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turing industry, and the present state of com- these predictions ? Neither the prices of labour nor mercial enterprise between Great Britain and of commodities have increased pro rata ; but the other countries, would carry me into so wide a price of gold itself has increased in foreign field of observation and remark, that I dare not countries in consequence of the demand for it trespass upon your patience to the extent these beyond the supply, originating in the perennial subjects would necessarily demand. I shall limit drain of silver from Europe, to liquidate the myself, therefore, to a hasty comment upon them. balance of trade in favour of China and India. Commercial International Law has been taken up In the month of January last, I read to the with very great interest by Professor Leone Levi; Statistical Society of London, a paper upon the and, considering the gravity and importance of the “ External Commerce of India with all the subject, and the unquestionable public and uni- World.” I showed from official statements, that versal advantage of common laws to regulate there was an annually increasing net import commercial intercourse between different coun- of silver bullion into India, in consequence of tries, the Society would necessarily give its aid the manufacturers of Europe not increasing the in furtherance of the attainment of so great a good. export of their manufactures to India in the same But the local characteristics of peoples; their ratio as their increasing import of the prolaws, interwoven with their social institutions ; ducts of India, and consequently the unusually and the prejudices arising from differences of race increasing balance due to India was to be and language, present obstacles which seem to be paid by increasing exports of silver bullion, insuperable. Man and his institutions, however, the only receivable commodity in exchange ; change with time; and a persevering and cau- and I used these warning words: “It is of grave tious pursuit of the object may in the end be importance, therefore, to merchants trading with successful.
India, that they should have clear and compreOn the subject of the establishment of Tribu-hensive views of those normal conditions which nals of Commerce, for arbitrations upon com- indicate that their export trade in goods seems mercial questions, instead of having recourse to to have attained its maximum, while their im. courts of law as at present, as such tribunals are port of Indian commodities has been annually infound to be beneficial in foreign states, it would creasing; and not less important is it, that the seem that they might be equally advantageous bullionists and bankers of England and of other amongst ourselves; but, from some unexplained countries should be constantly and fully alive cause, although many great commercial names to the exhaustive process of an Indian trade.” are associated with the undertaking, Tribunals of I will not here repeat the tabulated facts coinmuCommerce are still a desideratum.
nicated to the Statistical Society, but will limit Commerce is in fact the bartering the products myself to the statement that the unfavourable conand manufactures of one country with another ; ditions of the cominercial relations between India it-grows or wanes, rises or falls, with the relations and England and China which I described in Jabetween supply and demand. The cost of pro- nuary last have been aggravated since that period. duction affects it; the inequality of reciprocal The average ne: amount of silver bullion imported wants affects it; the indifference of manufac- into India from 1834-5 to 1841-2 was £1,858,000. tures to the tastes of their customers affects The average had increased, from 1849-50 to it. War did greatly affect it; but now, since 1853-54, to £3,799,900 sterling ; but by the latest the Peace of Paris, that neutral ships make accounts it was more than six millions in 1854-55; neutral goods, war will be less injurious to and the export of silver from 4th January to 20th commerce than heretofore. Arbitrary protective December, 1855, to China and India from Engor heavy duties affect it; but it is to be hoped that land alone, was £6,409,889; and in the present the example of England, and the growing free year it is understood it will be eight millions stertrade spirit, which was so strongly manifested by ling. It has always appeared to me that this the delegates of many nations recently at the drain of silver from England for the payment of Congress at Brussels, may ere long influence the produce of India might be mitigated by governments and cause commerce to be left to the manufacturers of England and other counpursue her path unrestricted. Nevertheless, even tries adapting their manufactures exactly to the when left to herself, between free countries, tastes of the people of India. Very little of aberrations occur which gainsay the anticipations the personal clothing of 150 millions of people in and predictions of political economists and the India is exported to India, and none of it in the Nestors of commerce. When gold was found in form of fabrics in which the articles of clothing such profusion in California, and subsequently in are worn-an omission which the manufacturers Australia, it was predicted that the former relations of England might surely supply; and as there between gold and silver would be immediately and will shortly be opened to the public a Trade Mu. seriously affected, and that the prices of labour seum at the India House, of the raw and other and commodities would greatly rise, from the products of India, it is to be hoped manufacabundance of gold. And what is the real state of turers may in time efficiently assist to diminish this existing difference in the exchange between and would, if instruction were continued, be exthe trade products of India and England, and panded into useful knowledge. At that critical that there may be a consequent diminishing moment the parents turn their children's labour drain of silver bullion in the adjustment of the to profitable account; they take them from school, balance of trade. I may add that from 1833-34 usually at the age of ten, or even earlier, engage to 1854-55 inclusive, the three mints of India them in domestic offices, sell their services in the have coined into rupees £71,202,828 of silver mill, or in agriculture, and for future mental bullion.
