Journal of the Society of Arts.

for from ignorant employers. Prince Albert has felt this difficulty; a difficulty not within the compass of this Society to remove : and he has

brought up succour to us from other quarters. FRIDAY, APRIL 10, 1857. He assigned to science and high art its due place

in the hierarchy of society; he has encouraged

our scientific and artistic institutions, but above NOTICE TO CANDIDATES. all he has adopted that course which among

Englishmen is of most avail,—he has attended Persons who intend to offer themselves as our public meetings, and has in his own person Candidates at the Society's Examinations in appealed to us to reform ourselves. These apJune next, in London and at Huddersfield, are peals at the time produced their effeet, and would desired to take notice that no one will be ad- continue to work upon the public mind, if this mitted to the Examinations who shall not have Society would in its own interest, and in the insent in his “Return paper" to the Secretary of terest of the cause it espouses, print and circulate the Society of Arts, before Monday, the 20th of Prince Albert's addresses for our use." April next.

At a meeting of the Council of the Society of Forms of the “Return paper” may be had on Arts, held on the 23rd of July, 1856, the foreapplication to the Secretary of the Society of going suggestion was taken into consideration, Arts.

when the following minute was passed :

" That Lord Ashburton's suggestion, to col

lect and publish the addresses, speeches, and EXHIBITION OF INVENTIONS.

letters of H.R.H. the President of the Society, The Society's Ninth Annual Exhibition of having

of having been considered, it was resolved :- That

a collection be published, not at the risk of the Inventions was opened on Monday, the 23rd ult. The Exhibition will be open every day till

Society, but by subscription among the members,

the Institutions in Union, and the public at the 23rd of May, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., and is

large, as being the best means of showing the free to the members and their friends. Members,

public sense of the efforts made by his Royal by tickets or by written order bearing their sig. nature, may admit any number of friends.

Highness to promote social progress and the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, the chartered objects of the Society.

" That two editions of the collection be NO TICE TO INSTITUTIONS. published under the sanction of the Society, the

one a cheap edition for wide distribution, and the James Patrick Muirhead, Esq., F.R.S.E., has

nas other a library edition. presented to the Society of Arts, for distribution

" That members and others wishing to beamongst the Institutions in Union, 27 copies of

come subscribers be requested to transmit to the “Correspondence of the late James Watt, on his Secretary a statement of the number of copies Discovery of the Theory of the Composition of they subscribe for. with the amount of their Water" and 186 copies of “ The Historical Eloge subscriptions." of James Watt,” by M. Arago.

It is proposed to publish the Library Edition Those Institutions which desire to have copies

at half-a-guinea, and the cheap edition at threeof these works, are requested to make early ap

pence each, or one pound per hundred. plication to the Secretary of the Society of

Subscriptions to promote the above object will Arts.

be received by the Secretary.



The following letter, addressed to the editor of At the annual dinner of the Society for the th

the the Journal, has been received from a member of Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Com

bom the Board of Examiners : merce, in the Crystal Palace, on the 24th of June./ Sir,-As the time of holding the Society's Examina1856, Lord Ashburton, Vice President of the ti

tions is now drawing near, and as many, indeed I may

say most, of the candidates know but little of the manner Society, in his address from the chair, observed : l in which Examinations are conducted, whether at the _" To induce the tired mechanic to study during Universities, by the Civil Service Examiners, or elsewhere, his hours of rest, he must have some inducement it may not be out of place if I use the columns of the Sobeyond that of acquiring knowledge for its own

ciety's Journal, to give a few words of friendly advice to

those young men who propose to present themselves for sake; he must be paid for it in wages or in con- examination before the Society's examiners in the beginsideration, and that inducement he cannot hope ning of June. My remarks will be very plain, intended


as they chiefly are for those who do not clearly know

EXAMINATIONS. what an examination is, or how they should conduct themselves with respect to it.

