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which the light boat will lose her way or be beaten back having a pump in it, by which any leakage can be by each heavy sea as it strikes her, whilst the heavier pumped out by one of the crew whilst afloat. boat will by her own inertia carry her way through or The proportions of one of these boats are as follows :over the seas. In a life-boat height of bow and stern is Length, 30 ft. also necessary to prevent the seas from breaking over and Beam, 7 ft. 6 in. filling the boat; for, if sharpness of form be preserved Depth amidships, 3 ft. 4 in., exclusive of keel. quite up to the gunwale, the height of end will not check Ditto, from boat's floor to deck, 1 ft. 3 in. a boat's way so much as will a sea breaking into and half Ditto, from deck to thwarts, 1 ft. 3 in. filling her. Speed is not, however, alone necessary to Ditto, from thwarts to gunwale, 10 in. enable a life-boat to force her way through the lines of Length of end-cases (D), 4 ft. breaking seas which form an almost impassable barrier Width of side-cases (c), extreme, 1 ft. 6 in. between a lee shore and a wreck, it also adds greatly to her safety; for if she lose her way on meeting a very

Fig. 3. heavy broken sea or roll, she may not only be beaten back by it, but be thrown end over end or broadside to it, and be upset; but if she retain her way, she can be kept bow to the sea until it has passed her, when she will again gather additional speed in readiness to meet with impunity the succeeding wave. Judging, however, from the received reports of Mr. Peake's boats, the committee have no doubt that they are equal in speed and power to any, and superior to most that exist.

7. A seventh quality is stowage-room for passengers. It is of course desirable that a life-boat should have as large an amount as possible of stowage-room, as she might have to proceed to the wreck of an emigrant vessel, or other passenger ship, when it would be important that

Body Plan. she should take on board a large number of persons so as to rescue the whole in as few trips as possible. The prin

Fig. 4. cipal object in view will therefore be to distribute the airchambers, forming the extra buoyancy of the boat, in such a manner as to occupy no more than can be helped of any space which would be available for the stowage of passengers. Life-boats vary much in this respect. It is a requirement which has been especially studied in Mr. Peake's boats. 8. The eighth and last quality which we have to con

Midship Section. sider is strength. As a life-boat is liable to be thrown The festooned lines in fig. 1 represent exterior life-lines heavily on a beach by the sea, or to be knocked with attached round the entire length of the boat, to which violence against a vessel's side, or to come in contact with persons in the water might cling until they could be got spars or broken wrecks floating in the water, she of neces- | into the boat: the two central life-lines are festooned sity must be very strongly built: in this respect, the lower than the others to be used as stirrups, so that a committee consider that Mr. Peake's boats will bear com- person in the water could more readily, by stepping on. parison with any others.

them, get into the boat, which is a very difficult operaThe annexed diagrams show the general form and tion, for even a strong man to effect, with heavy, wet the nature of the fittings and air-chambers of one of Mr. clothes about him. Peake's life-boats, 30 ft. in length, and 7 ft. 6 in. in breadth. In figs. 1 and 2, corresponding to the elevation and

DECAY OF GUTTA PERCHA. deck plans, the general exterior form of the boat is seen,

The following observations on the state of the undershowing the sheer of gunwale, length of keel, and rake or slope of stem and stern-posts. The dark dotted lines

ground wires of the British Electric Telegraph Comin fig. 1 also show the position and dimensions of the air

pany, are given from two reports of Mr. Edward High

ton, to the Directors of that Company :chambers within-board and of the relieving tubes.

