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The Rev. Dr. Booth, F.R.S., believed that it would His lordship then proceeded to detail instances of affection be impossible to obtain improved dwellings for the poor, for the teachers and local missionaries displayed by the to any great extent, whilst the present law of parochial inmates of the ragged schools, which had come under settlement remained in force. At present it was to the his own knowledge, and described the wretched state of interest of parishes not to allow cottages to be built, and ignorance and depravity in which they were found, having until that state of things was altered it was almost im- no idea of the meaning of property," farther than that possible that they could have dwellings commensurate they considered it was their right to appropriate as much with the wants of the poor; for, whilst the population as they could to themselves. His lordship then went on increased, the number of dwellings remained the same. to remark that, notwithstanding the wretched condition Under the present system of settlement it was a pecu- in which this class of people lived, it was astonishing niary advantage to parishes to keep down the building to know what could be affected by the introduction of cottages for the poor as much as possible, and he con- / amongst them of a system of thrift. Last year, there sidered the poor were as much adscripti glebæ as in the was deposited in the penny banks attached to the days of William the Conqueror.
ragged schools, no less a sum than £2,000. With The Rev. James Jackson agreed with Mr. Chester that reference to the condition of the dwellings of the it was their duty to do all in their power to assist Mr. I poor, his lordship proceeded to state his conviction that, Rogers in the work he had undertaken. He had made without improvement in this respect, there could be no a most noble effort on behalf of a very degraded por- hope for their domestic education, so essential as a tion of the community, and he had been the means, not foundation for moral advancement. The great difficulty only of improving the condition of the children of that in the way of improving the dwellings of the poor in the class, but also of the parents through the children. By metropolis and large cities was the great cost it involved. the aid of government grants, and the donations of the There was no longer any doubt as to the desire of the charitable, he had raised large funds towards this object; I people to avail themselves of thenı ; but he might rebut as these schools were mainly dependent upon volun- mark that when the plan of improving the present dwelltary contributions for support, much yet remained to lings, by making the streets and alleys clean, and properly be done in that direction. There was a good beginning | ventilating the houses, was adopted, it had been found on a large scale, but they must do all they could to highly remunerative. He was of opinion that by assist Mr. Rogers in the noble efforts he had made. taking whole courts and alleys, renovating, repair
The CHAIRMAN said it would have been more agreeable ling, painting, ventilating, and making them, into himself to have closed the discussion without any ob- stead of cul-de-sacs, open spaces, free for air and servations of his own, but as the meeting had shown so light, ample returns for capital employed might be much zeal in this cause, in which he had laboured for a l obtained. His lordship then adverted to the benefits considerable period of his life, he could not allow the of the Lodging Houses Act, and the importance of subject to drop without offering one or two remarks. In assisting to carry out its regulations. His lordship conthe first place he would say that this was a subject with cluded by moving a vote of thanks to Mr. Rogers for which the Society of Arts had done well to connect itself, his able paper. because he was convinced that amongst the class of whom A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Rogers. they were speaking there were as fine spirits, and as noble: The Secretary announced that on Wednesintelligences, which by due training could be brought to advance the interests of art and science, as could be found day evening next, the Eth inst., there would be no amongst the most wealthy and the best-born of this meeting of the Society, and that on Wednesday country. He would remark, in reply to the observations evening, the 15th inst., a Paper, by Mr. J. W. which fell from his friend Mr. Chester, that Mr. Rogers, Panworth on 6 Houses as they were, are, and in drawing up this paper, had given a very fair representation of the characteristics of the class he had been treat- ought to be," would be read. ing of. They were a people of a peculiar character, and it was impossible to be amongst them without being struck with the wonderful patience and good
Home Eorrespondence. humour which generally distinguished them. With regard to the objection which had been taken by the author of the paper, to the term "ragged
