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8, Parliament-street, Westminster, 1st April, 1867. Pokoring's Flora of Austria,* and Frauenfeld's SeaDEAR SIR CHARLES,I have not been able to trace the man weeds :t while, with regard to our own country, The who told me about the use of my diving apparatus at Navarino. British Ferns t have been successfully carried through I cannot find out where he is now, but there must have been some mistake, as I find that the apparatus I sent out would
the press; and already are prepared for publication The have worked securely in 300 feet water, and an apparatus fit for
Exotic Ferns, The British Mosses, The British Seaweeds, working in 300 feet I could now supply.
and The British Lichens. The pipes were half-inch in diameter, and made of many folds! It remains for Mr. Dresser to produce works of such of cloth and caoutchouc, very strong and fit to resist an internal a class, and upon such a scale, by the means that he pressure of 150lb. to the square inch.
I am, &c., I perceive that the plan about to be used by the Americans
'HENRY BRADBURY. for raising the Russian ships at Sebastopol, is the same as I Whitefriars, April 3rd, 1857. patented in 1835.
ART TREASURES EXHIBITION.
SIR, -As the time for opening the Exhibition of ArtNATURE PRINTING.
Treasures at Manchester is approaching, permit me, SIB,-I must beg to intrude a few remarks further on through the medium of your Journal, to suggest to the the subject of Mr. Dresser's New System of Nature managers the propriety of admitting thereto at a reduced Printing. In his reply to my observations upon his charge-say half-price-the members of the Mechanics' paper last Wednesday week. he reiterates emphatic and similar Institutions throughout the kingdom, or at cally the nature of his claim, viz., that of printing from least of those in the vicinity of Manchester. Such & the leaf on stone and metallic surfaces, and so enabling boon would, I believe, be highly appreciated by all to the impressions to be multiplied at pleasure. Now, in whom it might be extended, and would be productive of the first place. Mr. Dresser has been over and over again much good feeling. The concession, however small, superseded in his idea of transferring such objects to such would, moreover, tend to allure some who might not surfaces. And, in the second place. Mr. Dresser should otherwise be disposed to visit the Exhibition, and thus be well aware that he cannot practicably carry out that the managers would sustain little or no pecuniary loss by which he advances as his claim. Mr. Dresser must this graceful act of liberality.
I am, &c., know full well that, with regard to metallic surfaces
E, B. especially, his idea is a mere toy-process. He cannot
Hanley, Staffordshire. obtain-and I say it with confidence—by such modes as he adopts, a printing surface from which impressions can be printed in a practical manner. With respect to his producing experimentally, even-impressions of such objects with all their natural excellence, it is a mere matter of words. He does not do it and he cannot PIMLICO. At the Literary, Scientific, and Mechanics' do it.
Institution on Monday, the 30th ult., Mr. E. G. HolIf Mr. Dresser had paid due attention to my paper land, an American gentleman, gave an interesting lecture upon the subject, he would have remembered that I ex-on " The Romance Writers of the New World,” Mr. pressly. stated that so-called Nature Printing had its Holland said that America was not only the country of limits, and that care would be required to confine its a varied material enterprise, but of a new and vigorous process within its capabilities. That its capabilities literature; that the national motto of “going a-head," -as practised by the Imperial Printing-office at Vienna, had evidently now a place in its literature; that it must and afterwards by myself—are of a practical nature, henceforth abound with the same creativeness, perseverthere can be no doubt, and the most eminent botanists ance, and energy, that have hitherto been displayed in of the present day have expressed most favourable other pursuits. The lecturer then spoke of the romance, opinions--provided a proper choice of subjects is made. or story, as the most captivating and successful method If the Hortus siccus be valuable, the possible and | of teaching; that the novelist reflects human life both as practicable results of Nature Printing (by the Austrian it is, and as it ought to be. He then spoke of James mode) must be doubly so, for its product yields even Fenimore Cooper, as the Columbus, or first explorer of more than is observable in the Hortus siccus itself, American romance; the first to use those threefold