Having understood that the wires south of BerkhampA represents the deck.

stead had failed in many parts, I went there yesterday,* B, the relieving tubes (6 in. diameter).

with a view of endeavouring to ascertain the cause of c, the side air-cases.

such failure. I selected for examination a district comD, the end air-chambers.

mencing about a mile to the south of Berkhampstead. I In fig. 3, the exterior form of transverse sections at dif

selected a length where the wires passed near the roots ferent distances from stem to stern is shown.

of oak trees, and then near the roots of ash and Italian Fig. 4 represents a midship transverse section.

poplars, with only one oak tree among them. I found A, represents sections of the side air-cases already des- the wires and wooden boxing had failed, and had been cribed.

renewed for several yards in passing every single oak , the relieving tubes, bored through solid massive tree, including the isolated one above-mentioned, and no chocks of wood, of the same depth as the space between where else. the deck and the boat's floor.

I had the earth removed from the wires at various C, spaces beneath the deck, filled up over 6 ft. in length places, and selected, in particular, those spots where the at the midship part of the boat with solid chocks of light newly replaced wires and boxes joined the old wires and wood, or boxes of cork, forming a portion of the ballast, boxes. i found boxing laid down in March last in a as before described.

state of decomposition-whilst old boxing, put down some D, a section of a tier below the deck, having a move- I two or three years ago, and within seven yards of the able hatch or lid, in which the boat's cable is stowed, I same, was perfect. I have found wires perfectly good, and into which all leakage beneath the deck is drained

and completely rotten within seven yards of each other. through small holes, with valves fixed in them. In some of the later boats, a small draining tier only is placed,

• September, 1856.

[graphic]

This proved the action to be local. My attention was men who had opened the ground that there had not been then directed to the probable cause of the decay. any of the spawn-like appearance found there.

On opening the first part where the wires were decayed, On Tuesday last I examined the wires between WarI observed a remarkable peculiarity in the soil; I de- wick and Birmingham; my attention was first directed tected, at once, a whitish looking plant, resembling the to a place where the wires passed under a very large oak spawn of the mushroom, or some other fungus, pervad-tree, the stem being sixteen feet in circumference at ing the soil and filling every crevice; I found that it had three feet from the ground, and the branches extending utterly destroyed all the dead roots of the oak and plants forty-five feet from the stem. The tree is known in the in the edge. Its branches spread all over and around neighbourhood as Old Parr's Oak. The wires under the wooden trough, covering it with a whiteness re- this tree have decayed and have been renewed. sembling a whitewash. I found wherever the plant I searched for the fruit of a fungus, and immediately touched the gutta percha wires, the gutta percha was found abundance of it, and apparently of the same rotten. I find that the wooden troughs laid down in identical kind as those under the trees near BerkhampMarch last in the vicinity of this plant, are more rotten stead where the wires had rotted. I then had the soil than troughs within seven yards of the same (where is renewed and examined the new wires. no trace of the plant), which have been down since the I found the wooden lid of the testing box decayed, commencement. I anticipate the whole of the wires and covered with both dead and living mycellium of a which have lately been laid down in those particular fungus. I found on the gutta percha of the wires in the parts, will again decay in a short period of time. The two feet which I opened two portions of the mycellium breakage that must have taken place, and which is taking of a fungus, each in area about the size of a penny-piece, place, in spots over a length not exceeding one-third of and also one under the lid of the test-box. a mile, is quite enough to stop all telegraphing between I have the evidence of two of the Company's workManchester and London.

men, and also of a person living near the spot, that the On my first noticing this peculiar subterraneous plant, ground when opened for the renewal of the wires was I thought it might be the the spawn of a certain fungus. filled with a substance resembling the spawn of a fungus. I immediately searched for funguses under those oak I learn from three different witnesses that the ground trees; I found a yellowish green fungus luxuriantly about a mile from Berkhampstead where there are no trees, growing under every single oak without exception, but but close under a hedge composed of hawthorn, and a not one under an ash or other tree.

shrub commonly called dogwood, presented the same Whether the vegetable production I found be the white-like appearance, and that the same appearance spawn of that fungus or not, I cannot say. The facts presented itself under every oak tree when the wires had observed to-day would almost warrant that conclusion decayed.