NATURE PRINTING. schools," he (Lord Shaftesbury) looked upon that title Sin.-In reply to Mr. Bradbury's letter, allow me to as the chief recommendation of those establishments.state, that I made no claim to novelty in printing from
The children who came to those schools were of the the leaf by means of colours on paper. What I did claim most miserable class in the metropolis. They came in was, printing from the leaf on lithographic stones or hungry, shivering, and almost naked, and he adhered copper-plates, and so enabling the inpressions to with more than ordinary pertinacity to the epithet be multiplied at pleasure. Mr. Bradbury considers “ ragged schools." It was meant to designate the that, as by his process the impressions are as good as in special class of the community for which these schools the specimens of an herbarium, full success in nature were intended. This title also implied the nature of printing is achieved. But these are necessarily extremely the duty of the superintendants and the teachers in them. imperfect, and do not at all represent the natural objects, The title “ragged school” denoted that the business of while I contend that my process preserves the impresthe superintendants and teachers was with the ragged sions in their original succulence ard fulness, and withchildren. It was their duty to take the children from out the unnatural contractions of the withered specimens the mire and the gutter, and the moment they quitted of a Hortus siccus. . I am, &c., that they quitted the sphere of their duty. Another
CHRISTOPHER DRESSER. important consideration was to keep these schools for the especial benefit of the destitute and miserable classes. Mr. Rogers had said that the title was
THE ECONOMY OF FOOD. distasteful to the respectable portion of the com- SIR,—The interesting and prolonged discussion which munity. That he (Lord Shaftesbury) considered was its followed the reading of the valuable paper of Dr. Letheby, greatest recommendation, Ragged schools were never prevented my offering some remarks on this important intended for the children of those who could afford to subject, which is too vast, as has been observed by one pay for schooling. Again, his friend Mr. Rogers was of the speakers, to be disctissed even in a series of meetin error when he stated that these schools failed to call | ings. I shall not attempt, therefore, to enter into the forth the respect and the confidence of the children. fundamental principles of the question, but merely to
offer a few remarks relative to some points susceptible of same causes will produce the same effects either within or controversy. Much has been said and written on what to without the body. The above remarks will explain how, eat and to drink, but very little about how to do it. I according to the constitution of the individual, he may have heard several times from persons who have not lived secure a good digestion by finishing his meal either with on the Continent, that the English roast beef was inore a salad or an extra glass of wine. healthy than the French “mess," as our cooking is called I shall beg leave, also, to observe, that Dr. Letheby, in by many. I was glad, therefore, to hear it scientifically his description of the virtue of coffee is not consistent explained and demonstrated, that a mixture of various with his first premises ; if there are some absolute conarticles was necessary to make a wholesome and nutritious ditions required in a substance destined to maintain food, in order to engender force and to supply the wants and support the body, coffee must possess them or it of the various organs composing the body. All has not cannot be nutritious. He says that it excites the brain been said, however, on the necessity of admixture. It is on the one hand, while it calms the nervous system genewell known that the more component parts a substance rally; this is not in accordance with the physiological contains, the more easy is the decomposition, and as the data. He adds that Lechmann, who has inquired much process of digestion has for ultimate result the decompo- | into the physiological effects of that substance, "has sition of our food, the more this is of a compound na- ascertained by experiments, that coffee greatly diminishes cure, the more easily is it digested. But digestion is me- the wear and tear of the system, it oils the machinery chanical as well as chemical, and one of the first condi- as it were, and checks the waste of friction ; for those tions is the division of the particles, and their being kept who use it find, that during active exercise, the destrucasunder in order to allow the gastric juice to act on every tion of tissue is prevented, and then there is less demand particle individually. The molecules of the same sub- for food; in fact, and with a maximum of work to perstance having an affinity for each other, they cohere toge-form, and a minimum of food to accomplish it, he will ther, thereby preventing the