briefly referred to in his article, will be found treated of merated, arising from the consumption of cord of various with the greater detail which their importance appears kinds in packing goods. Millers and other sacks may be to me to demand.

added, and my estimate, taken rather below than above A manufacture which is instrumental in converting the actual fact, gives for the present a suitable supply, utterly valueless materials into an article not merely the adequacy of which to any present demand cannot be identified with all our commercial operations, but an doubted; what may be the future of the paper trade corabsolute necessity to civilized existence, is entitled to sequent upon the repeal of the duty and the diffusion of sustain, not only a high rank in the scale of the manu- education, can only be gathered from a reference to the facturing industry of the country, but to be emancipated United States, where national education practically and from those galling restrictions upon its growth and universally prevails, and where the manufacture of paprosperity, in the shape of a fiscal charge of some 30 or 40 per (without any Excise Duty) is double that of England; per cent. upon the aggregate value of the manufactured and this tends to show that the supply of rags progresses article; the oppressive and unjust character of this impost with the growth of population and the development of the will become at once apparent by considering that on the paper manufacture. It is true that in America a conlowest article of comparative value, (paper used, for in-siderable quantity of the common kinds of paper is manustance, in packing sugar) the duty alone is 80 to 90 per factured from straw and other vegetable fibres, and that cent., and upon the more valuable papers, used for corres the importation of rags from Hamburgh, but more parpondence and the cultivation of the fine arts, the duty is ticularly the Mediterranean, and at times from Great 10 to 15 per cent. It can be clearly shown to impose a Britain, may reach in value 3 to £400,000 per annum, very manifest limitation upon the educational resources yet the enormous quantity of printing paper used, and maof the country, as affecting the humbler classes in the nufactured there from linen and cotton material, demonshape of cheap newspapers, periodicals, and school books, strates my proposition of the supply of rags derivable as also upon those branches of industry of which paper from the population of a country being commensurate forms, as it were, the raw material. I need scarcely men- with the manufacturing requirements. In 1841 the very tion paper-staining, a manufacture becoming intimately large supply of cotton waste, previously used only for identified with the domestic comfort and elevation of the very common papers, and for which straw is now the substiworking classes, and, by the cultivation of an improving tute, was applied under my assistance, and is now extentaste, tending to general social improvement.

| sively used for printing papers, as in Europe. Nor must Soliciting your indulgence for this digression, I may we overlook the circumstance that the rapid growth of first remark that, the scarcity of material in 1854, the paper manufacture in America has been cotemporainducing the somewhat equivocal offer of a reward of neous with our own, and we see that the investment of £1000 by the Times for the discovery of any new material capital in this branch of industry has never been retarded suitable for paper, was in fact artificial. A little inquiry by any apprehension of the want of material. would have sufficed to show, that in the last 25 years, more If we look again to France, with a manufacture of especially, the supply of raw material has fully kept pace 70,000 tons, a restriction existing upon the exportation with the demand: one fact will suffice to confirm this of rags, and a very rapid extension of the manufacture statement viz., The paper charged with excise duty in during the last 25 years, yet the population has supplied 1836, when the rate was reduced from 3d. to 1 d. per the necessary wants of the trade, and prices range much pound, was under 50,000 tons; the present production lower than in England. is 86,000 tons, demonstrating that the increase of You will perceive that I concur mainly in the very population, combined with other incidental sources of correct view of Mr. Stones on this subject, and we can supply, have prevented any very serious inconvenience now enter more fully upon the circumstances which will from the want of raw material; and testing the argument justify the introduction of any new material in compecuniarily (allowing for the artificial prices of commo- petition with rags, bearing in mind that the only circum. dities immediately succeeding the continental war), it stance that can dispense with the use of rags, will be that may be mentioned that the rags which in 1818 were com- a possible reduction in price arising from the introduction manding £65 per ton, were at the time of the Times of a cheap and abundant material may reduce the price to panic" selling at £30. I refer to the finest quality of a minimum which will not compensate for the labour of rags, which at all times bears a corresponding value to collecting them. Or, again, that a corresponding costly lower qualities. The application of chemical science, aided material may be introduced that will yield a superior by mechanical invention, has contributed to the applica texture of paper. These are the two conditions that adtion of inferior and more abundant materials to the useful mit the application of a new material, and the main purposes of manufacturing printing and news papers, problem to be solved is the minimum price at which the which would otherwise have been applied to the commonest collection of rags will cease; this I estimate at 1 d. kinds;nor can we fully estimate the beneficial influence per pound, taking the average value of all rags collectively, produced upon the paper manufacture by the introduction because this price to a manufacturer of paper includes the of lucifer matches in substitution for that old-fashioned labour of collecting and the profits of two or three trades; household necessity, the tinder-box, to which Mr. Stones and in the homes of the middle and higher classes, where only briefly alluded. It may be fairly assumed that the the rags are the perquisite of the domestics, a very low supply of rags from private houses has in consequence price, say a half-penny per pound, would not induce the been increased 40 to 50 per cent. Let us now look at preservation of rags. Again, as a safe proposition, I our supply of material under a fair estimate of produc- maintain that the importation of a vegetable production, tion, taking the average production from the population expressly grown or cultivated for this particular purpose arising from the consumption of all fabrics composed of from a foreign country, will not compete with rags. The cotton or linen material at 4lbs. per head, we obtain from only material or vegetable substance that will maintain a 28,000,000 of people, say

