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118. The Nautilus Diving Apparatus; Exhibited

by the Nautilus Company, 34, Great George-street, Westminster.

This machine consists of a working chamber, capable of accommodating a large or small number of divers, and surrounded by other chambers, in which the relative proportions of air and water may be so regulated, that the divers within the machine are able to sink or raise it, or to endue it with a buoyant power for lifting weights, according to circumstances. Compressed air is supplied to the apparatus through a flexible tube connected with a reservoir at the surface. For detailed description, see Journal of the Society of Arts, No. 224, page 244.

of the bellows and the deposit of gas on the one hand, and between the discharge-nozzle and the nearest level or air-course on the other hand. The bellows being then worked, draw in the gas through the inlet-pipe and expel it through the discharge-pipe into the level, where it miugles, and is carried off with the atmospheric current maintained by the ordinary means of general ventilation. The second apparatus causes a continuous current to be maintained through pipes from the highest part of the fast-end workings, where the gas accumulates, to the air-course, by means of rarefaction produced by heat. It consists of an inner or furnace-chamber, heated by the flame of a lamp, or partly by the flame of a lamp and partly by the combustion of a portion of the inflammable air. The lamp is contained in the box which forms the bottom of the furnace-chamber, the air to support combustion being admitted through valves guarded by tissues of wire gauze. There is a third valve for the admission of inflammable gas, if desired. The lamp is furnished with a wire gauze. A second chamber, of larger dimensions, envelops the furnace-chamber, having pipes of communication with the far end of the fast-end working on the one hand, and with the aircourse with the other. The heat radiated from the external surface of the inner or furnacechamber raises the temperature of the atmosphere in the space between the shells of the two chambers. The consequent exhaustion of tho inlet-pipe causes a continuous in-draught of the foul air, which passes through the outer or larger chamber, and issues from the dischargepipe into the air-course.

119. Apparatus for Improving the Ventilation of

Mines, by Removing Noxious Gases from
Fast-End Workings; James Wadsworth,
Hazel-grove, Stockport, Cheshire.
The great difficulty in the ventilation of mines
is the dislodgement of inflammable gas from
those remote parts of the workings, through
which it is found impracticable to introduce an
atmospheric current sufficiently powerful to pre-
vent the accumulation of such gas in danger-
ous quantities. Two means of effecting this
object are here shown. The first consists of a
double-acting bellows, mounted upon a car-
riage, running upon the ordinary tram rails.
This carriage also carries a supply of socket-
pipes. When the machine is in use the pipes
form communications between the inlet-nozzle

119a, Patent Tin-Plate Cutting Machine, and

by means of a wheel and pinion through the Patent Paper and Cardboard Cutting

crank fixed over a dial, showing the letters and

signs corresponding with the Indicator described Machine ; Stephen P. Ruggles, Boston,

above. By each half-revolution of the anchor, U.S. Exhibited by A. W. Conner, Duke

a current is produced alternately negative and street, Adelphi.

positive, which passes through the coils of the The peculiar action of these machines consists

Indicator, moving the needle as mentioned above. in a rotary steel disc attached to gearing and

The first operation is to draw out the brass button travelling through their whole length above a

on the side of the case at both stations, then by horizontal steel cutter fixed to the lower fram

turning the handle one whole revolution on either ing. This framing supports the table and butt

station, it will give a signal on a bell attached gauge. The box sliding along the upper portion

to the Indicator. After the signals are received, of the machine, carries the steel disc and gear

the small ivory button below the dial of the ing, and in the handle there is a spring set up

Indicator is pressed inwards, and at the same by screws at the end, to keep the cutters up

time the handle turned until both the needle of to their work. In the smaller machine the

the Indicator and the handle are on the blank drawing action of the circular cutter necessary

field of the dials, when the instruments are in to cut clean, and which in the larger is pro

order for giving or receiving dispatches.
duced by gearing, is obtained by a piece of
cat-gut passed over the brass disc in the manner
of a bow drill. These machines combine

145. Portion of the Original Submarine Telethe action of ordinary scissors with this ad

graph Cable laid down between Dover and vantage, that the cutting angle is always the Calais; Exhibited by T. R. Crampton, same, and the drawing action of a knife is