Were Mr. Dresser a practical man, he would have materials of interest, the magnificent scenes of nature, the known that the present mode of Nature Printing is the wild life and poetic legends of the aboriginal races, and combined result of a multitude of experiments, spread- the amusements and modes of life common to the early ing over a long space of time, and made by an infinite white settlements in his own great state, the state of New number of hands. However he may please himself with York. The lecturer then examined his numerous works, his isolated process, I would beg to inform him, that saying that it was the “ Spy” that created his fame and among the number of previous experiments his own was made him known to the world; that the “ Pioneers," taken up and rejected." I, myself, with the best possible “ The Last of the Mohicans," « Pilot," " Prairie," " Red appliances up to the present time at my command, have Rover," “ Pathfinder,” and “ Two Admirals," may be tried over and over again to establish both lithographic taken as his best productions; that Cooper was a man of and typographic processes in connection with the art, great decision, strong personal courage, thorough honesty, but certain requirements for successful and practical and seriousness of purpose. Mr. Holland then spoke results interposed—such requirements being as essential of Washington Irving, of Longfellow, Nathaniel Hawto Mr. Dresser's own experiments for success as to my thorne, and Mrs. Stowe, analyzing their works and disown. That improvements will ultimately be effected criminating the peculiarities of genius in each. The over the Austrian process is certain — but they will emanate from quite a different mode of operation.
# “ Physiotypia Plantarum Austriacarum : Mit besonderer Whilst upon the question, I will just enumerate, for Berüchsichtigunz der Nervation in den Flächendrganen der the better comprehension of the general reader, results Pflanzen." Von Professoren Dr. Constanten von Ettinghausen already effected by the Austrian mode. For the short und Dr. Alois Pokorny. 500 folio plates. Vienna, 1856. time that the procees has been in operation they are
+ “ Die Algen der Dalmatischen Küste mit hinzufugung somewhat remarkable. Austria has produced three
der von Kützing im Adriatischen Meere Uberhaupt Aufgepractical results - Henfler's Mosses, * Ettinghausen and
fuhrten Arten." "Von George Frauenfeld. Twenty-four quarto
plates. Vienna, 1855. * Specimen Floræ Cryptogamæ Vallis Arpasch Carpatal 1The Ferns of Great Britain and Ireland.” By Thomas Fransibrani :” Conscripsit Ludovicus Eques de Henfler. Seven Moore, F.L.S. Edited by John Lindley, Ph.D., F.R.S. Imfolio plates. Vienna, 1853.
perial folio. Fifty-one plates. London, 1853.
lecture contained analysis, biography, and illustration,
Dated 23rd March, 1857. in a manner to impart the greatest amount of instruction
809. William Heap, Ashton-under-Lyné-Certain improvements in
self-acting slide lathes. and amusement, of which the subject is capable. At the
811. John Sherar, Aberdeen-Improvements in oil and spirit lamps conclusion a vote of thanks to the lecturer was moved by
for the formation of burners obviating shadow. the chairman and carried unanimously.
813. William Mills, Lower Craven-place, Kentish-town-Improve
ments in the action of upright pianofortes. 815. Thomas Mosdell Smith, Hammersmith, and Cornelius Burke,
27, Earl-street, Kensington-Improvements in the preparaMEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
tion of materials applicable to the manufacture of candles.
817. Frederick John Jones, Aldermanbury-An improved buckle or Tues. Syro-Egyptian, 73. Mr. Samuel Sharpe, “ On the Identifi
Dated 24!h March, 1857.
819. Robert Hanham Collyer, M.D., 3, Park-road, Regent's-parkWED. Society of Arts, 8. Mr. J. W. Papworth, “On Houses as
Improved machine for cleaning and purifying wheat and they were, are, and ought to be."
other grain. Ethnological, 84.
821. Jean Alexandre Zibelin, Paris-Improvements in the fabricaSAT. Asiatic, 2.
tion of artificial wines, brandy, and vinegar. Medical, 8.
$23. Alfred Vincent Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Improvements in
carding engines. (A communication.) 825. Thomas Lawes, 77, Chancery-lane-An improved construction
of agricultural implements to be used in tilling the land. PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT.