The following correspondence has taken In the first place it will be found that candidates, es- | place upon this subject :pecially those who have had but little judicious guidance, are only too ready to take up several subjects at once. TO THE SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS. They think it creditable to them to be able to compete in so many things at the same time. This is a great error. A candidate who confines his attention to one or SIR,-I find it necessary to make an appeal to you in even two subjects, is almost sure to obtain a higher certi-reference to the proceedings and the results of the prelimficate, than he who spreads his attention over many ; but, inary Examination, held at what is of far more importance, his thoughts being con

the centrated on one point at a time, he acquires clearer notions After becoming connected with the Society of Arts, I deof the primary principles of the subject he is striving to decided to send in two youths as competitors, one for acquire than if he were to direct his attention to several at

Mathematics and History, and the other for French and opce. It is as true of mental as of mechanical effort; to

German, being, of course, guided by your printed regu. produce an erect at all, a certain time 18 necessary. The lations as sent to me. The two youths consequently mind must be saturated with a subject, before it can be

attended the Examinations at

and said to make it its own. Again, in an examination, a

one of them was plucked for the reason assigned in the candidate must not only know the subject, he must have

enclosed letter of the Rev. it well in hand besides; it will be of no avail to him to

Now, the printed paper sent me did not mention arithknow where he could find the information he is in want

metic for the preliminary Examination ; therefore, as the of, if he had a library to refer to. He must not only I vouth referred to intended to go in finally for modern have the knowledge, but be able to make it available,

languages, his attention had been exclusively directed to and recover it if he should have lost it.

those subjects, with English composition and commercial As several of the subjects of examination are valu.

correspondence. able not only in themselves, but also as mental exer- In consequence of the altered plan, I considered the

28-mathematics, for example, it is obvious that if youth was placed in a false position, especially as we were they are not followed to some considerable extent, they guided by the printed regulations sent me. It was, will fail to come up to the latter requirement, however therefore, no fault of ours, and as the youth would be they may satisfy the former. For instance, to store up sure to distinguish himself, I hope he will be allowed to in the memory the results which may be found in a book present himself for Examination at Huddersfield. As to on Mensuration, will supply ipiormation useful so long his arithmetic, I will guarantee his being efficient in that as it remains distinct and clear-but no longer; while department before June. You will, therefore, oblige me as an exercise of the understanding it will be of little by bringing this case before the Board of Examiners in or no value. Loose and inaccurate information on any sub. | London.--I am, Sir, yours most respectfully. ject is never worth much, and it is sometimes positively injurious. The true principle is to take up one subject, to work it, to leaven the whole understanding with it, and then to go on to another.

(REPLY.) There is another great error into which candidates not Sir,-Your letter of the 3rd 'inst. has been carefully unfrequently fall, and which savours somewhat of dis- considered, and I am directed to state in reply to you that honesty. I mean the practice of giving evasive answers, the Council cannot interfere with the discretion of the of dodging the question, if I may be allowed to use Local Board, which they must assume to have been judia vulgar but expressive word, of fencing with the exa- ciously and properly exercised. miner, and striviog to mask special ignorance or loose Independen:ly of this, I would observe that one of the information under vague generalities. The honest, and principal objects the Society of Arts had in view in estabindeed the safe course for a candidate to follow, when he lishing a general system of periodical examination for cannot answer a question, is to pass it by; a guess may those who attend classes at Mechanics' Institutions, and reveal a depth of ignorance of which otherwise the exa for such of the middle classes as desire to avail themselves miner would have had no conception.

of the advantages they offer, was to secure, if possible, Again, many persons, through nervousness and timid that a greater amount of attention should be given, as apprehension, imagine that it must be a very difficult well by teachers as by pupils, to the common and indis, matter to answer an examiner's questions. Now, to one pensable elements of a sound education, however restricted acquainted with the subject under examination, the diffi- in extent it might happen to be. Surely every lad on culty is not so great, after all. Questions, which at the first leaving school ought to be able to write a fair hand, to glance appear to be very difficult, gradually open out to a spell correctly, to revise simple mistakes in English com. little patient thought. Besides, I know that it is the deposition, and to work easy sums in the common rules of termination of the examiners generally not to set riddles arithmetic. That a great many youths at the present day or conundrums in any of the subjects, but to give those are grossly deficient in these, the very first rudiments of fair and direct questions which test knowledge rather education, they have the large and varied experience of than ingenuity--which prove whether an examinee has the Civil Service Examiners to confirm their own observamastered the principles of the subject, or whether his tion. They do not believe that any proficiency, however acquaintance with it is loose, superficial, and popular, such I great, in modern languages, could compensate a lad to! as a man might acquire by attentively listening to his ignorance of these elementary principles, on which all another talking about it. Those candidates who propose | sound education must be based. to come to the Society's Examinations next June, well