operation alluded to, but best sustain his vital power who has resorted to a cup of when substances of a different nature are introduced into coffee." Unluckily, the great authority as the lecturer the stomach, the churning or mechanical action of that calls him, is mistaken, otherwise we could live altogether organ causes the interposition of molecules of different sub-on coffee, and it would certainly, says Lechmann, be a stances, and promotes their chemical decomposition. It great saving to the poor classes. If I contradict the is not what we eat which supports the body; it is what above statement, it is because it would induce many not we digest. My friend Dr. Kenan, an Irish gentleman, only to use, but to ahuse, the employment of coffee. It is who came to London for the purpose of delivering lectures my principle never to believe or to submit to any kind of on physiology, used to say, " There are two kinds of people authorities however high they may be, unless their opinions who die from starvation; those who have not enough to agree with the rules of common sense. Now, in opposi. eat, and those who eat too much," and there are very tion to the above statement of Dr. Letheby, I shall refew persons who have not had the opportunity of late experiments made by Dr. A. Caron, médecin des verifying on themselves the correctness of this remark, prisons de la Seine, and inserted in La Gazette Médico by noticing that they felt a great deal weaker from chirurgicale, de Paris, No. 11, March 14, 1846, enhaving taken too much of the most nutritious arti- titled: De l'alimentation par le café au lait, considérée cles of diet. The only condiment alluded to in the paper comme cause pathogénique. Speaking of the popular was salt, and this again is in harmony with the English habit of breakfasting on coffee with milk, he says: I have custom of preferring plain food. We cannot admit, how-devoted my attention to this subject, and I think I am ever, that nature produces without design and utility a justified in attributing to this kind of aliment the provariety of condiments and spices which we know are not duction of the nervous and leuchorrhæic diseases which nutritious articles of food, but which are the inert matter principally affect females of every class, particularly those destined to keep the particles of food in a state of inhabiting large towns. The very general coincidence division, and thereby to promote digestion, first me- of the same symptoms with the use of coffee and milk, chanically, and, secondly, by their stimulant and anti-induced me to examine what might be the cause of those septic virtues. Raspail, the French reformer, says, in his phenomena, and then I was led to investigate what the work entitled, “L'Histoire de la Santé et de la Maladie," action of coffee on milk is, and then the action of that the art of cooking is the chemistry of the man in health, mixture on the human economy. I was first obliged to Pharmacopæia, the cookery of the man who is diseased. make the analysis of the infusion of coffee, next to dePlain food does not produce strength; it gives only bulk. termine its physical and chemical properties ; I was This is the reason why in England you judge of the strength obliged besides, to submit my first essays to new experi. of a man by his weight, but the springing activity of a ments, which conducted me to a series of most interest light Frenchman would defeat an English boxer, unless ing researches, which I now propose to describe. he was obliged, according to rules, to wait coolly the The infusion of coffee is a liquor of a dark brown, posheavy blow of his antagonist. The same author, speak- sessing a particular aromatic taste, slightly bitter, the ing of the modus operandi of digestion, says, “If you put chemical analysis containing the following principles, together, either in an open or close vessel, at a tempera- viz., a colouring matter soluble in water, a volatile emture of 10 to 15 degrees centigrade, a mixture of sugar pyreumatic oil soluble in alcohol, which is developed by or saccharine and glutinous or albuminous substances, torrefaction, some tannic and gallic acid, some resin and a fermentation takes place, the product of which is alcohol; an extract of cafeine. This liquor when warm and if, when the whole saccharine substance has been trans sweetened, constitutes a stimulating and pleasing beverage formed into alcohol, an extra quantity of gluten or albu known by every one, but what no one has thought of is, men remains, its reaction on the alcohol transforms it that when in contact with milk, its nutritious properties into acetic acid, and thus when the alimentary matter, are neutralised, because of its fermentation being retarded. by the process of digestion, has arrived at a proper Having put together some coffee and milk in a bottle, it degree of acidity, suitable to the physiological condition was 27 days before the mixture began to decompose, whilst of the organ, it is then propelled into the duodenum, milk