56,000 tons. becoming pretension to adoption must be of domestic Imported ..........

10,000 ,

growth, and produced incidentally to the growth of a From the mercantile marine and naval ser

more valuable commodity-as grain, for instance--the vices of the country, rope and canvas ... 20,000 , straw from which has in most countries occupied the atCotton waste, 15 per cent. upon a consump

tention of many scientific experimentalists as being the tion of 38,000 bales per week............... 50,000 , cheapest and the most abundant of any known fibrous Linen waste .....

20,000 ,

vegetable substance; of its abundance, it may be safely

asserted, that if the whole of the paper now manufactured 156,000 ,

were made from straw, it would not absorb two per cent. To produce 86,000 tons of paper, we have 156,000 tons of the aggregate growth of the United Kingdom. The of raw material, and a further supply of material not enu- manipulations that have been during the last ten years advancing, and which are still advancing with a view to technic Institution, where the illustrations must of nedemonstrate practically the economy of straw as a raw cessity be on a very small scale, when they could as material, have established a remarkable saving of power readily have seen the whole operation performed by the to the extent of 70 per cent., as well as the presence of a inventor himself; or when Mr. Hall, whose make at the sort of natural size in straw which, aided by a very Bloomfield iron works is a thousand tons per week, could economical application of cheap vegetable size, dispenses have tested the new process upon the largest scale, with wholly with the expensive operation of animal size as little or no inconvenience to the daily routine of such a applied to writing and news papers; but as a sufficiently colossal establishment. high degree of quality has not yet been obtained to en

I am, &c., able straw paper to assume even a mediocre rank in

HENRY W. REVELEY. the scale of prices, the economy of the manufacture has Poole, Dorset, Nov. 23. not yet been fully established, but the elaboration of the manufacture, now rapidly progressing, affords abundant

BROWN LIME. promise of such results being effected (notwithstand

Sir,-In reply to Mr. Reveley's letter on “ brown ing the proverbial discouragement, which the paper

lime," I beg to remark that this substance is well known dealing trade has manifested towards new improvements),

in this country, and is to be found in several places in as will render it an instrument for securing that prime

Wales. It is constantly used as a hydraulic cement by necessity of social life, more especially for purposes of

engineers, who are well acquainted with its properties, education as well as for the extension of the now

and also with some of the sources of supply. I believe ridiculously limited export trade of Great Britain, viz.,

" that used in the Liverpool and Birkenhead Dock Works cheap paper the natural result of cheap material.

is obtained in Flintshire. I myself sold a considerable I am, &c.,

quantity of it to Messrs. Mackenzie, Brassey, and Co., N. N.

the well-known railway contractors, for the building of October 27, 1856.

the viaduct across the rivers Dee and Ceiriog, on the Shrewsbury and Chester Railway. That supply was ob

tained from loose boulders on the Berwen range of mounBESSEMER IRON.