culture the child and the man are left to the For above a century we have been designated rough, and rarely moral or religious experiences the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Ma- of vulgar life. The little that was learned, the nufactures, and Commerce; and, in a cursory writing, reading, arithmetic, and catechism, the glance at our designation, the consideration of means to ends, are either forgotten or are in abeythe education of the people may not appearance, and the future enjoyments are those of the directly within the compass of our objects. senses—the animal prevails, the “ Mens divina" Nevertheless, a moment's thought will bring is obscured. to our minds the conviction, that the arts. It was the contemplation of this physical and will be more practically useful, manufactures more mental condition of the operative classes that led economically organized, and commerce will be the benevolent mind of Dr. Birkbeck to the consiconducted with more permanently profitable deration of the means of applying a remedy to the results, if the minds of those engaged in evil; or at least to offering the facilities to the willthese pursuits are suitably instructed, or, in ing of the operative classes for escape from the other words, educated. But what is education ? mental darkness in which they were enveloped Does a little knowledge (for it is rarely a perfect into the bright light of a cultivated intellect. knowledge) of writing, reading, arithmetic, and Hence originated the Mechanics’ Institutions of a religious catechism, constitute education ?-ac- Great Britain,chiefly froin the co-operative labours quirements which are mastered before a child of the operatives themselves. Their halls sprung is ten years of age. Where is the profit of up-their libraries became respectable; gratuitous writing, when there are few or no ideas to lecturers gave their aid; and there was a reasonrecord ;—what the advantage of reading, with-able prospect of the child's interrupted education out thought ;—what the capacity to master the being completed in the man by self-study. Obmultiplication table, without applying it; andjections there were to these Institutions. It was what a fluent utterance of terms of faith, withcut asserted, that it either made those who were probably the possession of a definite religions ambitious smatterers in science and literature, sentiment, and without a guarantee of conduct self-sufficient, conceited, and discontented with from the absence of moral convictions. And yet their condition, or that they wasted their time, this defective state of instruction of the masses and excited morbid sympathies, by reading novels has long, and does still, characterise benevolent and works of fiction. There may be some truth England, and is denominated education. Un- in all these objections, but the history of the Inhappily, our present jail returns disable us | stitutions seems to indicate that the good they from questioning the reality of the picture produced more than balanced the evil. Some who thus darkly drawn. And what, in a country applied themselves gravely to physics and mathe80 wealthy, with so much of mental energy, matics, have emerged from the operative condition BO much of practical common sense, and so into that of instructors and masters and men of much of active benevolence as England is ge- wealth ; and, in the ears of thousands, the facts, nerally admitted to possess; what, I say, can whether of wature or not, enunciated by the lecbe the solution of an apparent enigma in the turer, must have, at times, occasioned either a will and the effort to educate the masses being profitable or a pleasurable reminiscence. But hitherto abortive, or nearly so. Alas! a primary working men, in these Institutions, it is said, read law of our nature, a ceaseless stimulant of action, novels! and why not? Most of the toil-worn and with the poor almost always resistless operatives, at the close of their ten or twelve selfishness-steps in to nullify and render fruit. hours' labour, seek stimulus and recreation. The less equally the labours of love of the benevolent, choice is between the gin-palace and pot-house the philosophic, and the religious, and the provi- and the library and lecture-room of the Mechasions of the legislature. The humble parents who (nics' Institution. Better a draught of morbid are operatives, struggling with the difficulties of sensibility than inebriating alcoholic drams or maintaining themselves and large families in the muddling pots of porter. Certainly the draught disproportion between wages and the cost of sup- is less costly. But has not the operative the port, are impelled to withdraw their children from passions, perceptions, and susceptibilities of our school at the very age and at that state of instruc-common nature ? Cannot his heart be moved, his tion when the mental faculties are being developed, Ljoy excited, and his admiration stimulated by the when the little the children have learnt, could incidents of ordinarily good novels ?-at least,