and sugar were decomposed in three days; chocolate where it mixes with the bile, and acquires the alkaline with milk was five days; pure cafeine and milk eleven condition requisite to combine with the blood." I am days. It is evident that the astringent properties of cofaware that Raspail's opinion has been rejected by some fee hinder the digestion of milk; but it happens also, authors, who will not admit that the physiological func- that during the action of coffee on the principle of milk, tions have any similarity with the chemical phenomena the cafeine is set free and acts on the membrane of the which take place out of the organism ; for my part, I stomach in the same manner as vegetable alkalies, prouphold Raspail's opinion, because chemical phenomena ducing the most evident hyposthenisation, a fact which are the consequence of immutable natural laws, and the till now has been overlooked. Then Dr. Caron continues to relate the experiments he made on himself, and some of the Ancient World,” by Mr. B. W. Hawkins; “ The other persons willing to submit to the trial, the results of Life of Sydney Smith,” by Rev. Brewin Grant; “Litewhich were general prostration, vital concentration, rary Beauties of the Bible," by Mr. Barnet Blake; - Moore's cephalagia, weakness and trembling of the legs, totter- Ballads and Shakespeare's Songs,” by Mr. Barker; six ing walk, nausea supervening with fulness of the stomach, lectures “ on the Protestant Reformation,” by Mr. H. constant somnolence, great want of appetite, he having re- Vincent ; "Life of John Calvin," by Mr. George Dawmained since the morning till 11 o'clock at night without son ; " Old Books; their uses, beauties, and peculiari. eating anything. But what is particularly worth noticing ties,” by Mr. George Dawson ; four lectures “ on Natu. headds, is the condition of the pulse, which, on the average, ral History and the Extinct Animals of the Ancient was from 80 to 90, and which, under these circumstances, World," by Mr.B. W. Hawkins; “Some of the Beauties of was lowered to 68. At four o'clock in the afternoon it English Poetry," by Mr. John Harris; two lectures" on was reduced to 60, and two hours later to 56, when he America," by Mr. Henry Pease;" Natural History in contook some food in order to stop the effect. While taking nection with the late Darlington Polytechnic Exhibition," the meal he was subject from time to time to giddiness, by Mr. W. Fothergill. Through the liberality of Lord flushing of the face, and nausea; after the meal the pulse Ashburton, a gratuitous lecture was delivered in Seprose to 72, when he felt much relieved. He continues tember last by the Rev. J.A. D. D'Orsey, on “ Common farther on and says, a mixture of coffee and milk as I have Things.” The Saturday evening entertainments have stated above, having the property of hindering the fermen again been brought forward with success. The literary tation when in vessels, acts identically in the same manner portion of the meetings has been zealously upheld, prin. in the stomach, and constitutes an inert liquid, on which cipally by gentlemen resident in the town, who have the gastric juice has little or no action at all. Dr. Caron delivered short lectures and given select readings of continues the account of his experiments, mentioning high literary merit-prose, poetical and dramatic-from cases he has treated, and proves ultimately that many standard authors of ancientand inodern times. The musical patients labouring under nervous irritation, leuchorrhoa portions of the entertainments have been ably sustained and hysteria, were restored to health by simple tonic by local talent, with occasional assistance from provincial treatment after having given up the use of coffee. Itowns. The aggregate attendance at these entertainmust confess that in the first instance, when Dr. Caron ments during the winter has amounted to nearly 11,000. communicated to me the above observations previously to A “Penny Savings Bank,” in connection with the Inreading his article, I had some difficulty in agreeing stitution, for the deposit of small sums, has been estabwith him on the subject, and told him that from my own lished. 185 volumes have, by presentation and purchase, experience I thought coffee a great supporter of the animal been added to the library, and the total number of books economy, relating at the same time, that by taking for belonging to the Institution is 2,429; the issue has been breakfast a cup of coffee and milk, I could go a whole 11,890 against 10,737 of the previous year. The preday without taking anything else; this remark he rightly sent number of members is 503, of whom 3 are life took as a proof of the truth of what he had advanced. members, 61 news room, 121 yearly, and 318 half The mistake made by Lechmann does not therefore yearly and quarterly. The number entered on the books surprise me, but I think it right to place the fact in its during the past year is 664. The following gentlemen are true light. I am, &c.,