C.E., Buckingham-street. Adelphi. caused by making the disc rotate quicker than

This cable was taken up by Mr. Crampton it traverses along. This is of great utility in the

during the repairs in January last, after having machines for cutting the thicker class of plates,

been submerged more than five years. It will the plates being separated by the cutters enter

be seen upon inspection that for all practical ing barely ths of an inch, and so cutting with

purposes it is equal to new, the gutta-percha much less power and avoiding curling and burr

being perfectly sound. This is a piece of the on the edges cut. When circles are to be cut,

identical cable that first established the prac. a carrier is hung from the traversing box,

ticability of submarine telegraphs. pressing down the tin or other substance between the two discs by means of a cam-headed lever above, and as the bearing centre travels with | 145a, Patent Arithmometer ; Thomas de Col. the cutter, the same in feeding itself causes the

mar., Exhibited by P. de Fontainemoreau,
sheet to turn rourd and cuts a circle without
any previous centre-punching or scribing.

4, South-street, Finsbury.
Ellipses, &c., may also be produced. In the
larger machines the top and bottom frames are

1453. Improvements in Frames of Pianofortes ;
adjusted to each other by crank or eccentric
bolts at the ends so as to be set to cut different

John Dewrance, 33, Soho-square.
thicknesses of plate, whilst the circular cutting
apparatus is detached from the traversing box,
but travels in the same direction and at the
same speed, thereby producing a similar result.

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144. Magneto Electric Step by Step Telegraph;

Siemens and Halske. Exhibited by C.
W. Siemens, John-street, Adelphi.
This instrument possesses the advantages of
great simplicity, entire suppression of the bat-
tery, and capability of working through a great
length ofline-wire (having been worked through
3000 miles) without intermediate relays. It
is intended chiefly for railway companies, and
private telegraphs, requiring only one line and
being always ready for work. The instrument
called the Indicator consists of two permanent
magnets fixed to a frame, with the opposite poles
turned towards each other, between which, are
placed the moveable poles of an Electro Magnet.
Positive and negative currents passing in suc-
cession through the coils of the electro magnet,
cause a reciprocating motion of these poles,
which are therefore successively attracted by
the two permanent magnets. By this motion,
a needle is turned on a dial step by step, showing
the different letters and signs. The electric
current is produced through a second apparatus
called an Indicator, which consists of several
permanent steel magnets, having one common
anchor made of a soft iron core, covered
with insulated copper-wire, and fixed so as to
revolve in two bearings. This anchor is turned

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In this invention the improvement consists in

piece; and although cast-iron has been named a novel mode of constructing the frame of cast

as the material to be employed in making the iron. The shape of the framing must of course

metal frame, other metals or alloys of metals depend upon the particular description of in

may be used with advantage for the best class instrument to which it is to be applied, and the

of instruments. particular section of the iron framing must also in a great measure depend upon the same circumstances, and may be varied; but in 1582.Specimens illustrative of a new process of practice, the T-shaped bar has been found to

coating cast iron and other metals with answer the purpose, and therefore it is preferred to use this form. For the purpose of

copper, &c.; L. Oudry, 2, Dunster. receiving the pins on which the strings are

court, Mincing-lane. secured," a piece of hard wood is employed,

The peculiarity of this process consists in the which must be let into the frame, and fastened

employment of an intermediate layer, of a by bolts or screws. The surface of this piece

gummy, resinous, or other substance, between of wood may be covered with a plate of soft

the surface of the metal to be protected by metal, such as zinc or tin, so as to enable the

plating and the electro deposit. bolts to hold the wood more securely. The sounding-board and bridge should be made of wood, and secured to the cast metal frame. / 1890. Aquarium. Exhibited by Philip Palmer, Fig. 1 is a front view of one of the improved

118, St. Martin's-lane. cast-iron framings; and fig. 2 is a sectional view, taken in the line H, G, of fig. 1. In this instance the strain of the strings is

1890. Improved Reflectors ; U. Scott, 156, counteracted both in the head-beam and by Grove-street, Camden-town. the central longitudinal bar, J. A flange, b, is

These reflectors are made of sheet iron, and the employed to support the piece of wood which

surface is enamelled with glass or china. receives the pins of the strings. Several forms of framing may be adopted for different kinds 1 215. Embroidery, executed by Machinery. Ex. of instruments, the illustration showing one of the forms used. The several parts of these

hibited by P. de Fontainemoreau, 4, metal frames are cast together, and form one South-street, Finsbury.

