturer—whether he produced an article chemically him especially, from the highly complimentary manner or mechanically-if he discovered anything which added in which Mr. Binks had spoken of his firm, to to the quality, or which lessened the expense of its contribute his mite to the discussion. After the production, he did not publish it, but was inclined to manner in which the trade had been attacked, he could keep it to himself. That practice he (Dr. Longstaff) had not remain silent, and allow such statements to go beadopted with regard to his discoveries in chemistry- fore the public unanswered. He would confine himself since almost all chemical patents might be easily evaded. to some practical observations and to the correction of He knew of no patent equal to keeping the secret to some of the statements put forth in the paper. He was himself as long as possible, and making the most of it. of opinion that Mr. Binks had not done the trade justice. He was not about to tell them all the experiments he The art of oil boiling and refining had been a very had performed, but he would say that oil had been interesting study by himself and his associates for at boiled for a number of years upon principles which he | least forty years, and the processes employed were the considered quite as scientific as those which had been de result of very numerous experiments, always conducted tailed that evening, and with as satisfactory results, on chemical principles, on the large scale. He (the inasmuch as the demand for the article had been large, Chairman) said that the bulk of the boiled oil produced by and it had given universal satisfaction. Mr. Binks had his firm was sold with their paints, and used in them, to spoken of the hydrated protoxide of manganese, and had the extent of 1,500 tons per annum, of the whole amount said that that was the last article theory would suggest of oil boiled by them. Notwithstanding this wide-spread to him, because, instead of yielding oxygen, it was a consumption, and the many disadvantages under which powerful de-oxidiser. He (Dr. Longstaff had arrived at paint was often applied, it was very rarely that they had a the opposite conclusion. Any person acquainted with complaint of their oil. Mr. Binks had spoken of boiled the manufacture of sulphuric acid, knew the part which linseed oil being excluded from use in white pigments, nitric oxide played in it. It was a powerful de-oxidiser, and that raw oil was substituted on account of the dark and was used to carry the oxygen from one substance and colour of the former. This he (the chairman) considered deliver it to another where it was wanted. In a similar to be a niistake. Boiled oil was invariably used in thinning white lead or white oxide of zinc for use, with such pro- liamentary Committees to help it, he (Mr, Binks), in his portion of spirits of turpentine as the intended style of paper, most carefully and especially indicated the existpainting might require; and would preserve the delicate ence of many honourable exceptions. But so far from white much more perfectly than either raw or refined having overstated these facts, he had, on the contrary, linseed oil under the same circumstances. Again, the most decidedly understated them, and had nothing to retime named by Mr. Binks as necessary for drying gret or retract from the plain history he had given, and boiled oil, was not in accordance with his (the chairman's) which he well knew would find a welcome response in inexperience. It was true that this very much depended numerable quarters. The Doctor's plain declaration this on the state of the atmosphere. In practice, during the evening of his creed, as to scientific discovery, viz., that summer, boiled oil, per se, dried in seven to eight hours; the best plan of all was to keep it to himsel!, and on a damp day in ten to twelve hours ; in winter from make money of it, was, of course, a revelation that, twelve to eighteen hours. Refined linseed oil required, to this Society, would scarcely be altogether acceptable, per se, 30 hours in summer, and in winter 40 hours. As for the Society's avowed object was to encourage pubregarded the danger from fire in boiling linseed oil, that licity, and wherever there might be a good—the issue was hardly a question for the consideration of the public. of scientific labour of any kind, to encourage, and to help In his own case since 1811, he had but one accident from its being broadcast over the face of the world. The fire in boiling oil, and that was a trifling one, and was Doctor had taken great offence at his term “ empi. attributable to other causes than the nature of the pro-rical,” when applied to the ancient and still existing cess itself. On the sanitary view of the question, he oil-boiling processes, and, in rejoinder, he (Dr. Longcould speak with confidence. He had no recollection of staff) declared his (Mr. Binks) mode of research, in this sickness at his oil works; and the men, when boiling, instance, also to be empirical.” He (Mr. Binks) was only had to take their meals close to the coppers, in the too happy to accept the charge. “Empirical ” had, as midst of the fumes; they were all remarkable for robust was well known, two meanings or significations the health and ruddy faces. He was fully prepared to answer one was a popular expression of contempt—the other a the remarks of Mr. Binks on the “life-shortening" en- proper expression or description of a certain line of phitailed upon the operations in white lead, and the