the officers for the year 1857: President-Henry Pease,
J. CAPLIN, M.D. Esq.; Vice Presidents—Mr. Thomas Watson, and Mr. 9, York-place, Portman-square.
Andrew Common; Treasurer-John Church Backhouse,
mittee-.Mr. W. T. Robinson, Mr. Thomas Swinburne, Proceedings of Institutions. Mr. Wm. Mossom, Mr. E. P. Elgee, Mr. George Shaw,
Mr. Nicholas Bragg, Mr. J. F. Clapham, Mr. F. Mew
burn, Jun., Mr. R. Mountford, Mr. Edward Pease, Jun., CHELTENHAM.--There have been second courses of Mr. Richard Winter, Mr. Wm. C. Parker, Mr. John lectures, since Christmas, both at the Athenæum and Harrison, Mr. Wm. A. Snaith, Mr. Edward Hall, Mr. the Literary and Philosophical Institution. At the latter, J. R. Breckon, Mr. Jonathan Dresser, Mr. Wm. Forster, Dr. Whewell, the master of Trinity College, Cambridge, (Bank), Mr. H. K. Spark, Mr. R. Pincher; Auditorsdelivered a lccture, (on Friday, the 27th ult.,) upon Messrs. G. Harker, R. Teasdale, and H. Dunn; Scru. Plato. The subject itself, and the celebrity of the lec- tineers—Messrs. T. L, Blyth, and H. F. Pease ; Librarian turer, combined to attract a fuller and more educated Mr. Charles Forster. audience than has been drawn together for many years LEWES -- An Exhibition and soirée in connection with past. It was not, however, a discourse upon the mental the Mechanics' Institution, were held on the evenings of character and philosophy of Plato generally; but a popu- Thursday and Friday, the 26th and 27th Feb., when an lar illustration of his mode of teaching, in a masterly interesting and varied collection of works of art and analysis of the dialogue on " True Courage," and a brief other objects of interest was displayed. The walls summary of some others. It is much to be regretted were hung with some fine pictures by the old masters, that the Institution is at present labouring under pecu- as well as some scientific diagrams; and cases of speciniary difficulties. The attempt to support it as a reading- mens illustrating various branches of Natural History, room has failed, and it is now proposed to confine it to occupied a portion of the space. A choice collection of the original objects of its founders, -as a Lecture-room, antiquities was contributed by the Sussex Archæological Museum, and Library of Reference.
Society, as well as from other sources. Several tables DARLINGTON.-In the report of the Mechanics' Institu-were devoted to the illustration of various branches of tion for the year 1856, presented to the annual general physical science, and experiments in frictional and voltaic meeting, held on the 6th ult., the committee congra- electricity, magnetism, and chemistry were shown during tulate the members upon the very favourable aspect the evenings. Electric telegraphs were arranged at the ends which the classes have presented during the past year, of the hall, and their working was shown and explained. and are of opinion that the spirited and assiduous man- In the mechanical department, there were several interestner in which the various gratuitous teachers have ful- ing machines exhibited in actual operation, and the filled their self-imposed duties, deserves to be marked steam-engine was explained and illustrated by working with the special approval of the meeting, and the grate-models. The attendance on both evenings was very ful thanks of their pupils. The result of the lectures large. during the past session is encouraging. The following | SALFORD, – The Committee of the Salford Royal were delivered :-Six lectures “on the Commonwealth,” | Museum Peel-park Institution have had their attention by Mr. H. Vincent; two lectures son Extinct Animals directed, for some time past, to the formation of an In
dustrial Museum, that shall in a great measure relate to to make large alterations in the old building, and to the manufactures of Manchester and its neighbourhood; erect the north wing, corridor, and staircase; subsewith this view, they desire to procure a complete series quently, in June 1856, the south wing was commenced, of samples of the raw materials, and of those exhibiting and is nearly completed; it will open with an exhibithe various changes in the process of manufacture, so as tion of paintings, the works of local artists. By this to form a collection fully illustrating the different recent addition to the Museum, at a cost of nearly branches of practical art and manufacture. The im- £3,500, the Committee have doubled the extent of space portance of such a collection, from whatever view it may available for the purposes of the Industrial Museum, be considered, especially in this district, is unquestion to complete which their exertions are now especially able; and the Committee feel satisfied, that the comple- directed. tion of an Industrial Museum, on a large and ample scale, would have a beneficial tendency and value to all classes, and possess special attractions to the strangers
To Correspondents. who may be expected to visit Manchester during the present year. The Committee have much pleasure in acknowledging the valuable contributions with which ERRATUM.–Page 291, col. 2, line 18, for “undisturbed" they have been already favoured by several eminent read “ undistorted.” manufacturers of textile fabrics; these have been arranged, and have proved a source of instruction and
MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. gratification to a large number of persons who have
Mox. London Inst., 7. Rev. H. Christmas, “On the History and visited the museum. In carrying out this important
Antiquities of Heraldry; and on some other branches of object, the notice of the Committee has been drawn to
British Archæology." the extensive and valuable collection of samples of Chemical, 8. practical art, industrial products, and other objects dis
TUES. Civil Engineers, 8. Mr. F. R. Condor, “On the Laying of played in the Inaugural Exhibition of the Manchester
the Permanent Way of the Bordeaux and Bayonne RailMechanics’ Institution ; and they have been advised that,
way, across the Grandes Landes." at its close, many of the contributors to that exhibition,
Linnæan, 8. Prof. Owen, “ On the Character and Subdivi
sions of the class Mammalia." Part II. if applied to, would be willing to transfer to the Museum,
Pathological, 8. at Peel-park, such of the objects as are of a suitable and WED. Literary Fund, 3. appropriate character, being assured that all such dona
London Inst., 3. Mr. E. W. Brayley, “ On Mineralogy and tions would be safely taken care of, for the permanent
Archäological Association, 4. Anniversary. use and enjoyment of the present and future generations.