Dated 25th March, 1857. APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.
827. William Henry Collins, Birmingham-Improvements in at
taching knobs to spindles. [From Gazette, April 3rd, 1857.]
829. John Mickle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne-Improvements in ma
chinery or apparatus for reaping and mowing. Dated 20th December, 1856.
831. John Hewett, Sheffield-Improvements in sewing machines, 017. Edward Loos, 30, Leicester-square-Improvements in the ma
(A communication.) nufacture of cement, mortar, concrete, and artificial stone. 833. Alfred Vincent Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-An improved conDated 22nd December, 1856.
struction of water meter. (A communication.) 3031. Thomas Roberts and John Dale, Manchester, and John Da 835. John Henderson, Lasswade, Mid-Lothian, N.B.- Improveniell Pritchard, Warrington-Improvements in the manu
ments in writing instruments. facture of oxalate of soda, which improvements are also
837. William Somervail, Dunlop, Ayr, N.B.-Improvements in the applicable to the manufacture of oxalic acid.
treatment or preparation of fibrous materials for being spun. Dated 27th February, 1857.
839. Charles Cowper, 20, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane579. William Henry Thornthwaite, 121, 122, and 123, Newgate
Improvements in the manufacture of shot and shells for rified street-Certain improvements in barometers.
ordnance. (A communication.)
841. Joseph William Wilson, Banbury-Improvements in the cutDated 4th March, 1857. 632. Thomas Brown, Fenchurch-street-Improvements in capstans.
ting tools used for rounding, surfacing, or otherwise opeDaled 5th March, 1857.
rating on wood. 646. Anthony Ansens, Paris-Improvements in moulds or forms for loaves of sugar.
INVENTIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS FILED. 648. John Woodley and Henry Herbert Swinford-Improvements in sawing machines.
860. George Gilmour, Massachusetts, U.S.-A new and useful con652. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-An improved
trivance or mechanism for shackling or attaching another manufacture of tracing cloth.
anchor to the chain of an anchor to which a vessel may be (A communication.)
riding, his said invention being termed by him a “second Dated 19th March, 1857.
anchur shackle."- 27th March, 1857. 769. Joel Williams, Mold, Flint- Improvements in cocks or taps. 833. Antoine Joseph Quinche, Paris-Improvements in apparatu 771. Samuel Campbell, Newington, Surrey-Improvements in pre
for counting, registering, and indicating the distance traserving vegetable substances.
velled by vehicles.-31st March, 1857. 773. William Reid, Shettleston, Lanark, N.B.- Improvements in
safety apparatus for guarding the mouths of pits, excava
tions, and other openings. : 775. William Gwillim Merrett, 49, Leadenball-street-An improve.
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. ment in coats and waistcoats.
193, John Rubery. Dated 20th March, 1857.
2316. John Hall, junr.
194, Gustave Perez di Termini. 777. Jean Ninck, 37, Brewer-street, Golden-square-Improvements
2323. James Allen.
221. Henry Bessemer. in placing sets, or partial sets, of teeth, gums, and palates on
2340. Oglethorpe Wakelin Bar- 259. Henry Chamberlin, junr. plates.
353. John Henry Johnson. 779. Henry Hall, Spotland, Rochdale, Lancashire--An addition to
42. Smith Bottomley and James 364. William Wilkens. throstles" for dofling the bobbins.
April 7th. 781. Charles Weiss and Henry Listef, Huddersfield-Improvements
2346. Joseph Bunnett. in the means, machinery, or apparatus employed in the
2351. James Chiosso.
2354. William Bradford, finishing of mohair and other textile fabrics.
2357. Thomas Dugdale, junr. 2356. Daniel Foxwell. 783. John Parker, East Mark ham, near Tuxford, Nottingham
2436. John Smith.
2364. Thomas King. Improvements in apparatus for separating corn and other
2445. Joseph George.
2370. John Shaw and Edwin grain and seeds from dust, chaff, and other matters.
2464. Charles Briqueler.
Shaw. 785. John P. Jourda, New York-Raising sunken vessels.