he sees pictures of the usages of society, marks classes of the population which has not the advanthe language of intercourse and the amenities of tages, such as they may be, of the operatives in cultivated life-all which he cannot see in his towns; removed, like the former class, from school own condition. Depend upon it, the roughness, in childhood, from their dispersion over a consithe oaths, the coarse and rude phraseology, the derable area, they have scarcely the means of assoanimal enjoyment, the harsh treatment of his wife, | ciation or combination for the erection of common which may have been his characteristics before, will halls, common libraries, and the insuring instrucbe gradually softened, and may, in time, disappear. tion from lecturers-I mean the agricultural I do not, therefore, disapprove of the operative labourers : Unlike the mechanic-from him the reading works of fiction, and I do not regret to further means of mental instruction in manhood see the proportion these works bear to other are nearly cut off. It may, indeed, be said by works withdrawn from the lending libraries of the poet, that the kingdom.
The field's his study ; nature is his book ;" It does not, however, necessarily follow, that but I fear in the main bis mental faculties are the operative and agricultural peasant prefers rarely sufficiently developed to enable him to works of fiction, that is to say, of amuse- reap much profit from the study of the fields or ment, rather than instruction with amusement. of nature. Beyond his wife and children, and If I am to judge from the catalogue of a library the few of his own mental standard, the animals of the Hants and Wilts Adult Education Society, he tends are his associates, and he lives and dies an admirable association of 100 villages or more, I almost debarred from intellectual development. which might be so profitably established in other The agricultural labourer, therefore, is peculiarly parts of Great Britain, which has recently been an object for the thought and consideration of the kindly put into my hands, and in which the promoters of instruction amongst the poor. For books chiefly used are marked in italics, I find him I see little help, except through village lendthat the “Arabian Nights," " Barnaby Rudge,” ing libraries, if established by the country gentleby Dickens, “Last of the Barons,” by Bulwer man, like those of the Hants and Wilts Adult EduLytton, “ Bracebridge Hall,” Edgeworth's Novels cational Society ; but chiefly his help must come and Tales, “ Confessions of a Lover,” “Ivanhoe,” from the itinerant book hawkers, designated by “ Jane Eyre," and many other novels, are less in the French “colporteurs," I presume from carryrequest than Historical and Biographical works ; ing their packs upon their necks or shoulders. The particularly the lives of “Bonaparte,” and “Duke books so hawked must necessarily be very cheap of Marlborough,” and “Sir Isaac Newton.” to be within the reach of the agricultural labourer; “ Chambers's Journal,” and “Papers for the and of what vital importance it is that the informaPeople," " Dickens's Household Words.” “Half- tion they are capable of imparting should not only hours with the best Authors,” “The Penny and be useful, but harmless ; while it is to be feared Saturday Magazines," “ Layard's Nineveh," and the present supplies by the hawkers stand in “ Tales and Stories from History," appear to be opposition to the latter category. Is it not an popular; while the graver subjects in request are: object, therefore, worthy of the Society of Arts, " Tracts," " The Pilgrim's Progress," " Useful and in keeping with its other labours, to organize Arts and Manufactories of Great Britain," “Social a system of supply to hawkers, of selected and Evils and their Remedies,” “Family Economist,” cheaper books for the agricultural classes, for “Cyclopedia of Lnglish Literature," “ Conversa- self-study and improvement, with the possition with a Father and his Children,” “Defoe on ble result of the Society finding itself applied to the Plague,” “The Letter Writer,” and “The for examiners to grant certificates of intellectual Races of Man." The popular works appear to competency to members of a class who have be those of Scott, “Ten Thousand a Year," hitherto rarely aspired to any other distinction “ Robinson Crusoe,” “My Novel,” by Bulwer, ! than that of being good farm-servants ? “Cottager of Glenbirnie," " The Old Oak Tree,”! There cannot now, I think,' be a doubt en“Uncle Tom's Cabin,” and “Macaulay's Essays.” tertained of the advantage of the Mechanics' There are no indications of much misspent time Institutions of Great Britain; but these adhere; indeed the fact of communities of soldiers vantages were susceptible of a further and and sailors and agricultural labourers having practical development, and that, it appears to me, amongst their popular readings, “Social Evils has been applied by the Society of Arts. Very and their Reinedies," "The Family Economist," many of the mechanics who read in the libraries “The Pilgrim's Progress,” and “The Races of or attended in the lecture-rooms, did so with a Man," may probably diminish the fears of the genuine desire for self-improvement, with a timid, with respect to the misapplication of book latent hope, possibly, of bettering their condition, knowledge by the poor, and encourage the but destitute of the chance of their useful acquirehopeful to look for the adult pupil becoming ments becoming known to any parties, who a better man and a better citizen.