Geological, 8. Dr. H. Falconer, “On the series of The Committee do not deem it necessary, in every case,
don and Elephant occurring fossil in England." to specify the particular objects which they think it de
THURS. London Inst., 7. Rev. C. Boutell, “On the Monumental sirable to solicit, but respectfully leave the selection to
Memorials and Engraved Monumental Brasses of Great the judgment and liberality of the contributors, feeling
Britain." assured that they will be the most competent to select
London Inst., 3. Prof. Robert Bentley, “On Systematic
Botany, with especial reference to the natural systems of such samples as are necessary to illustrate each particular
arrangement." branch of practical art and manufacture. The Royal Royal Botanic, 31. Museum and Library is established under the provisions Medical, 8. of the “ Public Libraries Act,” which empowers the Town Council to levy a rate for its maintenance and support. All its property is vested in the Town Council
PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT. of Salford, and it is open daily (except Sundays) to the
APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.
[From Gazette, March 27th, 1857.] public, free of charge. The library contains nearly
Dated 5th January, 1857. 20,000 volumes, of which 6,000 (forming the lending 38. Henry Alfred Jowett, Sawley, Derbyshire-Improvements in department) are freely lent to be read at the homes of steam engines.
Dated 201h January, 1857. the borrowers. Within a period of seven years the
163. Alfred Vincent Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-An improvement aggregate issues of books have been 431,974 volumes.
in the manufacture of hosiery. (A communication.) The reading-room has been used by 696,000 readers, and
Dated 18th February, 1867. the extensive Museum has of itself attracted more than
477. Thomas William Davenport, Ormond-street, Birmingham, and
Samuel Colo, Wilton-street, Aston Manor-A new or im20,000 visitors within the seven years. These numbers may
proved method of manufacturing and ornamenting articles appear somewhat large, but when it is considered that
in papier maché and charcoal. within the most popular public park in this great com
Dated 20th February, 1857.
503. Isaac Aldebert, 57, Long-acre-An improved shackle for the munity, situate in a very picturesque locality, is to be
springs of carriages. found an Institution with so many attractive features
Dated 28th February, 1857. - containing a large library, spacious and pleasant read
594. Peter Armand le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 39, Rue de l'Echiing-room, a museum filled with statuary, pictures, and
quier, Paris-Improvements in finger and other rings. (A
communication.) other works of fine art, a gallery of samples of practical
Dated 3rd March, 1857. art and manufacture, an exceedingly good collection of 617. Giacomo Sileoni, Genon-Obtaining starch from a plant called specimens of foreign and British natural history, anti
arum maculatum and arum Italicum, and from all other
roots and plants of the arum genus. quities, and general articles-all of which are entirely
Dated 4th March, 1857. free, and to which, during the holiday season, thousands 630. Rudolph Bodmer, 2, Thavies-inn-Improvements in apparatus of persons are brought by railway from the neighbour
for steering ships. (A communication.)
. Thomas Wright Gardener Treeby, 1, Westbourne-terrace-villa ing towns, they will not cause much surprise, but be re
-Improvements in sewers and gulleys, and outfall to sewers garded as a certain indication of the good which result
and gulleys, and of sewage. from this wide diffusion of knowledge amongst the 636. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Certain immasses of the people. The numerous donations conclu
provements in machines for cutting standing crops. (A
communication.) sively evince the warm interest taken by the public in
8. James Stephens, 8, Northampton-road, Clerkenwell-Imthe Institution, no less that 2,571 separate gifts having
provements in paint brushes, and in similar kinds of brushes, been made from time to time, and the sum of £10,000
Dated 5th March, 1857.