I am, Sir, read and carefully prepared in the subjects they mean to bring up, will not only receive the reward due to

Your obedient servant, their industry and talents, but they will be the means

P. LE NEVE FOSTER, of inducing and urging many others to go and do like

Secretary. wise. I am, &c.,

Society of Arts, Adelphi, W.c., April 8th, 1857. A MEMBER OF THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS. To

LOCAL BOARDS OF EXAMINERS. No beam of intelligence in his face, no speculation in his

eye, no working of the facial muscles betokening emotion A Local Board of Examiners, to conduct the of the slightest kind. A long face, a lofty but rather preliminary examinations required by the So crooked narrow forehead, high cheek bones, a thin deliciety of Arts previous to the general examina.cate nose, compressed at the nostrils, a small mouth, a tions in June, has been appointed by the Brad

retreating chin, and a complexion dun-coloured and

cadaverous. In short he had all the physical indications ford Mechanics’ Institution for that district.

of an idiot. But he was not an idiot, and he had not mind The members of the Board are

enough to be mad. He was simply a human being with. Rev. S. G. Green, B.A. | Mr. William Clough. out the slightest mental cultivation. A laborious attempt Rev. D. Frazer, M.A. | Mr. C. Lund.

was made during the time he was in gaol, to instil into Rev. H. B. Creak, M.A. Rev. W. R. Smith, M.A. his mind some knowledge of Christianity, and to impress Mr. Alfred Harris, Jun.

him with the sense of his awful situation. Father Avaro, a member of the order of Jesus, a zealous,

pious, and benevolent man, attended him day and night, Home Eorrespondence.

and thought that he had made him understand and

feel, what was needful for his salvation. On the morning THE ECONOMY OF FOOD.

before his execution, a few minutes before he was led

out, he told the priest, in as solemn a manner as he could, SIR,--I have read with great pleasure the interesting that he had one last request to make to him. This occaand instructive paper delivered by Dr. Letheby to the sioned no little surprise; the good man's eye moistened, Society of Arts on the economy of food. That paper and his countenance was irradiated with hope ; could it be contains information which may be turned to good ac- possible--had the light of Heaven come upon this wretched count in every domestic establishment, which may be creature's benighted mind now at the last moment; had made beneficially available by those whose duty it is to | intelligence beamed upon his intellect, now when the provision our fleets and armies, and which deserves the soul was beating, as it were, against the bars of its cage, serious consideration of the superintendents and inspec- and was about to be released; and would he, could he, tors of hospitals, gaols, and poor-houses. Dr. Letheby embrace the cross and be saved ? Such things had hapmentions the different articles of diet which form the pened ; his church's annals were full of miracles as great staple food in different countries, and he says, “every- and greater. What was his request,--assuredly, said where the pulses and leguminous seeds are cultivated for the kind. Jesuit, it should be complied with, if not their rich nitrogenous qualities." In Yucatan, and inconsistent with his duty. What was this last solemn throughout the whole of Central America, black beans request?“ Please to get me a toasted tortilla ?" A form a large portion of the daily food of the inhabitants, toasted tortilla was got for him; he was led to the particularly the Indians. These beans, which are called scaffold eating it; and he was hanged with an unmasfrijoles, are, when uncooked, about the size and colour of ticated piece sticking out of his mouth. parched coffee berries. They are boiled and eaten with There is a dish which used to be generally used in the pepper and salt, and are served up at breakfast, dinner, West Indies, but I believe, it is now almost confined to and supper. Some of the natives almost live upon them, British Guiana. It is called Pepperpot. It is a sort of and they are to them as necessary an article of food as omnium gatherum, a kind of olla podrida. Pepperpot is inaccaroni is to the lazzaroni of Naples. I had the pleasure compounded in this wise: a large earthenware vessel is of being first introduced to this dish about ten years ago, procured, and into it is placed the relies of the breakfast, whilst spending a fortnight at Omoa. When it was placed theluncheon, and the dinner, from day to day and from year upon the table it did not present a very attractive ap- to year, with the addition of a small quantity of cazarife, pearance, and my first impression was that it was some or cazareep, and a liberal allowance of fresh red peppers, villanous preparation of blood, extracted from a foul Whatever is left after a meal, legsand wings of chickens, street-feeding porker, or not impossibly from the veins of drum-sticks of ducks, backbones of turkies, bits of fish, an Indian. Having been assured that it was vegetable, ham, beef, mutton. and not animal diet, and, moreover, that it was whole