allegedlosophical procedure. He (Mr. Binks) had most careadvantage of using zinc white as a substitute ; but this fully described the line of procedure or of experimenting. subject formed no part of the question of oil-boiling, and He adopted it in this case, and he knew of no better word ought not to have been introduced by him. The question by which to describe it than “ empirical.” But, contrary at issue was not zinc white rersus white lead, but Mr. to the “ Empiricism” of the old oil boilers, it had ended Bink's patent boiled oil versus the processes now in general in a discovery (its object and intention), whilst the use. It was also erroneous to suppose that the small empiricism of the oil boilers had only ended in Dr. quantity of lead that may be, or is used in boiling linseed Longstaft's remaining the advocate of a system about oil, could have the slightest effect on any person using four times as old as himself. The doctor intimated, in it, either in the process of boiling or painting with ordi- pretty plain language, that he had always known of those nary pigments, excepting white lead. He thought Mr. peculiar reactions which he (Mr. Binks) called his own ; Binks had given a very exaggerated statement of the and he gave, by way of proof, instances of the passing adulterations practised by certain professional oil-boilers through oil of atmospheric air as long as fifteen years and refiners, and that such a system had not been carried ago. Now, every one knew how common it was to to any great extent; at all events, if it had, it was one employ atmospheric air to bleach oils; and, no doubt, that would soon effect its own cure. It became a question many instances had occurred (as in the case of Mr. Blunfor the practical man to judge how far the system of dell) in which linseed oil had been so treated. But in Mr. Binks was worthy his notice, as being any improve no instance whatever had it ever before been done in the ment on our existing knowledge.
conjoined manner in which he (Mr. Binks) employed it A vote of thanks having been passed,
and to which conjoint action alone its valuable effects were Mr. Binks, after returning thanks, said, in reference to due. It was needless here to remind the Society of the Dir. Varley's inquiry, that no free water remained in the fact that, no sooner did an invention or discovery arrive at oil on completion of the process, the whole was carried success than there started up immediately a host of away by the atmospheric air in its passage through it. claimants who assumed the position of prior users.”
To Mr. Hanhart, who expressed some fears as to the too The perfect novelty of his (Mr. Binks's) discovery, had rapid drying of the oil for lithographic purposes, he said | hitherto been acknowledged everywhere-both among that such fears were needless under this operation, for to the English, the French, and other foreign chemiststhe oil could be given, ad libitum, any degree of drying even among the Americans, and for the first time (by power and viscidity. To Mr. Laing, who complained of the Dr. Longstaff that evening) had its novelty been diseffects of sulphuric acid on refined oil, he replied that the puted, though the doctor did not venture to allege materials used in his (Mr. Binks's) process, had the that either he or any one else was ever previously aware property of removing any acid. To Mr. Heywood, who of the peculiar action of the hydrated protoxides upon spoke of the use of pure oxygen to thicken or solidify the which it was founded, conjointly with the after-use and oil, and of the action being an oxygenising one, he (Mr. adjustment of atmospheric air. Dr. Longstaff had Binks) explained that he admitted the necessity of re- touched upon some points of the abstract chemistry of actions with oxygen ; but that was not all, the pheno- these operations in a manner that certainly excited in mena were infinitely more complicated than that alone his (Mr. Binks's) mind the utmost surprise—coming, as would imply. To Mr. Hyde Clarke, who wished to it had from an "sex-teacher” of the science. He (Dr. know if these new processes applied to other oils, the Longstaff) disputed the deoxidizing action of hydrated produce of the colonies, Mr. Binks replied that the re- protoxide of manganese, and alleged that this oxide actions with such oils as the sunflower, the castor oil, I would give oxygen, not abstract it; that it was capable, the poppy-seed oil, and others, were so remarkable, as according to his notion, of playing a similar part to that probably to lead to their economical application to vari- played in sulphuric acid-making by “nitric oxide "ous purposes. From Dr. Longstaff, who appeared as the that is, it would either take oxygen or give oxygen, acadvocate of vested interests against an innovation, therecording to the other element or elements in contact. had fallen nothing whatever, that in the slightest Now, the hydrated protoxide of manganese is so powerdegree affected either the novelty, the success, or the ful an absorbent of oxygen, that it requires the utmost future progress of these plans. The Doctor was angry that care of the chemist, either to obtain or preserve it without he attacked a “ class," omitting the conspicuous fact that, passing into a higher state of oxydation. It passes whilst in common with a daily growing public feeling of instantly, on mere exposure to air, into the sesquioxide, indignation against adulterations of all kinds, and Par- and in no instance whatever, throughout the whole