(N.B.- These four pages should be taken out and bound with the Catalogue.]

ponds in that island the grass becomes greatly impreg- curiosity, I examined what it contained. There were nated with saline particles, and the sheep which feed upon several pounds of fat pork, a large quantity of salt and it thrive much better than those which are depastured fresh fish, remnants of all kinds of cold meat, scraps of in other parts of the country. The flesh, from the bread and pie crust, two or three dozen plantains, and at saline quality of the food which they eat, becomes firm least a couple of dozen of monstrous land crabs. Not and juicy, and the fat in its richness approaches very black crabs, which in Jamaica are considered such dainties, much to that of venison. The sheep which are fed in but those horrid ghouls which feed and fatten in gravethe Jamaica mountains, although there are there ex- yards, and cheat the worm of its lawful prey. I asked cellent pastures, are very much inferior. The Indians | him what he was going to do with that abominable mess. in Guiana, and also in Central America, use very little which he was stirring about most vigorously with the salt with their food. Prescott, speaking of the Tlascalans, end of a paddle. He said “ Me eat um massa for my says; " for more than half a century they had neither break-faast." “ What all that?" I said. "Hi! dat no cotton, nor cacao, nor salt. Indeed, their taste had been much, me eat two timo tree time dat for dinnaar.” And so far affected by long abstinence from these articles, this voracious brute was a thin, meagre looking creature, that it required the lapse of several generations after the like the starved apothecary in Romeo and Juliet. conquest to reconcile them to the use of saltat their meals.” On the Belize river, about twenty miles from the Robinson Crusoe's man Friday at first refused to eat town of that name, there lives a man, or did a few salt to his meat, and it was a long time before he be- months ago, whose name is Jones by descent, and came fully reconciled to it. But Robinson Crusoe is a Richard by purchase. His longitudinal dimension enfiction. In one sense it is so-but there is more truth in titles him to be ranked amongst the sons of Anak, for that fiction than there is in many books professing to be the crown of his head is at least six feet and a-half authentic history. De Foe, the best and truest English above the level of the sea. His general appearanceprose writer we ever had, knew very well what he was spare, wiry, and springy, reminds one of Cooper's about when he stated Friday's repugnance to salt. He " Leatherstocking," and when he walks,“ long and knew most of the voyagers of his day, and doubtless slouching is his gait," like Peter Bell the potter. He he derived from them the knowledge of the manners and has a massive head, covered with short, crisp, grey customs of different countries which he exhibits in his hair, a long aquiline nose, hollow cheeks, and a pair works. Salt is supposed to be a vermifuge, and I have of enormous jaws, which open and shut like an engine, read somewhere that there was formerly a law in a par- devised by some benevolent individual for the capture ticular locality in Germany, which condemned persons of unwary trespassers. This man possesses a most miwho had been convicted of certain crimes to eat their raculous twist, and would have eaten spoonful for food, for the remainder of their lives, without salt, and spoonful with that famous Welsh giant (from whom. that the consequence of this privation was—that they perhaps, he is descended) whom John the Giant were destroyed by worms. I strongly suspect, however, Queller, as Fielding calls him, tricked so cleverly in that this is a fable.

the matter of the hasty pudding Report attaches some As to the different effects produced upon the human romance to the history of Mr. Jones. It is said that constitution by nitrogenous, or plastic food, and carboni- in his youth he met with a disappointment. He had ferous, or respiratory food, and the capacity of resisting cast an eye of tender regard upon a black but comely the invasions of disease which the former gives, whilst daughter of Ham. But the “ course of true love never the latter leaves the system a prey to the slightest did run smooth," and an " oyster," we are told, " may attack, there was a remarkable instance in Belize a few be crossed in love." The dark fair one scorned the years ago, when the cholera visited that town. The alliance, and declined to become his "Sweet Jenny Jones." European inhabitants, and those black and coloured people Upon this “Poor Richard" took to his bow and his spear who lived on nourishing animal food, nearly all escaped, and has ever since been a great hunter before the Lord. whilst the Indians, and Spaniards whose food consisted But, though his heart was seared, he did not think it principally of vegetables, dropped to the ground one after necessary to neglect one of the first injunctions to man; apother, as if they had been shot.

on the contrary, thinking with Benedict " that the world Dr. Letheby speaks of the gluttony of the Hottentots, must be peopled," he became the father of a patriarchal and the large amount of food which the inhabitants of progeny. Full seventy winters have now passed over Southern Africa generally are capable of consuming. I his head and yet he is as active as ever, and had once an African servant who would have been a