"Eye of newt, and toe of frog, some and good for food, I ventured to taste it, and found

Wool of bat, and tongue of dog; it far from being unpalatable. Like many things, and

Adder's fork, and blind worm's sting, persons too, at first exciting our antipathy, it improved

Lizard's leg, and owlet's wing;" upon acquaintance, and I ceased in a short time to wonder that the natives should not only be passionately attached all, all, are cast, with reckless indifference, into this to it, but that they should get fat upon it. It is extremely witches' cauldron, and warmed up together. The conunctuous, and is, I have no doubt, very rich nitrogenous ditions of a true pepperpot are these principally :food. There is another favourite article of food amongst First. The vessel must be put upon the fire and the Indians of Yucatan. It is a small thin cake, about stirred up every day. Second, It must never be the size of a saucer, made of the meal of the maize, or emptied and washed out. That would break the charm. Indian corn, and called a tortilla. This, when roasted, Third. A small portion of cazarife, to give the somewhat resembles the oatcake of Scotland. For al compound a homogeneous flavour, must be added every. glass of anniseed and a toasted tortilla, an Indian would day. Cazarife is a preparation of the juice of the go through fire and water. He certainly would not hesi-cassava root, and is slightly poisonous, but that is of no tate to commit a crime. Not a very long time ago an consequence. There are families in British Guiana to Indian, on the very lowest grade of humanity, was con whom pepper pots have descended from time immemorial, victed of murder. The victiin was his wife. They were and which, from the period they commenced their savoury seen standing together at the door of their hut, apparently career have never been polluted by being brought into engaged in quiet converse. Suddenly the man was ob-contact with napkin, or water. Were some of the jars served to seize a knife, and, as quick as lightning, to examined, it is not impossible that some northern rhyme plunge it into her heart. She fell upon a log, quivered in Runic characters, or pithy apopthegm, in Mexican for an instant, like a reed when shaken by the wind, and hieroglyphics might be discovered. I have had the expired. The wretched criminal looked at the corpse courage to taste this celebrated dish, and although I have with perfect unconcern, and when arrested, which he was heard it spoken of in the highest terms, I should reimmediately, walked cheerfully away as if he was going spectfully decline to give it my vote and interest. to his breakfast. Never did I behold such a picture Dr. Bankroft, in his “ Essay on the Natural History of of degraded humanity as this poor creature presented. 'Guiana,” published in 1769, speaking of the Indian