tains, just above the village of Llansaintfraidd Glyn SIR,-Mr. Gladstone is in error when he asserts that Ceiriog. I believe I discovered another very large supI endeavour to impute improper motives to his friends, ply lately on the Kerry-hills, in Montgomeryshire. the ironmasters. I merely stated the fact, that those It is a very impure limestone, containing much clay in gentlemen, in common with many others, from the very its substance, and to this it owes its peculiar properties. natural impulse of self-interest, are extremely averse to All limestones contain more or less of alumina in their change; a circumstance that can excite no surprise, when composition, and it is this skeleton of alumina which we reflect that the introduction of more economical pro- forms the rottenstone of commerce, after all the calcacesses and operations can be productive of no benefit reous portion has been removed. This removal is effected whatever, in a pecuniary point of view, to themselves. by nature, by means of some as yet unexplained chemical In the present ipstance, it is calculated that three mil-action, and the hard heavy limestone is converted into lions would be saved annually to the nation, if the Bes- a substance as light as cork, and resembling in colour semer process were to turn out successful; but these and appearance the brown powder of a ripe puff ball. millions would not pass into the pockets of the iron- Shortly before the death of my lamented friend, the masters, as Mr. Gladstone would appear to insinuate; late Professor Johnston, of Durham, I made a tour with their profits would remain much the same as they are him into Wales, in order to examine this curious subnow; and as the ironmasters are enabled to amass fortunes stance in situ, but unfortunately death prevented the reckoned by hundreds of thousands, they, at least, cannot publication of the results of his interesting researches. have much to complain of.

| The rottenstone occurs in large masses on the outskirts Those gentlemen are naturally averse to any change of the limestone band in the Brecon Hills, and may be which implies trouble or expense, merely for the benefit there seen in all its stages of transformation. of the consumer, and will only adopt improvements In case any of the chemical or geological readers of the upon compulsion, by one of their number taking up a Journal should feel inclined to take up the subject of the new process and underselling the others, or by the ruin rottenstone, I may say that one of the best places for of the inventor, as in the case of Henry Cort.

seeing it with which I am acquainted is about two miles I do not constitute myself the champion of Bessemer's from the Lamb and Flag" inn, near Ystradgynlais, in process. It must stand or fall by its own merits alone; the Swansea valley. It is there collected in quantity for but the projector of an improvement is not to be hunted exportation to London, and the principal dealer lives down with impunity in these days of free discussion. close to the “ Lamb and Flag." There have been projectors in all times, and they have I may add that the Swansea valley itself is worth a always been made subjects of ridicule; but without the pilgrimage to any lover of grand mountain scenery. assistance of those gentlemen we should still be clothed

I am, &c., with fig-leaves, or in sheepskins, at most. In regard to

JOHN GIRDWOOD. the present case, I again repeat, without fear of contra 49, Pall Mall, Nov. 11, 1856. diction, that Mr. Bessemer has produced ingots of malleable iron (not forged iron) without the expenditure of either labour or fuel. Let the ironmasters, if they have any wish to prevent animadversion upon their motives, repeat the new process at their own works, and CROSBY HALL EVENING-CLASSES.—Mr. Leone Levi, the thoroughly test its worth.

professor of banking and commercial law, has been enMr. Gladstone speaks of the “ forging process," as if | gaged to deliver a course of six lectures on the principles Mr. Bessemer's invention was intended to supersede the of banking, in Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate-street, before necessity of that operation; while he, Mr. Gladstone, the Young Men's Evening Classes, to commence on the and every other man who knows anything of iron, is second Tuesday in January. It is probable that Mr. perfectly aware that it is impossible to produce forged Levi will deliver the same course of lectures before the iron by any other means than the rolls or the hammer. members of some other literary and scientific institu

I have already disposed of Mr. Hall's munificent offer tions in London and the vicinity. of trial by wager, through another channel; but I can- Epson AND EWELL. The Committee of the Literary not refrain from expressing my surprise, that two gen- and Scientific Institution, in presenting the fifth annual tlemen of such high standing should have attended a report, express their regret that the expenditure has lecture upon the Bessemer process at the Royal Poly-exceeded the income of the year to the amount of

Proceedings of Institutions.

it ha

£21 14s. 10d., two-thirds of which deficiency is attri PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT. butable to the lectures, but they believe that a little more

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTE CTION ALLOWED. assistance from the members would relieve them from this difficulty in future, and with this hope of co-opera

[From Gazette, November 218t, 1856.] tion they have made arrangements for an interesting

Dated 13th September, 1856. succession of lectures and lecture-entertainments during