might desire to use them. Many operatives, But there is a large portion of the lower! also, no doubt, would gladly tread in the same
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track, with a very slight stimulus applied to them, themselves justified in asking for. The time either to commend their labour or to move their will come, it is to be hoped, when the funds pride. That stimulus, with great propriety, and, I of the Society may permit of the employtrast, ultimate public advantage, the Society of ment of gentlemen who will accept remuneration Arts has applied, for the first time, in the last year, for their labour, and, at that period, the operain the form of an invitation to members of Mecha- tives can have local facilities for those examinanics' Institutions to undergo examinations, by Ex- tions which the Council trust will give strength aniners appointed by the Society, for the purpose and permanency to Mechanics' Institutions, and of obtaining a certificate of their acquirements make them auxiliary sources of supply of that in branches of knowledge in which the mechanic practical intellect upon which the Arts, Manufachimself might desire to be examined. With this tures, and Commerce of all nations must depend certificate in his hand the operative could con- for success. fidently offer himself for employment, and upon such certificate the employer could confidently The SecRETARY then read the list of contritake advantage of his services. I entertain san- butors to the fund for prizes to successful candiguine expectations, that the prospect of obtaining | dates at the Society's Examinations to be held such a certificate, which, in fact, will be a pass- in London and Huddersfield in June, 1857, as port to service, will have an early and beneficial | follows:effect upon a considerable portion of the operatires who belong to Mechanics' Institutions ;
The Society of Arts ................ that there will be a new-born zeal for acquire
Francis Bennoch, Esq. ... ment; that emulation may arise, and that the Rev. Dr. Booth, F.R.S.... languor which threatened to pass into indifference William Brown, Esq., M.P.... may change into an active pursuit of those vari Thomas De la Rue, Esq.
10 10 ous branches of knowledge which the libraries
Warren De la Rue, Esq., F.R.S..
10 10 and lectures are so capable of supplying.
Peter Graham, Esq. ....
10 10 As an additional incentive to the candidate for The Dean of Hereford
10 10 examination beyond the honourable certificate of Henry Johnson, Esq. ...........
90 0 competency which he might obtain, the Council
J. Bennet Lawes, Esq., F.R.S. ......... 10 10
The Master of the Mint ......... 10 10 have thought it desirable to institute money
J. J. Mechi, Esq., Sheriff of London ... prizes; and many liberal members of the Society Samuel Morley, Esq........ have come forward with contributions to form General Sir Chas. Pasley, K.C.B. ...... a prize fund, a list of whom will be read to the
R. Stephenson, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. ...... 10 10
Col. W. H. Sykes, F.R.S., Chairman of meeting, and further subscriptions are invited.