640. William Frederick Taylor Bradshaw, 54, Thomas-street, Shef. subscribed towards the formation of the library and
field-Improvements in making palette and other like knives. museum, for its enlargement, or for building purposes. 642. Jean Louis Frederic Bardin, Paris-A new mode of ornamenta. The rapid growth of the Institution has been very great,
tion. and the necessity of providing for the increase of objects
644. William Holland, Birmingham- A new or improved manufac
ture of runner notches and top notches for umbrellas and in the museum rendered it necessary, a few years back,
654. George Tomlinson Bousfield, Sussex-place, Loughborough 741. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements road, Brixton-Improvements in machinery for compressing
in zincing or coating metals with zinc, and in cleaning meclay and other materials applicable to the manufacture of
tals. (A communication.) bricks and other articles. (A communication.)
Dated 17th March, 1857.
743. Nathaniel Jones Amies, Manchester-Certain improvements in 658. William Findlater and William Keetley, Birmingham-An
machinery or apparatus for polishing and finishing yarns or improvement or improvements in carriages.
threads. 660. Georges Danré, Pierre Fortune Victor Mouillard, and Pierre 745. Henry Boswell Palmer, Bermondsey-Animproved fire lighter.
Adrien Mercier, Paris-Improvements in carbonizing or 749. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Certain in. distilling wood, peat, oil-cake, coal, and other substances for
provements in folding window blinds and shutters. (A comthe production of gas for lighting, in carburetting or in
munication.) creasing the illuminating effect of and in compressing gas, 751. Modeste Anquetin, Paris-An improved traveller's watch. also in the apparatuses employed for such purposes.
753. William MacNaught, Rochdale--Certain improvements in en662. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street- Improvements
gines worked by steam or other motive power, and in their in furnaces and Are-places. (A communication.)
gearing for connecting them with machinery, and in the Daled 7th March, 1857.
means of lubricating such engines. 666. George Hawksley, Bromley, Middlesex-An improvement in 755. George Forsyth, Stakeford Foundry, Maxwelltown, N.B.constructing apparatus for heating and cooling air, steam,
Improvements in steam cooking apparatus. and other fluids.
Dated 18th March, 1857. 668. William Urquhart, 481, New Oxford-street-A new mode of 757. John Millar, Edinburgh-Improvements in stoppers or closing ornamenting household furniture.
apparatus for decanters, bottles, and other receptacles. 670. Robert James Maryon, 40, Hooper-street, Westminster-road 759. Jacob Green, Philadelphia, U.S.-Improvements in gas conImprovements in the construction of steam locomotive en
suming furnaces, and in the automatic action of the controllgines.
ing valves or dampers of the said furnaces. 671. Patrick McGrade, 7, Upper Liffy-street, Dublin-Improved 761. James Murdoch, Staple-in-An improved process for imitating machinery or apparatus for propelling ships or boats...
the skins of animals upon Pulled cloth. (A communication.) 672. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-An improved 763. John Wilkes, Thomas Wilkes, and Gilbert Wilkes, Birmingmethod of, and apparatus for, maintaining the water level
ham- A new or improved manufacture of rollers or cylinders in boilers. (A communication.)
for printing fabrics. Dated 9th March, 1857.
765. Sir James Caleb Anderson, Bart., Fermoy, Cork, Ireland677. Frederick Shand Hemming, Westminster-Improvements in
Improvements in locomotive and other carriages. the manufacture of railway chairs and sleepers.
767. Richard Johnson, Manchester-Improvements in cleaning iron Dated 11th March, 1857.
and other metals, after the manner known as “pickling." 703. George Mountford, Caledonian-terrace, Leeds- Improvements in machinery or apparatus for cutting or chopping loaf sugar,
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. roots, and other substances.
| 2309. Daniel Desmond. 705. Charles Emile Giajola, No. 2, Sheepcott-lane, Birmingham- 2264. John Boyd.
| 2311. Robert Edmeston. Improvements in moderator lamps.
2266. William Smith and Natha- 2312. Charles Good year. 707. William Boden, Blackwall-Improved apparatus for flushing
niel Fortescue Taylor. 2313. Michael Thomas Crofton. waterclosets and urinals.
2270. John Rothwell.
2335. Andrew Dunlop. 709. William Hale, Swan-walk, Chelsea-An improvement in roll 2274. Charles John Carr.
2349. William Marriott and David ing iron and steel.
2278. David Thom and George
2369, Joseph Bennett Howell. 711. Joseph Jules Derriey, Paris-Improvements in machines for 2280. John Lord.