2145. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields-Improvements

in firearms. (A communication.) the session just commenced. Some additions have been

Dated 19th September, 1856. made to the library, and the number of books issued to | 2200. Archibald Templeton, 7, Skinner-street, and John Lawson, members has been 717. Although a diminution has

Glasgow-Improvements in the manufacture of pile fabrics. taken place in the number of honorary members, the

2206. John Underwood and Frederic Valentine Burt, Fish-street-hill

-The manufacture of copying-inks for printing. Committee congratulate themselves on the large addition to another class,—the quarterly subscribers—the list at 2276. Richard Boycott, Blaina, Aberystruth, Monmouth-An im.

Dated 29th September, 1856. the end of September, 1856, exhibiting an increase of at

proved air-door. least one-half more than the number shewn at the cor

Dated 14th October, 1856. responding period of 1855.

2401. John Knowles, jun., St. Helens, Lancashire-An improved MACCLESFIELD.-The Twenty-firstAnniversary of

apparatus for the prevention of accidents in winding from

mines, which apparatus is also applicable for other similar the Society for Acquiring Useful Knowledge was held on

purposes. Tuesday the 11th inst., at the Town-hall, the president

Dated 1st November, 1866. of the Society, John Brocklehurst, Esq., M.P., in the 2565. Peter Smith and Thomas Irvine, Liverpool-Improvements in chair. There was a numerous attendance on the occasion,

the masts, yards, and rigging of ships. and among the company present were E. C. Egerton,

Dated 4th November, 1856.

2582. William King Westly, Leeds-An improved method of and Esq., M.P., E. W. Wilmott, Esq., and Samuel Greg,

machinery for heckling, combing, drawing, and preparing Esq. After an address from the president, the secretary

fibrous substances for spinning. read the report, which states that the subscribers, both

Dated 5th November, 1856. honorary and ordinary, have increased, and the library 2592. Andre Jacques Isaac de Montenay du Min hy, Blois, Francehas been still further extended, by an addition of about

Improvements in screw hand presses. (A communication.)

2594. Louis Urion, Nancy, France-Improvements in machinery for 175 volumes. The classes are still numerously and

the manufacture of matches and match boxes. diligently attended, the reports of the teachers being very 2596. Charles Titterton, Roehampton-Improvements in the manusatisfactory, and arrangements have been made for re

facture of zinc and zinc white.

2598. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Improvements opening the French class. The Rev. Dr. Newbold kindly |

in steam-engines. (A communication.) gave a lecture on the Coliseum at Rome; and Mr. Walter 2600. Herbert Keeling, King and Queen Iron Works, Rotherhithe Montgomery, in May and December, gave two of his

An improvement in rivetting fish joints and other parts in Dramatic Recitations. The progress of the Society, since

the permanent way of railways.

| 2602. William Brindley, Moorgate-street-Improvements in the preits establishment, has been very considerable. In 1855,

paration of paper-hangings and other ornamental papers.

2604. John Stanley, 244, Whitechapel-road-Improvements in the ference library of about 20 volumes, but no circulating

construction of, and mode of applying, cranes and other

machines to hoisting, suspending, and lowering purposes, library. It had about twelve honorary and ninety ordi

also in generating, transmitting, and applying motive power nary members. Now it has an income of £700, a re

to the same. ference and circulating library of about 3.100 volumes. / 2605. William Seed, Preston, Lancashire, and William Ryder, Boltonabout 300 honorary and 300 ordinary members, and it has

le-Moors-Improvements in certain parts of machinery for

slubbing and roving cotton and other fibrous materials. a large and commodious building of its own, with two 2606. Frederic Holdway, Bayswater-Improvements in the manupublic news and reading-rooms, and the Government

facture of candles. School of Design is accommodated within its walls. E.

2607. William Blackwell, Settle, Yorkshire - Improvements in

ploughs. C. Egerton, Esq., M.P., Samuel Greg, Esq., the Mayor

2608. Mannor Browne, Strand-Certain improvement in shirts. of Macclesfield, the Rev. C. A. J. Smith, J. N. Brockle 2609. George Collier, Halifax-Improvements in drying, stretching hurst, Esq., E. W. Wilmott, Esq., the Rev. Alexander

and polishing or finishing yarns. Taylor, and other gentlemen then addressed the meeting.