“ When the hounds are in the cry, match for any Hottentot that ever lived. He was the

And the deer sweeps by," scion of a Royal family which had fallen into trouble. An exile from the kingdom of his Royal father, he did he sallies forth with his long gun, and his longer legs, in not disdain to earn an honest livelihood by communicat- search of savoury meat such as his soul loveth, for the aping to boots and shoes the blackness and polish of his petite of this worthy man is not the least impaired, but is shining ebon face, and conveying to knives and forks the still as sharp and as keen as the north wind which whistles dazzling lustre of his dark eye. He was called Prince on Ben Lomond. I have heard of a gourmand, who, on Pindar, the former name having been conferred upon seeing a hungry man make a hearty meal off a leg of him, no doubt, in reference to his exalted birth, the mutton, expressed his astonishment and disgust that any cause of the latter I am ignorant of, unless it was his person should waste so splendid an appetite upon such musical propensities, for he had a habit of constantly food. I have known Mr. Jones polish off, in the handleaving off his work, putting both hands to his face, and somest style, a whole shoulder of mutton,---just to wile entertaining himself with a low, confidential, melodious away the time, until something more plentiful and subwhistle. Be that as it may

stantial could be prepared for him. He will eat six * * * * Give me leave to speak him,

pounds of vension steaks, and a score of plantains, as we And yet with charity-he was a man

would eat half-a-dozen oysters, to give him an appetite. Of an unbounded stomach."

When he kills a deer, he sells one leg of it, breakfasts I do not know that like the famous Robbin a Bobbin

off the other, and dines off the balance. A fearful man

Mr. Jones would be to encounter in a lonely place he could have eaten more than three score men, or could

on his return from an unsuccessful forage. The sight “Eat the church and eat the steeple

of his long, sharp, white teeth, glittering like a row of Eat the parson and all the people."

Turkish 'scimitars, and the opening and shutting of his but he certainly possessed most magnanimous powers of mighty jaws, which come together with a click, like " the mastication and digestion. On one occasion I observed old oak chest which shut with a spring," would make him very busy with a huge bucket, and, impelled by 'one's flesh creep, and one's blood curdle. It would be

worth while, for the sake of science, to negotiate for the of their limbs. This lasts sometimes for an hour, somepurchase of his cranium, with the appurtenances, after times for three or four days. This breaks up the gangs his decease. I have no doubt that for a valuable con- in a most inconvenient manner. I am inclined to think sideration he might be induced to give a post obit. How that the smallness of the air-locks causes a too sudden far such an instrument would bind the executors and ad-transition from a great pressure to a much lower one. ministrators, I am not prepared to say--for the head, The men working in the bell suffer very much from being personal property, would, I presume, vest in them, the heat ; indeed, when the pressure exceeds that due I am, &c.,

TEMPLE to 50 feet of water, the heat of the compressed air is

sufficient to partially melt the india-rubber pipes, and SUBMARINE OPERATIONS.

to burn the leathers of the pumps, although they were Sir,- In the Journal of your Society, of the 6th ult., / in water.” I observe that Mr. John Bethell, in an address to thé ! Mr. Brunel, who has sunk the large cylinder forming members at the meeting of the 4th idem, in speaking of the foundation for the pier at Saltash-bridge, to a depth diving dresses, stated that “he ought to mention that of 83 feet, let his men work but three hours at a time. his diving dresses had been employed in the Bay of and yet found them seriously affected with rheumatism Navarino, in recovering guns from the Turkish ships, at and congestion of the brain, so that one of them died a depth of 500 feet, which had been effected without upon the spot. difficulty, and with perfect safety to the di ver.” An In putting in the foundations of the two new bridges announcement that diving could be carried on at a depth at Rochester, at a depth of 62 feet, our assistants encounof 500 feet, was of so startling a nature, and, as I believed, tered many similar difficulties, arising from the pressure so very far beyond any result attained in practice, that I even at that depth. have thought it right to look into the subject, and to To my mind it appears very necessary to advise the collect some facts that might throw light upon it, and greatest caution in trying to execute works at the depth the conclusion at which I have arrived upon the evidence of even 100 feet, and is it not possible that when Mr. now before me is, that Mr. Bethell must have been mis- Bethell's friends, the “Greek merchants," from whom informed as to the depth to which the divers descended he says he got his information as to the divers in the in the waters of the Bay of Navarino.