cookery, says: “ Their usual method of cooking all is not quite so agreeable; the latter may easily be animal food is by boiling it, either with water, or the believed. An intoxicating drink, made in a similar juice of the poison Cassava, to which they add such a manner from the seeds of certain plants, was met with by quantity of red pepper, as would instantly excoriate the Captain Cook in one of the South Sea Islands mouth of a person unaccustomed to its use, but it is in- There is a vegetable called the Ocro, a species of Hibisdispensably necessary in this climate to corroborate the cus, which is much prized by old West Indians. The fruit solids and promote digestion, which would otherwise be is something like a small cucumber in appearance, and conimperfect; though it is a general but mistaken opinion, tains a great number of small seeds. It is sometimes boiled that the copious use of spices is detrimental to the in- and eaten as a vegetable, but more frequently it is used habitants of hot climates, whereas nothing is more pro- in soup. It is slimy and mucilaginous, and not, I believe, ductive of health, and we find that nature has not only very nutritions. It is, however, a great favourite, and produced them more particularly in these climates, but when boiled down with a shin of beef and a few cocos taught the inhabitants their use; and not only the Indians and onions, it makes a “ gruel thick and slab," such as of America between the tropics, but the inhabitants of the Creoles delight in. It was formerly much used by Africa and the East, all season their food with a great the female slaves, in consequence of certain properties quantity of spices, particularly pepper, a practice in which which it was supposed to possess. they are likewise imitated in a greater or less degree by A celebrated dish amongst the early settlers in Honall the Europeans who have resided in those countries duras was fingerico, or finger and co. This was a large long enough to acquire the knowledge of its use. By turtle cooked in the shell. When it was ready for eating, this practice the Indians wholly preserve themselves from as, on account of its shape, it would not stand upon the those interunitting fevers which are endemial to the other table, unless it were propped up like a ship upon the inhabitants of Guiana, who do not imitate them therein. stocks, it was placed upon a flour barrel, the head of But though the Indians live in the excessive use of pepper, which had been knocked in. The partakers of this they are never afflicted with the gout, notwithstanding savoury and delicious fare stood round the barrel, and the humidity of the air renders it particularly troublesome helped themselves with their fingers from what quarter to those of the white inhabitants who have transported they listed, for there were various departments in this it from Europe, and I think that spices ought to be no same fingerico. In one part the entrails were to be found longer enumerated among the predisposing causes of chopped up small, and seasoned with different herbs and that disorder."

spices; in another a sausage meat made of the lean of the Dr. Bankroft gives an interesting account of the animal, also made tasty with numerous condiments; in Cassava, and the mode in which it is prepared. He says, another the blood ; in another the glutinous portion of the “ The cassava shrub is about four feet in height, knotted, fins; and in another the fat, green and transparent as the and covered with an ash-coloured bark. Within it is emerald, reposed in luscious morsels. The whole of this pithy. Near the top it divides into several short, small was covered over with browned bread crumbs, and ornagreen branches ; from these arise reddish foot-stalks, mented with the yolks of boobies' eggs, red, green, and about six inches in length, supporting large digitated white capsicums, and in the middle was stuck the head, leaves. The root is white, soft, and farinaceous, of a having in it two red bird peppers where the eyes had been, cylindrical form, nearly a foot in length, and five or six and slices of lime in the mouth, The only beverage permitinches in circumference. This root is grated, on largeted to be drunk at this “ feast of shells" was champagne, copper graters, into coarse meal, from which its juice is which was quaffed, not from golden goblets or sparkling separated by expression. This meal is then put on large crystal, but rude calabashes plucked from the branches of plates of iron, placed over a slow fire, and formed into the adjacent trees. This barbaric epicurism, the offspring circular cakes of different magnitude, and from one to of wild bush life, has gradually died away. The last cook four lines in thickness ; on these plates it is baked, until who was skilled in the manufacture of fingericos, was an the surface becomes brown, and it will then keep sweet and old black woman called Auntie Peggy, who had formerly wholesome for many months. But, notwithstanding this been a slave. She fell a victim to the cholera, three years is the usual bread everywhere on this coast, yet every ago, and now there is no one left who can make a finpart of the root from which it is made is a steady and gerico. The secret of the extraordinary lustre of Titian's fatal poison, of the cold kind, causing, when internally blue died with him, and the art of making fingericos taken, violent spasms, a tumefaction of the abdomen, and rests in the grave with Auntie Peggy. a speedy cessation of all the vital functions. The aqueous A favourite breakfast diet with the creoles of British part is expressed, not because it is more poisonous than Honduras, and not by any means, I think, a disagreeable the farinaceous substance, but to facilitate the baking. one, is corn lob. The name is not euphonious, but the By the inattention of the slaves, this juice when ex- thing signified is nutritious and wholesome. Corn lob pressed, is frequently drank by the sheep, hogs, and is made of Indian corn meal and milk boiled together, poultry, on the plantations, and ever proves fatal to until the mixture arrives at the consistency of hasty them. Yet the animals thus poisoned are always eaten pudding, when it is eaten sometimes with salt, and someby the inhabitants. This poison, fatal as it is in its times with sugar, or the juice of the sugar cane. The crude state, is rendered perfectly innocent and wholesome latter is considered, and I believe justly 80, 1 by fire. Thus the bread by baking, is rendered innoxious fattening. The negroes are very fond of the sugar cane, and nutritious; and the poisonous juice of the root, and if one of those gentry has nothing else to do, which when expressed, is by the Indians and white inhabitants frequently happens, and slumber does not assert its powerboiled with venison, pepper, &c., and thus affords an agree-ful claims, he will usually take out of his long trousersable and salubrious soup.".