Dated 6th November, 1856.

2610. George Henry Stevens, 14, Stafford-row, Pimlico, and Robert In the course of the proceedings the distribution of prizes

Fitch, South Lambeth-Improvements in locking and unto students in the classes took place.

locking jars, bottles, and other vessels, and making such

vessels air-tight.

2611. Joseph La Cabra, Albany-street-Improvements in the action MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.

of pianofortes. Mos. Royal Institution, 2. General Monthly Meeting.

2612. Colin Hunter, Islandreagh, Antrim, Ireland - Improvements in Royal, 4. Anniversary.

effecting the operations of drying, heating, and ventilating. Royal Institution, 7. Professor Odling, “ On Organic Che- 2613. Joseph Parker, Blackburn, Lancashire--Certain improvements mistry."

in machinery or apparatus for roasting coffee, or for other Architects, 8.

similar purposes. Chemical, 8. 1. Dr. Williamson, F.R.S., « On some Reac-2614. William Henry Olley, 2, Brabant-court, Philpot-lane-Imtions in Organic Chemistry." II. Mr. A. G. Anderson,

provements in obtaining photographic impressions or pictures « On the Saponification of Resin."

of microscopic objects. Entomological, 8.

| 2615. James Webster, Birmingham-A new or improved instrument Tues. Civil Engineers, 8. Mr. T. T. Jopling “On Recent Im

or apparatus for transmitting hydrostatic and pneumatic provements in Water Meters."

pressure, which said instrument or apparatus is applicable Linnaan, 8.

to pressure-guages, safety valves, thermometers, and other Pathological, 8.

like machines. London Institution, 3. Professor Rymer Jones, « On 2616. Peter Cato, John Miller, jun., and John Audley, BrunswickVivaria and their Inhabitants."

dock, Liverpool - Improvements in the manufacture of ships' Society of Arts, 8. Mr. Christopher Binks, “ On some

knees. New Methods of Treating Linseed Oil and other Oils, for 2617. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements Improving their Drying and other Properties, in their Ap

in the manufacture of cranked axles and shafts, (A complication to Paints and Varnishes."

munication.) Geological, 8. Captain Spratt, F.R.S. and G.S. “On the

8. Frederic Chapman, Piccadilly, and Charles Bowyer, Davies. Freshwater Formations of the Grecian Archipelago."

street-A method of purifying and disinfecting intestines. Several Papers on Volcanic Eruptions, Earthquakes, &c.

and manufacturing gelatine therefrom. THURS. London Institution, 7. Dr. R. E. Grant, “On the Natural

Dated 1th November, 1856.
History of Extinct Animals."

2619. Henry Dircks, Moorgate-street- Improvements in the preAntiquaries, 8.

paration and application of the materials for making worts Philological, 8.

and washes in brewing, distilling, and like operations, and Photographic, 8.

in the apparatus connected with the same. Fri. Archäological Institution, 4.

2620. Alexander Porecky, Hackney-Improvements in the construcSAT. Asiatic, 2.

tion of safety match or lucifer boxes. London Institution, 3. Mr. T. A. Malone, “On Esperi- 2621. Thomas Ollis, jun., Liverpool - Improvements in machinery mental Physics, chiefly in Relation to Chemistry."

or apparatus for cutting paper, card-board, mill-board, scaleMedical, 8.

board, leather, and other substances of a light nature.

2622. William Spence, 50, Chancery-lane-Improvements in appa- 2655. Hugh Baines, Manchester-Improved machinery or apparatus ratus used in the manufacture of silk and other fibrous

to be applied to hoisting and other lifting machines. materials. (A communication.)

2656. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields-Improvements 2623. Joseph Louis Casartelli, Manchester, and Anthony Casartelli

in projectiles. (A communication.) and Louis Casartelli, Liverpool -Certain improved apparatus 2657. Julian Bernard, the Albany, Piccadilly-Improvements in the for ascertaining the density of water in marine steam boilers

manufacture or production of boots and shoes, or coverings or generators, for the purpose of preventing saline incrusta

for the feet, and in the machinery or apparatus employed in tion.

such manufacture. 2625. Louis Joseph Victor Vuitton, Paris-An improved apparatus

Dated 12th November, 1856. for consuming smoke.