2492. John Walley.
2372. James Saul Hendy. 787. George William Sayer, Cognac, France-Improved machinery
2764. Samuel Russell,
2375. Christopher Richard Norris for stopping or retarding railway carriages.
64. Julius Goodman, Abraham
Palmer. 789. William Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields- Improvements in
Mvers,and LouisGoodman. 2379. John McInnes. steam boilers and furnaces, and in apparatus connected
71. Thomas Ball and John Wil. 2392. George Elliot. therewith. (A communication.)
2394. William and Jacob Todd. Dated 21st March, 1857.
114. Sir James Murray, Knt. 2398. John Roscow. 793. William Banks and John Banks, Bolton-Certain improve
2432. George Morton. ments in machinery or apparatus to be employed for wash
148. Robert Reeves and John 2451. Sir Francis Chas. Knowles. ing, scouring, or bleaching cotton, linen, and other textile
2617. Rd. Archibald Brooman. fabrics.
157. Edwin Clark.
2751. Rd. Archibald Brooman. 795. George Perrott, Cork-Improvements in horse gearing.
159. Edwin Clark.
3080. Thomas Wilks Lord. 797. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-An improved
175. Henry Chamberlin, junr. 232. Edward Highton. method of driving the spindles of spinning frames. (A com
munication.) 799. James Edward Cole, New York, U.S.-Improvements in the
PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £50 HAS BEEN PAID. rig and working the sails of square sail vessels.
868. Giuseppe Devincenzi. 801. Robert Mushet, Coleford, Gloucester - Improvements in the I 742. William Edward Newton,
April 2nd. manufacture of cast steel.
743, Alfred Vincent Newton. 796. Emile Dupont. 803. Frederick Shand Hemming, Westminster-Improvements in 827. John Platt.
April 3rd. the mode of treating peat, mixed or not mixed with other
766. James Higgin. vegetable or animal fibrous substances, and in the application 757. Thomas Scott.
792. Joseph Nash. of the same to various purposes.
771. Bernhard Samuelson.
800. Julian Bernard. 805. Thomas Howard Head and Joseph Wright, Teesdale Iron 786. George Francis Wilson and 802. John Henry Johnson. Works, Stockton-on-Tees-- Improvements in casting railway
James Monroe Whiting. 818. John Henry Johnson. chairs, and in the manufacture of other castings.
April 4th. 807. Henry Dolby and Edwin Thomas Dolby, 56, Regent-street 758. James Forsyth.
782. James Howden. Improvements in machinery used when printing several co 762. William Gossage.
789. James Smith, lours in succession on the same surface.
| 781. William Edward Newton. 1801. James Worrall, junr.
Journal of the Society of Jrts. I.
The paper read was :
ON HOUSES AS THEY WERE, AS THEY ARE,
AND AS THEY OUGHT TO BE.
By Joun W. PAPWORTH, F.R.I.B.A.
A Society that for a hundred years has applied itself to the encouragement of the judicious application of
capital in arts, manufactures, and commerce, needs no NOTICE TO CANDIDATES.
apology for considering a few of the results of the em
ployment of capital on some buildings and in some buildPersons who intend to offer themselves as I ing operations; that is to say, for considering the durability, Candidates at the Society's Examinations in
inconvenience, and beauty, the cost, protit, and value, which
in some of our buildings, especially dwellings, at present June next, in London and at Huddersfield, are l afford under competition and insufficient education. Any desired to take notice that no one will be ad. one of these subjects offers materials for an evening's dismitted to the Examinations who shall not have cussion, and, therefore, short explanations and descripsent in his “Return paper" to the Secretary of
tions only can be given; facts and figures must be taken
as proved ; and there will only be three definitions which the Society of Arts, before MONDAY NEXT, the must be borne in mind, viz., of the building owner, the 20th inst.
architect, and the builder. Forms of the “Return paper” may be had on A building owner, is a private person,' who invests his application to the Secretary of the Society of
money in a building as a speculation, and who generally
knows nothing of the construction and cost of the buildArts.
ing. A person who invests his money in a matter of which he knows nothing, with not any guarantee as to
the stability of the undertaking, and no information as to EXHIBITION OF INVENTIONS. the character of the man with whom he is to entrust that
money, is one of the most lamentably ill-educated people The Society's Ninth Annual Exhibition of that the inquiries of this Society can discover; yet such Inventions was opened on Monday. the 23rd is the case with a large proportion of those who either ult. The Exhibition will be open every day till
rent, buy, or pay for building any edifice of any sort.