10 10 To work out the examinations to their legitimate G. Fergusson Wilson, Esq., F.R.S...... 10 10 objects, the Council, through deputations, waited Bennet Wooderoft, Esq..................... 5 5 upon the heads of some of the Public Departments of the State, in the hope of one or more
The medals awarded at the close of the last of the minor situations in a department being se
ng Session were then presented. reserved as prizes for those candidates who had obtained the highest-class certificates. The late Mr. Wood, Chairman of the Board of Inland Re-lof Wednesday the 26th instant. the following
The Secretary announced that at the meeting venue, was considerate enough to place at the dis
paper would be read :-" On Indian Fibres," posal of the Council, as prizes, a couple of situa
being a sequel to “Observations on Cordage, tions in his department. His unexpected decease | Clothing, and Paper Materials.” by Dr. J. Forbes has, however, deprived the Council of these Rovle 50
il of these Royle. On this evening, J. Griffith Frith, Esq., rewards for competent candidates ; but the Council will still indulge in the hope, that the heads of departments will not be wanting in the desire to aid in their laudable efforts to stimulate
HONORARY LOCAL SECRETARY. self-instruction in manhood.
The following gentleman has been appointed The Society of Arts, at present, is necessitated Honorary Secretary for Mirfield and the neighto confine itself to two centres of examination, one bouring district:in London, and one at Huddersfield. The Society
Charles Wheatley, Esq., Mirfield. is indebted to the gratuitous aid of many able and distinguished men for their services as examiners,
MEN AND MANUFACTURES. and the establishment of more centres of examina
By W. BRIDGES ADAMS. tiod at present would impose upon those benevolent gentlemen an amount of labour, and subject
I have carefully read Mr. Chadwick's address to the
Philanthropic Society at Brussels, on the question of them to an extent of inconvenience which the labour and machinery, and it seems to me that his poliCouncil of the Society could in no wise deem tical economy, though true as far as it goes, with respect
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to machinery bettering the condition of the workman, they tend to disappear continually; their lives are shorter, as well as general humanity,'yet by no means takes in and, as a matter of commercial economy, it is not desirathe whole scope of the question. It is rather a special ble to “ raise," as the Americans call it, a short-lived pleading in favour of special Lancashire cotton-spinning, people. The capital invested to grow them up to twentydating-so says Mr. Chadwick, from Mr. John Kennedy, one years of age is sunk for a shorter period of fructificaand not from Arkwright-than a question how the cotton tion, and consequently at a higher rate of interest. If wants of the British Empire may be best supplied with we could only obtain our clothing by the process of keepthe greatest happiness to the greatest number.
ing up an artificial weakly class, we might then come to . It is quite true that our first cotton came from India, study the question, whether natural materials are not ready webbed for making into garments, and that the best adapted to the country where they are produced, as labour of India being beaten by steam labour in England, furs at the North Pole, wool in the temperate climates, the cotton was brought raw, spun and woven in Lanca- and cotton towards the Equator. But the manufacture shire, and carried back in webs of long cloth and other, of cotton clothing is not necessarily confined to Lancato undersell the native manufacturers in the Indian shire, any more than woollen clothing is confined to market. And Lancashire spinners and weavers, native | Yorkshire; and it seems reasonable that the manufacture and imported from Scotland and Ireland, did earn greatly should go where soil and climate are favourable; where increased wages during the period of European wars, the people are indigenous, and not exotics, and the maand the English government took great pains to prevent the terial is produced and can be produced in any quantities. exportation of machinery, in order to keep other countries To bring cotton, raw, from America, work' it up in tributary and subsidiary to Great Britain. But their Lancashire by exotic workmen, and sell it in India, is pains were unsuccessful, and cotton mills grew up in certainly a less economical process than to grow it in France and Spain, Germany, Italy, America, and else- India, work it in India by natives, and consume it in where. In many of these countries people were willing India by the general population there and elsewhere. to work for such small wages that the English manufac Economically, Lancashire labours under a disadvantage turer was cut out, and where the small rate of wages did as compared with India. Lancashire cannot grow cotton not balance other disadvantages in machinery, or where, -India can, and, it is said, as fine as the American. with equal machinery, as in the United States, wages Lancashire cannot grow men and women, for if she were high, the governments of those countries eked the ceased to import them they would disappear in a few matter out with prohibitory duties.