2659. William Lukyn, senr., Broad-street, Nottingham-A bufter Dated 8th November, 1856.

break for railway carriages or trucks attached to locomotive 2626. James Dickinson, Blackburn-Improvements in machinery

engines, whether one or more engines, for the conveyance of or apparatus used in the preparation of cotton or other

goods or passengers. fibrous substances for spinning.

2661. William Weild, Manchester--Improvements in machinery for 2627. George Bertram, Edinburgh, and William McNiven, Polton

doubling, twisting, and winding yarns or threads on to bobMill, Lasswade-Improvements in the manufacture of paper.

bins or spools. 2628. Lawford Huxtable, 56, Saint Michael's-hill, Bristol - Improve

2663. Henry Collett, 12, Grosvenor-street, St. Peter's-street, Islingments in pianofortes.

ton--Improvements in machinery for mowing and reaping. 2629. William Porter, 9, Lansdowne-villas, Brompton - Improve

2665. Arthur Maw, Broseley, Salop-An improved mode of conments in the grinding of cements and other substances, and

structing the eccentrics or cams of steam engines and other in the construction of millstones for the same.

machinery. 2631. Charles Vaughan, William James Vaughan, and Richard 67. Jean Charles Boulay, 34, Rue des Bernardins, Paris-An im. Vaughan, Birmingham-A new or improved strap or band

proved method of printing in various colours simultaneously. for working stamps, raising weights, and transmitting power | 2669. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet street-A new or im generally.

proved felted fabric. (A communication.) 2622. Archibald Reid, Sidmouth-street-Improvements in treating

2671. William Green, junr., and Thomas Storey, Framwell Gate iron, so as to render it impervious to continuous oxidation.

Colliery, near Durham-Improvements in machinery or ap2633. William Mojplet, Leeds-Improvements in producing the

paratus for washing or cleaning coal. velvet pile and Witney finish in cloths, and in machinery or

Dated 13th November, 1856. apparatus for the same

2673. Thomas Wright Gardener Treebý, 1, Westbourne-terrace2635. Jean Baptiste Edouard Victor Alaux, 2, Rue St. Etienne, Bonne

villas, Westbourne-terrace North-Forming sewers or tunNouvelle, Paris--A lubricating composition.

nels, and gulleys to sewers. 2636. Thomas Walker, Balderstone, Rochdale--An improved method 2675. Alexander Hutton, Ardwick, near Manchester-An improved of lubricating the interior of the cylinders of steam engines

warming apparatus, applicable to railway and road carriages, for reducing the friction of the pistons thereof.

and other useful purposes. 2637. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements 77. Samuel Newington, Ticehurst, Sussex- Improvements in dibin preserving provisions. (A communication.)

bling apparatus. 2638. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements 2679. William Francis and James Hooper, 88, Leadenhall-streetin machinery for cutting and dressing stone, marble, and

Improvements in tanning and dyeing leather, linen, cotton, similar materials. (A communication.)

wool, hair, and silk, and fabrics composed of any of these Dated 10th November, 1856.

substances. 2639. Henry Bessemer, 4, Queen-street-place- Improvements in the manufacture and treatment of iron, and in the manufacture oron


bure 2720. William Healy, 118, Dorset-street, Salisbury-square-Imof steel. 2640. Edwin Thomas Dolby, Stratford-place, Camden-town-Im

provements in furnaces and boilers and hot water apparatus provements in printing several colours at one time from a

for heating purposes.-18th November, 1856. single stone, plate, or block. 2641. Andrew Barlow, Shirley, Hants-Improvements in mashing


Sealed November 21st, 1856.

Sealed November 25th. 2642. François Jules Manceaux and Eugene Napoleon Vieillard, Paris 1244. William Illingworth.

1260. Samuel Newington. ---An improvement in breech-loading fire-arms and ordnance. 1250. Benj. Nadault de Buffon. 1270. Lemuel D. Owen. 2643. William Stones, Greenhithe-An improved mode of sizing | 1277. Oldham Whittaker and 1274. Charles Herbert Holt. paper.

Cyrus Wallwork.