An architect is a person whose business it is to know the 23rd of May, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., and is in his mind the building thoroughly which he has to defree to the members and their friends. Members, sign before it exists; to proportion the number and sizes by tickets or by written order bearing their sig. of the rooms and their parts to their uses; to arrange
them in a convenient manner; to give beauty to those nature, may admit any number of friends.
parts and their details; and to place these graceful portions in good relative positions as to the inside and outside of
the building; to foresee all the essentials required by ART TREASURES EXHIBITION.
custom, health, law, locality, materials, site, &c.,
especially by the intention and prescribed expense of The Council of the Society of Arts have ap- | the building'; to choose amongst the various methods of pointed a Committee to make arrangements for
sound construction ; and to be so reputable that his
decision as to the ineaning of contracts and the quality organizing a visit of the members to the Art
of the materials and labour employed in that construction Treasures Exhibition at Manchester.
shall be binding upon the building owner and the builder.
A builder is a person whose business it is to provide, in
the cheapest market, good labour and good materials, and EIGHTEENTH ORDINARY MEETING.
to supply them and their results to the building owner at a reasonable profit, according to the directions in the
drawings and specifications by which the architect exWEDNESDAY, April 15, 1857.
presses bis decisions; this, and this only, is the legitimate The Eighteenth Ordinary Meeting of the One province of the builder; who is or protesses to be, brickHundred and Third Session was held on Wed
layer, mason, carpenter, smith, plumber, joiner, plasterer,
painter, &c., all in one. Our epoch of the division of labour nesday, the 15th inst., Edwin Chadwick, Esq., has seen all the trades connected, however remotely, with C.B., in the chair.
building combined in single hands, to the loss of all conThe following Candidates were balloted for
cerned except the capitalist; the good work of the pre
sent day is the bad work of fifty years ago. and duly elected members of the Society :
The merchant knows what to expect, who orders an Aird, Charles.
tíall, Samuel Carter. agent to make up an examined cargo of goods suitable to Blake, Rev. William. Kinder, Arthur.
a particular market, which goods are to be furnished by Greenwood, Thomas. Nash, Frederick Joho.
a warehouse that does not keep many of them in stock, Newton, Frederick.
and has to manufacture, or get manufactured all the rest
to order. This is the relation of the building owner, The following Institutions have been taken the architect, and the builder. into Union since the last announcement :
The merchant does not know what to expect, who
orders that a cargo of goods suitable for a particular 434. Derby Working Men's Association.
market should be shipped without examination from 435. Portland Breakwater Mechanics' Institution. such and such a warehouse; the goods may be very good, 436. Lewes Improvement Association.
but prohibited in the port they are sent to, or they may 437. Portsea Athenæum and Mechanics' Institution. be legal, and of such a quality as not to pay for freight. The following Colonial Institution has been | This is the relation of the building owner and the
builder, without the intervention of the architect. taken into Union since the last announcement :
11: The preparation of this paper has been caused by the Toronto Mechanics' Institution.
| fact that in my professional education and practice, dur
ing both which you have several times honoured me by were built, as 1700 Red Lion-square, Bolton-street, your favourable attention, it has been my habit to ex- Devonshire-street Queen-square, and Great Smith-street; amine, value, and repair buildings at their birth, prime, 1707-8 King-street Golden-square, Queen-square Westand decay; thus I have seen that old houses survive minster, and Great Ormond-street; 1716 New Bond-street, generations of new ones; that new houses are generally | Conduit-street, and Hanover-square ; 1718 Rathboneugly; and when pretty are frequently not worth in the place ; 1720, Bedford-row ; before 1725, King-street market what they cost.