Bay of Navarino, gave the depth to which they deI should not have troubled you with this communica- scended as 500 feet, they may have made a mistake in tion had I not felt that the statement is calculated to the first figure, and that the real depth was 100 feet and mislead those who contemplate operations in deep water. | not 500? If, indeed, works can be conducted at a depth of 500 I subjoin copies of some correspondence with Mr. feet, “ without difficulty, and with perfect safety to the Bethell on this subject, and divers," many works, especially those connected with

I am, &c., mining operations, could be effected at an enormous

CHARLES FOX. saving of expense, as compared with the means now in Spring Gardens, April 8, 1857. general use. That Mr. Bethell must be in error is, in the first place,

Spring-gardens, March 23rd., 1857. I think, proved by the fact that there is in the Bay of * DE

DEAR SIR --At the Society of Arts on the 4th. inst., you

spoke of some case in which a diver had been 500 feet under Navarino no greater depth than 37 fathoms, or 222 feet, and I have ascertained, by reference to the Admiralty,


I am anxious to get the facts of so interesting a case, baving that the Turkish ships referred to by Mr. Bethell were

just now a work of difficulty arising from great depth, and I sunk in 18 fathoms, or 108 feet water; and, in the second

shall therefore feel obliged by your telling me anything you may place. that the pipes used for conveying the air to the know of the circumstance you named. divers were made of “many folds of cloth and caout

Yours fait chouc.” Now, if air at a temperature of 60 deg. Faht.,

C. FOX. be compressed in a pump, so as to resist the pressure due John Bethell, Esq., 8, Parliament-street. to a column of 500 feet of water, it would, in consequence of its diminished capacity for caloric, be raised to about

8, Parliament-street, Westminster, March 25th, 1887. 340 deg. Faht., and, as caoutchouc melts at about 250

MY DEAR SIR CHARLES,- I should have answered your note deg. Faht., it is manifest that such a depth could not be be

ha before, but I was at Birmingham till yesterday, attained by pipes composed of the materials described.

The deep diving I alluded to was in the Bay of Navarino, on

the wrecks of the Turkish Aeet sunk there, but as I got my inI have been occupied for some years in carrying on formation from the Greek merchants who sent out the apparatus, works in deep water, and have found much difficulty I cannot warrant the depth so great as stated. in any depth exceeding 60 feet, and I am unable to But if the air pipes and pumps are strong enough, I should find any case on record in which a man has been more not be afraid of working in that depth. If the man is kept than 140 feet under water (and even this I very much fully supplied with air of the same density as the water that doubt), and on this occasion it is said to have been surrounds his body he would be quite sate. found“ impossible for him to remain even the few

Yours faithfully minutes which were necessary for effecting the object

"}. BETHELL desired. The following extract from a letter dated April 19th,

Spring Gardens, March 28th, 1857. 1856, from my assistant, Mr. J. Folliott Stokes, who and must apologise for again troubling you ; but the subject

DEAR SIR,-I am obliged by your note of the 25th instant, superintended the construction of the bridge which car- is one of so much importance that I shall feel much obliged by ries the Paris and Lyons Railway over the Saone, in the your establishing the fact mentioned by you at the Society of City of Lyons, will be found interesting, as bearing upon Arts, on the 4th instant, and which is reported in the Journal this subject. This bridge is of wrought-iron, with two of that Society on the 6th instant, in these words :-“He (Mr. openings of 200 feet each, and consequently having one | Bethell) ought to mention that his diving dresses had been enpier, the foundations of which are composed of cast-iron ployed in the Bay of Navarino, in recovering guns from the cylinders sunk under pressure to a depth of 59 feet below

Turkish ships, at a depth of 500 feet, which had been effected water, and you will observe that at this comparatively

without difficulty and with perfect safety to the diver." small depth very serious inconvenience was experienced

The depth of 500 feet is so far beyond anything I have heard by the workmen, and the india-rubber pipes and leathers interest in obtaining all the facts.

of, or any case I can find on record, that I naturally feel much of the pumps were sources of constant delays and diffi- of what material would you construct the pipes for convey culties.

ing air to such a depth ?-Yours, faithfully, " The men find that on coming out of the apparatus

C. Fox under a pressure of 1.atmospheres, they lose the use

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