1298. Thomas Wilson. 2644. Peter Gaskell, Sculcoates, Kingston-upon-Hull - The admis- 1281. William Carr Hutton. 1300. Stephen Rossin Parkhurst. sion of steam into the cylinders of steam engines by an equi

1304. Augustin Marie Herland. librium valve.

1321. Raymond Fletcher and Ed. | 1324. Joseph Briggs. 2645. James Somerville, Glasgow-Improvements in weaving.

1328. William Potts. 2646. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields- Improvements 1325. Thomas Morris.

1352. Thomas Chambers, jun. in apparatus for printing electro-telegraphic despatches. (A 1418. Edouard Guérin.

1382. William Wilson. communication)

1707. William Astbury Jump. 1552. James Fleming, jun. 2647. Richard Pearcy, Manchester-Improvements in machinery or 1972. George James Farmer. 1592. William Colborne Camapparatus for giving additional cohesiveness and torsion to 2021. Hezekiah Conant.

bridge. fibrous substances in the drawing and other processes.

2125. Richard Atkinson Coward. 1856. Thomas Evans, jun. Dated 11th November, 1856.

2139. George Hutchison.

1938. Henry Bessemer. 2648. William Smith, 10, Salisbury-street, Adelphi-Improvements

2180. George Davies.

2102. Charles Brook, jun. in machinery for sewing cloth and other materials. (A com- | 2218. William Taylor.

2124. Pier Alberto Balestrini. munication.)

2250. Robert Frost. 2649. John Fell Jones, Birmingham-Improvements in the manu

facture of rollers or cylinders for printing fabrics, and in ma-
chinery to be used in manufacturing the said rollers or


November 17th.

| 2740. Daniel Lancaster Banke. 2650. William Clark, 53, Chancery-lane-Improvements in the ma- 2679. William Taylor.

2800. James Reilly. nufacture of barytes and strontian, and their salts, and in 2683. Patrick Benignus O'Neill.

November 21 st. their application to various purposes. (A communication.) 2684. John Harcourt Brown. 2651. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements 2625. Emanuel Wharton.

2619. Benjamin Burleigh. in the manufacture of boots and shoes, and other like ar 2714, Frederick Levick and Jo-1 2729. John Drumgoole Brady. ticles. (A communication.)

seph Fieldhouse.

2737. Samuel Cunlifte Lister. 2652. James Leadbetter, Leeds-Improved means of obtaining mo- 2808. George Collier.

2745. William Leigh Brook and tive power.

November 18th.

Charles Brook, jun. 2653. Francis Frederick Clossman, 16A, Park-lane-Obtaining alcohol | 2689. Auguste Castets.

2747. John Henry Johnson. from certain substances not hitherto used for that purpose. 269). William Austin. (A communication.)

November 22nd.

2716. Charles Ramsay. 2654. Paul Rapsey Hodge, 4, Albion-grove, Barnsbury-park-Im

November 20th.

2723. John Hill, sen., and John provements in the manufacture of felted cloth. (A commu- 1 2706. William Joyce and Thomas

Hill, jun. nication.)


Win Fletcher,

electro-telegraphic Improvements 1396

[blocks in formation]

Journal of the Society of Arts. I The Paper read was :





BY CHRISTOPHER BINKS. The following gentleman has been appointed

1.- The Question and the Problem. Honorary Local Secretary for Newcastle-upon- At the time—now some years ago—when the investiTyne and its neighbourhood :

gations were first entered upon, the results of which are

this evening submitted to the consideration of this Dr. Thomas Richardson.

Society, there was to be found nowhere any accurate history of the peculiar chemical changes the drying

oils undergo in the act, on mere exposure to atmospheric THIRD ORDINARY MEETING. air, of passing from a fluid to a solid state ; in other WEDNESDAY, DEC. 3, 1856.

words, in the act of drying. Neither was there to be found

on record any correct or systematised examination of the The Third Ordinary Meeting of the One reactions to which such oils are subjected when, under Hundred and Third Session was held on Wed. the multifarious conditions brought about by their adnesday, the 3d inst., Henry Blundell, Esq., in the nishes, they are brought into contact with matters

mixture with other materials to form paints and varchair.