Covent-garden ; 1727, May Fair; 1730, Oxford-market, The Times has called upon its readers to compare old Half Moon-street, and South Audley-street; and 1737, London-bridge, faulty enough in design, but living for Crown Office-row, in the Temple. six hundred years, with Westminster-bridge, 1750, and The age of these houses is clearly marked by the fact, Blackfriars-bridge, 1760, both now supported on crutches. that after 1708 the window sashes in London and WestThe first of them is waiting to be swept away as a nuis- minster were placed in reveals by order of a Building ance some day; the other may remain an invalid until the Act; fifty years afterwards a new Building Act was crutches rot and the fabric falls under the weight of a necessary from the great increase of buildings, and the man, a horse, and an empty cart. This weight is fixed order for reveals extended to some outlying parishes; in as the fatal one, because it has once been enough to break 1766, Parliament again met the great increase of buildings down a railway-bridge. There was no deodand, I be- by a new act; and in 1774, came the stringent act called lieve, on the human body, but the cost of the other ani- the Black Act. mal and the cart must have been paid by somebody. | About 1765, Berners-street and Grosvenor-place; 1770,
The same comparison may be made with regard to Great Russell-street and Salisbury-street; 1775, Mans houses. A work by the late Mr. Hudson Turner, which field-street and Stratford-place; 1778, Portman-square, is still new, and called “Some Account of Domestic Portland-place, and the Adelphi were built. Many of Architecture," is filled with descriptions of houses built these streets built 1760-1780, under vigorous legislation, at the same time as Old London Bridge, or earlier, and and leases for 90 years, have houses that although oldof houses built from that time to the year 1500, which fashioned, are handsome, convenient, and far too good to are still standing. We need not recapitulate his list, but, be pulled down. The very foundations of this Society's acknowledging the beauty of nearly all his examples, we house are shown to foreigners, though perhaps few of my will take up the subject at the beginning of the sixteenth audience know that such a sight exists; except to those century, when brick was a fashionable material.
engaged in building it is an unpleasant and useless visit. We shall find that a large number of the timber and But with the year 1790, we have Lisle-street; 1795, the of the brick houses that were built between 1509 and New-road; 1800, Alfred-place Gower-street, and Baker1649, still remain, and command what may be termed a street;1805, Great Surrey-street, Wade-street, and Russellfancy price. There is actually no saying when they will square; 1810, Bryanston-square; 1815, Park-crescent; perish; some in ruins like Tattershall are as good as 1820, Regents-park, Burton-crescent, and Regent-street, many a new house of the present day. If we visit or their neighbourhoods. Regent-street rubbish was a London just on the skirts of the great fire, we see term well understood by the workmen employed on it, houses that need not be pulled down, which is more and Regent-street rubbish, for a great wonder, it remains. than can be said of the London that has been built I counted upwards of 30 cracks in one wall of a house since 1800. To say nothing of almshouses dating between there. But bad as that is, it is not really so bad as much 1550-1650, we shall find that houses built before 1600 in that has been since built,-it stands. the Strand, Little Moorfields, Cross-street, (Islington), The public would seem to have a belief that a low rent Holywell-street, Gray's-inn-lane, Bishopsgate-street, and a good house, in a good situation, are likely to be were, till lately, or are now, existing. These are certainly put before it under the present system of competition. not in very good condition, but we shall find houses 1620- When the landlord was the builder, and covered four or 30 in Lincoln's-inn-fields and Great Queen-street, 1637 five acres with houses, it was his interest to build all in Chandos-street, Covent-garden, 1640-62 in Clare- equally well—he could get his rent—but when he let market; 1657 in Middle Temple-lane, and 1660 in Hatton- that ground to four or more builders, they cut down the garden.