pocket a piece of that saccharine stalk, and press the The best cassa va cakes are made in Jamaica. They are juice out of it with his elephantine tusks. The sugar about the size of a cheese plate, and very thin. When cane is often given to horses, which it not only fattens, steeped in oil, sprinkled with cayenne, and lightly broiled but gives to them a smooth and glossy coat. on the gridiron, they are delicious. Dressed in this Speaking of salt, Dr. Letheby says, the experiments manner, they form an excellent accompaniment to wine. of Boussingault upon cattle have also shown how im

An inebriating drink is also made from the cassava, portant is the function of salt in nourishing the system. by the Indians. It is called piworree. The cassava He found that when cows were deprived of it they got bread is steeped in water until fermentation commences, out of condition; the hair became rough, and was matted to promote which the women chew a portion and mix it together, bald patches appeared on their bodies, and the with the rest. When the fermentation is completed, the temperament of the animals became cold and phlegmatic." liquor is strained off, and is ready for drinking. The The superiority of the Jamaica salt-pond mutton has aste is said to bear some resemblance to that of ale, but been long known. In the neighbourhood of the salt

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41. Locomotive Engine and Tender ; T. R.) joint, and this without the use of bolts and nuts, Crampton, C.E., Buckingham-street,

and the consequent necessity of making holes in Adelphi.

the rails. This is accomplished by making the

fish on one side a wedge of wrought iron, which Engines constructed upon this principle were

is driven in between the rails and cushions of the first to be employed for express trains in

wood placed in the chair with their end grain France, in 1849. Their peculiarities are the

against it. The fish wedge is provided with low centre of gravity, the absence of over-hang

jags or barbs, which house themselves in the ing weight, and the facility of repair, the whole

wood cushions, and as no shrinkage in the of the working parts being outside. Upon the

thickness of the cushions (from the wood being railways in the north of France, engines upon

placed endways of the grain) can take place, the this principle have run on an average 26,000

combination affords a secure and durable fastenmiles per annum ; whereas, the ordinary engines

ing, and at the same time a perfect fished have only run 16,000 miles. Statistics taken over

joint. All the parts are simple and inexpensive, seven years, show that the wear and tear is less

and with the exception of the wooden cushions, than in ordinary engines, and the excess of dis

are indestructible, and these being creosoted, and tance run is in a great measure attributed to the

protected against the admission of moisture by facility with which small repairs can be executed

the chair on one side, and the fish wedge on the without removal to the workshop. Out of 22

other (which cover the end grain and sap locomotives exhibited at the Paris Exhibition,

vessels), are considerably more durable than 14 were upon this principle. The only great

ordinary wooden keys. The overhanging ribs medal awarded for locomotives in 1851, was

or flanges bring the whole of the bottom of the given for this invention, and it is stated that a

chair into tension, and thus give great power of similar award would have been made at Paris

resistance to the strain thrown on it in driving in 1855, had not Mr. Crampton been one of the

the iron fish wedge. The intermediate chair is jurors.

constructed on the same principle as the joint

chair. It holds the rail much tighter than with 117. Patent Wedge Fish-Joint Chair and Inter

the ordinary chair key, and keeps it firmly down mediate Chair with Iron Wedge and End

on its seat. It is stated that no instance has

yet occurred of a wedge shaking out, although Grain Wooden Cushion ; P. M. Parsons,

it is upwards of two years since the first were 6, Duke-street, Adelphi.

laid down. These chairs are in use on the Great The chief features in the joint chair are, that it

Northern, Eastern Counties, East Kent, and affords the rails vertical and lateral support,

South Western Railways. A prize medal was while at the same time it effectually fishes the

awarded at the Paris Exhibition of 1855. THE WEDGE FISH JOINT CHAIR. Cross Section.

Iosometrical View-the Rails and Wedge removed.

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