whose presence may be supposed to influence, that is, The following Candidates were balloted for, facilitate, impede, or in some way modify, their drying and duly elected members of the Society :

properties. Much less was there to be discovered any

satisfactory or reliable chemical explanations of the Adams, George G. Hunter, John Lawes

modus operandi of the various plans and modes of treatAnderton, Arthur Jennings, Richard

ment of such oils then and still in use, for giving to them Andrews, Charles James Jessop, Sidney

drying properties superior to those pertaining to them in Auckland, John Tattersall Keats, Frederick

their normal condition. Baines, Edward Laird, John

The oil of the linseed is taken as a type of this class; Beale, Thomas Frederick Lawson, John

and, from its vast commercial importance, it is to the Bell, G. M. Leaf, Charles John

treatment of this oil, in order to adapt it to the multiBenson, James William Lister, John

farious uses it is put to, or is required for, were it so Brooke, Charles, M.A., Mace, John Ellis

adapted, that of all those oils the efforts of the chemist F.R.S. Major, Rev. J. A.

should be chiefly devoted. It will be understood, Burrows, R. W. McKié, H.

therefore, that throughout this paper, unless where Challis, Alderman, M.P. Mercer, John

specially indicated to the contrary, it is linseed oil (its Chrimes, Richard Mitchell, Rev. W.

properties and treatment) that is always referred to. Clarke, Frederick James Muir, William

The chemistry of the changes of this oil induced on Clarke, Rev. Charles Ohren, Magnus

mere exposure to air, and involved in its solidification, Cockrell, Rev. G. C. O'Reilly, Montagu Frederic as that chemistry has existed up to this time, may be Cotterell, Thomas

Owen, Rev. John Butter- summed up as being recorded in the stereotyped formula Craske, R.


that the oil dries, that is, passes from a fluid to a solid Cubley, Wm. Harold

| Porter, John Thomas Brown state merely by absorption of oxygen from the atDarbishire, Samuel Dukin- Powis, Major the Hon. mosphere; therefore, to aid it in its drying, or by field

Henry Littleton

some preliminary treatment to facilitate the ultimate Darlington, John Pye, George

result, it was conceived to be necessary only to heat it Dickens, Alfred Lamerte Radcliff, Joshua

along with certain metallic oxides, which, previously to its Dixon, É. J.J. Ratcliff, Charles

exposure to air, should give it oxygen, and thereby Edmondson, George Reeves, Charles

shorten the time needed afterwards for a more complete Farrance, George John Reichenbach, William absorption. Hence the theory, but erroneous one, of Fandel, Henry Robertson, Andrew

the utility of the addition to the heated oil, under the Foster, A. B.

Samuelson, Barnard ancient mode of treating it, of litharge or protoxide of Fry, Henry Laurence

Schaeffer, Chevalier Igna- lead, and hence, more recently, the super-addition to Galton, Capt. Douglas 1tius de

that of red lead, and subsequently (originating with the Godwin, George, F.R.S. Sim, Alexander

French) of the anhydrous peroxide of manganese. The Goodfellow, Thomas Slight, Frederick

oldest practice was merely to heat or boil the oil. Then Gordon, Robert Sommerville, William

followed the conjoint employment of litharge, both of Guest, John Spottiswoode, Wm., F.R.S.

which were purely empirical, founded on no chemical Gundry, Joseph Springfield, Osborn

principle whatever. But the more recent ones, of Gurney, John Henry, M.P. Staples, John

super-adding red lead, or peroxide of manganese, were, Hanbury, Daniel

Stebbing, Rev. Henry, D.D., as just stated, founded on the principle of giving to the Harrison, J. Fortescue F.R.S.

oil, at a high temperature, the proportion of oxygen Heeley, Edmund

Stevenson, George Wilson needed to initiate its drying. Along with these later Henderson, Thomas W. Taylor, James

I practices there has, still more recently, crept in the conHess, Ralph

Tuke, James Hack I joint employment with the lead oxides of the acetate of Heywood, Sharpe


| lead, of sulphate of zinc, and sometimes of the mineral Hoare, Deane John Wetter, Conrad

umber, this last being used with a view still more comHopkinson, John Wheatley, E. B.

pletely to impart to the oil the deep brown colour deemed Hudson, William

Wood, Frederick, M.R.C.S. essential to it when transformed into the condition of The following School has been taken into

good “boiled oil.”

The principle at the root of all these practices is the old Union since the last announcement :

one (so old that its origin must be sought foramong the laOxford House (Chelsea) School.

bours of, probably, the Dutch chemists of the last century),

« ElőzőTovább »