cost of construction, in order to compete with each other Keeping generally westward with fashion we find 1678 for profit out of the rents, which their own competition King's Bench Walk, Essex-court, and Farrar's-buildings made lower than their landlord would have asked, and in the Temple, Arundel-street, Exeter-street, and Sack- this system of competition is part of the secret of our ville-street, 1680 the Old Jewry, King-street, St. James's, present bad houses." The other part of the secret is the Crown-street, Wardour-street, and Soho-square ; Paper- folly of people in renting or buying anything in the buildings in the Temple, which Bagford says were so shape of a house, without knowing, or endeavouring to called from the slightness of their construction, 1685, know, anything about it; yet the public will not hire or were not rebuilt till 1848. So that actually houses buy a piano in the same way. built in what was then considered a slight manner, have The usual way of starting a street is to let the land to lasted 160 years ; indeed, it was lately stated at an inquest that anomalous being, a speculative builder. He need that a house was only 200 years old, and therefore could not be a builder, or a tradesman in any branch of build: not have been supposed to be in danger; in fact, oughting-indeed the persons whom I have known succeed not to have fallen. This is a remarkable proof of the best, were a sailor, who had succeeded to some proextreme difference between the old and the new houses; Iperty, and built two houses for £7,000, which he sold if we reflect that a glance through the journals of the immediately, in the most careless, openhanded way, for last fifteen years will show the fall of about as many as much each—a chandler's shopkeeper, who built a row houses before they were finished, as of the old houses. of forty houses for £300 each, and sold nearly all of Yet Neve, in 1703, says, " the greatest objection against them, but none for less than £600—and a footman, who London houses (being for the most part brick) is their built a street in such a style that at last the tradesnien slightness, occasioned by the fines (or ground rents) I actually refused to work any longer for him, but who exacted by the landlords, so that few houses, at the com complacently said, in the court of law to which he summon rate of building, last longer than the ground lease, moned them, tenants would occupy anything he put up. 1.e., about 50 or 60 years, and this way of building is Between 1760 and 1810 many streets were built on a very beneficial to trades relating to it, for they never system which no longer prevails; it was called blood for want work in so great a city, where houses are always | blood; because if a plumber took a piece of ground, he repairing or building.” And probably much of his ob- arranged with a bricklayer, carpenter, joiner, and painter servations applied only to houses on the outskirts of the to put their work over the ground, each taking one or then city, for we find that about that time good houses more houses finished with his plumbing in payment. Of course his lead was thin; the brickwork was poor; the passed into a pretty, though small, garden, (I should say rafters and joists were weak; and the glass and painting that no carriage except for an invalid entered,) which discreditable.
separated the front and back dwellings. In compliance From 1800 to 1825 there was a different system ; with continental customs most of these were large enough builders who gave themselves up to the business of build to have a family or two on each floor, but I visited where ing streets on speculation, borrowed of their friends and only one family occupied the pretty little house. There tradesmen, and paid their debts according to the sale of the porter is answerable for your house ; you put the key their houses; this system dropped when the lenders found on your hook in his lodge, and the whole family can unfinished houses left on their hands. Since 1815 the leave for the best part of a summer's day, week, or timber merchants, &c., have lent money to the speculative month, with safety. The convenience of this system to builders, and of course the quality of the materials they men living in chambers in London is so obvious, that it supplied could not be disputed; but these persons, especi- is surprising that families have not adopted it. The cost ally the timber merchants, have apparently had reason of one servant is at least saved, and nearly one-half of to suspect collusion between speculative builders and another is quite saved. The dust and noise of the streets ground landlords; and are now more wary ; indeed, the does not affect the back house, and by letting the front real speculator is often the landlord who lets ground and one for business, the rental of the ground is much inadvances money, in the hope that the speculative builders creased. There ought to be a stop put to the barbarous would put a good deal more money of their own or other system of using basement floors as sleeping rooms, and peoples in the shape of carcasses on his ground, and by for ovens. There is no occasion for the great part of our failing would allow him as mortgagee to foreclose and get, bread to be prepared in underground holes, where the at a cheap rate, carcasses to be finished scampishly and baker's men can see nothing except by candlelight, and sold at an apparently reasonable price.