generations, i.e., men and women fit for cotton working. Not wishing to battle this in the first instance by im- | India has grown this class of population for ages, they proved machinery, the English manufacturers sought to are indigenous, and will go on as long as the climate cut down wages, which would bear reduction. This continues the same. Indigenous Indian workers are not sufficing, the power-loom was brought in, and the cheaper than exotic Lancashire workers, for they require Luddite riots and frame-breaking were a clear proof that less and cheaper food. The warmth produced by burnthe workpeople did undergo suffering for a time. They ing carbon in the lungs of the Lancashire exotic, exists had been taught a trade which they could not change for abundantly in the Indian atmosphere. What advantage, another, and in their rude way they maintained a struggle therefore, is there in keeping up an exotic race of British for employment, by which must be understood wages and subjects to spin and weave cotton in Lancashire, while food. No special pleading can get rid of this broad fact, indigenous British subjects to any amount exist in India, even though we know that the " greatest happiness" prin- better fitted for the work, and who, by reason of the ciple demanded the sacrifice of the minority to the climate, can live on one-fourth the wages. majority. It was an evil to the sufferers, though a Mr. Chadwick asserts that - Lancashire has less to fear necessary evil.
than ever from the low priced and unrestricted labour and In short, a great exotic business had been created in long hours of thecotton manufacturers of other countries;" Lancashire, in which nominally free people became slaves and that in Austria thirteen-and-a-half-hours does not of the mill, as much as black men were slaves of the get more produce turned off than ten-and-a-half hours in sugar-cane. A giant capital had been put into machines Manchester. Very possible. But I doubt the fact, with and mills, and vested interests created, which constantly equal machinery in both cases. Long habit has made sought to import, and cheapen, and educate labour. And, machine improvement in Lancashire a day-by-day prothough humane manufacturers existed, there were cess; and there is little doubt that it is to this fact of the abundance also of hard taskmasters rising from the ranks, indigenous skill of Lancashire in metal-working and familiar with every screwing process, and not more machine inventing, that the advantages are owing rather humane than West India planters, whose commercial than to the workers of the machines. Year by year, as axiom was, “better to buy than breed.” The Lancashire profits get wire-drawn, so goes on invention to balance it, masters needed not to breed. That was done for them Lancashire excels India because she has machines and in Ireland and elsewhere, as well as by their own work- | inventors as well as educated workmen. But if India people. But, wherever bred, there can be no doubt of had the machines and inventors, with the workers of the one fact, that spinners and weavers were either born or machines at one-fourth the wages of Lancashire, the bred a distinct class from the general mass of British freight from India would not be an impediment to prepeople, who gained their living by athletic and open-air vent British subjects in India from beating British sublabour. They are lower in stature, paler in complexion,jects in Lancashire out of the home market with cotton more delicate in nervous organisation. And, notwith-webs. standing, they require more and more stimulating food And this must eventually come to pass. The opening than open air workers-probably for want of assimilating up the country by railways will stimulate the growth of stimulus in the atmosphere in which they work. The cotton. The growth of cotton will in time lead to the inatmosphere of the cotton-mill is far from being as pure as port of machinery from Lancashire into the Nerbudda the open air, and it is essential to cotton manufacture, at districts, where coal and iron abound, and where cotton least in the present state of our manufacturing knowledge, also will abound. The machinery of cotton mills is preto work in a heated atmosphere. In short, to work a cisely the kind of machinery which Indian handicraftscotton-mill in Lancashire, which is a cold and moist men—sword-cutlers and others—will know how to repair; climate, we must create a race and an artificial climate and by quicker or slower process cotton-spinners and analogous to those of Eastern India. It is quite true weavers will decrease in Lancashire, and machine-makers that amongst the people of Great Britain and its immi- will increase with indigenous energy, while in India grants, we have many people of this class, especially in cotton-spinners and weavers will grow and multiply. Ireland- the thin-fingered class, adapted to artistical em- Production will thus be greatly increased and art lessened. ployments, but they do not belong to the soil or climate ;l And the Indian staple of manhood and womanhood