2405. Thomas Allen. manufacturing lozenges, wafers, or pastilles of pasty mate- | 2283. Charles William Ramié. | 2425. Peter Armand le Comte de rials.
2289. Duncan Bruce.
Fontainemoreau. 713. John Avery, 32, Essex-street, Strand-An improved method of 2296. Henry Naylor and James 2426. Peter Armand le Comte de purifying schistous or bituminous oils. (A communication.)
Fontainemoreau. 715. George Travis, Mercaston, DerbyImprovements in apparatus 2300. Charles Durand Gardissal. 2427. William Dray. used in the manufacture of cheese.
2344. William Wilkinson.
2437. Samuel Cunliffe Lister and 717. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Improved ma 2380. William Rennie, junr.
William Tongue. chinery for drawing and preparing silk, cotton, wool, fax, 2442. Robert Hanham Collyer, 1 2438. James Robert France. hemp, and other fibrous substances. (A communication.)
2440. William Palmer, junr. Dated 13th March, 1857.
456. Joseph Lacagsagne and Ro- 2487. John Christian Bremer, 719, Thomas Horne, junr., Birmingham-A new or improved me
2495. Edwin Allan Athąwes. thod of ornamentingmetallic bedsteads and wash-hand stands. 2474. George Thomson.
2504. Louis Auguste Mangin. 721. Samuel Lawrence Taylor, Cotton-end, and Thomas Eaton | 2560. Francis Cook Matthews. 2523. Michel Dognin. Rolfe, Northill, Bedfordshire Improvements in boilers for 78. Robert Smith.
2526. Adolphe Ernest Ragon. generating steam, heating water, and for other heating or 98. George Fergusson Wilson. 2579, John White. boiling purposes.
112. John Barsham.
2581. Ebenezer Erskine Scott. 723. William Westbrooke Squires, Liverpool - Improvements in the 164. Frederick Crace Calvert. 2635. Jean Baptiste Edonard Vicmeans of letting on and drawing off water and other fluids. 210. George Fergusson Wilson.
tor Alaux. 725. Edmond Joseph Nicolas Juvin, Paris-Improvements in pro 212. George Fergusson Wilson. | 2650. William Clark. ducing printing surfaces.
248. Thomas Cooke.
2799. John Musgrave, junr. Dated 14th March, 1857.
276. Alexander Wright.
2831. Joseph Latimer Clark. 727. John Wheatman and John Smith, Sheffield-Improvements in 304. Matthew Andrew Muir and 2893. William Hooper, Joseph the mode of grinding circular saws.
Fry, and George Nasmyth. 729. Henry Bridges, Bridgewater-Improvements in buffing, bearing,
3074. William Clark. and draw springs, and buffer cases for railway purposes. 2307. Joseph Renshaw.
31. Alexander Angus Croll. 731. Martin Nunn, Hampstead-Certain improvements in machinery 2308. Victor Renault.
or apparatus for washing or cleansing clothes, piece-goods, and other articles.
PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £50 HAS BEEN PAID. 733. Thomas Bowden, Pendleton, Lancashire-Improvements in
March 26th. apparatus for discharging the water resulting from the con 699. James Robertson.
733. Philip John Bassavant and densing of steam used in apparatus heated by steam.
756. George Fergusson Wilson
and William Walls,
739. Archibald Douglas Brown. 737. Henry Glaysher, Isle of Wight-Improvements in steam-engine
752. John Henry Johnson.
March 24th. boiler and other furnaces.
819. William Rigby. 739. George Joseph Hall, 10 and 11, Archer-street, St. James An 694. Samuel Humphreys.
March 28th. improvement in finishing fabrics made wholly or partly of 709. James Alexander Manning. 761. Richard Edward Hodges. silk
| 793. Simon O'Regan.
| 785. Stephen Randoll Smith.
Is Improved Chimney-top for prevent-U
per prevents Wm. Blair and Joseph Chappell... Bolton, Lancashire.
... Foster, Porter, and Co............. Wood-street, Cheapside.
Jacob Lyons and Sons............... 10 and 11, Wilson-street, Finsbury,
Barnby Moor, Yorkshire.
West Butterwick, Lincolnshire. 11 combined ....