which are subject to all the dirt and effluvia—but I need We see houses built before 1700, actually still too good say no more on that point. In the best houses in certain to be pulled down when 170 years old, and most of them parts of London, the female servants are made to sleep are considered good for another 40 years at least ; we in the basement. It was my business to survey a house see many houses only intended to last for 100 years, near Russell-square the other day, and I found under the new fronted, and these also are considered good for entrance passage, with a window looking (it would not at least another 40 years; and we see many houses that open) into the enclosed shed under the steps, and a were built before 1800, that are now being tinkered in chimney place blocked up, a closet in which two servants order to last that time. But we also see whole quarters were said to sleep. The fætid odour was such as the of London consisting of houses built since 1790, which mistress of the house apparently thought accidental, and the tenants quit from absolute fear; rows exist where she was good enough to explain to me that it aroses she the representatives of the builders would be too happy thought, from the fact that her neighbour's cistern always to get rid of their prospective burdens, and sell their kept overflowing and made one side of this little bed-room interest or rather burdens in their leases, for a mere rather damp, so damp indeed that the plastering could song.
not be said to stand upon the wall. To find sinkWhy our dwelling houses in London are built after stones with the holes corked up is nothing new at home. one plan, viz., an entrance passage, a front room, a Perhaps one of the greatest improvements in London smaller back room, and a staircase by its side, is a houses of all sizes, would be to have the drains laid so mystery to many besides myself. The plan is no doubt near the surface, and so covered by boards in their line, a very good and healthy one, where it provides a tho that they could be examined or cleaned without trouble; rough draft every time the back or front door is opened, at present there is nothing which embarrasses me so much but it has a great tendency to make the chimnies on surveying a house. If the floors are taken up and smoke, and to keep the house very cool in winter. the drains are clear, there is great wrath at the trouble Why, also, the kitchens should be placed in the base and expense; if reliance is placed on the assertion that ment is not clear; the open doors in summer carry all the drains are clean, it by no means follows that they are sorts of scents up the stairs. Indeed, in this respect either clear or sound, and many a drain has been allowed the very small houses, like those in Camden-town, which to leak its contents away into the kitchen floor and the have no basements, but have kitchens in the yard, foundations, from which cause alone there are many damp might be usefully followed in larger houses, and the walls in London. servants' rooms might be above each other at the back I shall say nothing about a backwardness in adopting of the house, and all the way up. Some good third-patent sash-fastenings, calculated to render the labour of rate houses have the staircase in front, and gain a cleaning the windows less dangerous; or sensible designs handsome back room, at little expense to that in front, for stove grates; or speaking tubes; or ventilating glass but this plan is rarely followed. It is also curious in the windows; or self-fitting lock handles; or small that speculative builders never will put a ventilator to rooms fitted up for a bath or baths, where children might the top of the staircase, and so the whole heated and upset the bath without injury to the house as is frequently damaged atmosphere of the house is poured into the provided abroad, especially in the north of Europe ; or top rooms, which also happen to be the apartments the possibility of making a house so nearly fireproof, even for the invalid and the nursery. .
if it be an old one, that lives should not be lost in case of There is hardly a house fit for an invalid in London, fire; or of better shutters, than the ugly contrivances yet almost every second house in a street contains, on an now in use; or of lifts, or of several other things average, one invalid in a year, and all the year round. equally useful and valuable; yet these are all matters Perhaps this is one reason why so many invalids live which are neglected in our houses, of the common as abroad, where all their home is on one floor, and where well as of the better sort; and I am inclined to think that there is only one staircase, and that a very easy one to it is because an architect is not employed. Perhaps we descend, in order to get into the garden or the street. might go further, and say that if an architect is said to Back Houses, too, are quite gone out of fashion, as if our be of no use except to increase the cost of a house by the families had nothing to do but to sit at the front windows amount of his commission, at all events an amateur, or a to see the passing vehicles. I was much struck, in several speculative builder would certainly be sure to do better. of the Belgian and French towns, with the system--of You know that the new streets of London are filled with which traces may still be seen in the city, viz.,-of houses that have little or no real convenience in them, having a carriage entrance, in which a porter lives that and that the speculative builder does not seem to care a stops all incomers to know their business. He and his jot for the sanitary and social improvements of the day; wife act as servants, on occasion, to the inmates of the but you probably do not know the sort of faults comfront and back houses. Through the carriage entrance Imitted by those men who, loftily saying, “ we can do