But, as a botanist, my impression at present is, that it There is, therefore, abundant evidence that where this is not so, but that it is an entirely different plant; what spawn-like appearance is found in the ground, both the ever the plant may be, I cannot believe that any vege-gutta percha and the wooden boxing have decayed, table product, destitute of organic life, can resist its de- while under similar circumstancs the same kind of wires composing action.

and boxes, when the spawn-like appearance was absent, The plant possesses a powerful odour; after breaking had not decayed. soil a few inches deep, its scent can at once be detected. Believing, therefore, this whitish appearance to be The presence of the plant and the decay of the wires I the mycellium of a fungus, my next inquiry was, if so, found coincident. The absence of the plant and a most what its effect would be upon vegetable matter, such as perfect state of the wires, coincident also. Such are the wood and gutta percha. I referred to a work published results of my examinations of yesterday. With the only a few weeks ago, and under the article now alluded permission of the Board I intend to pursue these in-to, I find reference made to eleven English and foreign vestigations.

works in confirmation of the statement of the author. I now beg to forward a sample of the fungus growing The author says:-" The decay of wood is often under every oak tree where the wires have failed: I send greatly accelerated by the growth of the mycellium of also a sample of the earth with the decomposing plant fungi, which seems to decompose the organic compounds therein: its peculiar scent will at once be apparent: I in the wood, in the same manner that yeast does those send also a specimen of the decayed boxing in the vicinity in organic liquids. A general law prevails througout of that plant: and I also send a portion of a root acted the fungi, that their nutrition depends exclusively upon upon by that plant.

the absorption and decomposition of organic compounds, In conclusion, I beg to say all the wires examined by | therefore consisting of the performance of the operame yesterday, were fully two feet deep.

tion of fermentation upon the organic matters upon which they feed."

I am now, however, arranging a series of experiments, Since my last report I have carefully examined the which after a short time will enable me to speak posispawn-like appearance which I found in the ground sur-tively upon the point. rounding the wires near Berkhampstead.

And next with reference to the decay of gutta percha I have applied to it microscopic power up to 500,000. in iron pipes.

The substance presents all the characteristics of the I have as yet examined but two places, viz., one at mycellium of a fungus, but of what particular fungus, Knowle, near Birmingham, the other at Winslow, in by name, I have been unable to ascertain.

Buckinghamshire; at Knowle, I found the wires had I have arranged, however, with the Royal Horticul- been renewed, but as the new ones were in good contural Society, to have the case, with its concomitant dition, I had little or no data for investigation ; suffice it facts, submitted through that Society to the most emi- to say, I noticed there a remarkable peculiarity, which I nent authority on fungi in Europe.

found existing also at Winslow. I have again examined the wires near Berkbampstead. At Winslow, I ascertained that there were only 46 I found the wires passing under two oak trees at a parti- yards of iron piping, the wires passing through the rest cular spot had in no way been affected. I could find no of the town being in wooden troughs. I found the old trace of the fruit of a fungus in the soil around those two wires in a state of decay through the entire lengths of trees; around every other oak tree in the neighbourhood, the iron pipings, with the exception of one inch at either under which the wires had decayed, I found abundance end. The wires in the wooden boxing in the immediate of the fruit of fungi, while around the two trees above neighbourhood, and up to the commencement of the mentioned, although in the same neighbourhood there iron pipes, as perfect as they were when first laid down. was no fruit at all to be seen, and I was informed by the In one wire at Winslow the gutta percha was so de

Home Eorrespondence.

cayed and cracked that the internal copper wire was Berlin, addressed to Dr. Bernstein, and forwarded by the visible.

latter to me, it appears that the first experiments made The decay of gutta percha in iron pipes appears at at the central station with such an instrument, were very present to me to be produced by a cause entirely different favourable, and that the trial was repeated some days from that under the oak trees alluded to. And although later on the Berlin-Stettin line by uniting two wires at I have already formed my own opinion as to the cause of Stettin, and joining one of the Berlin ends of the wire to this decay, I would rather not express that opinion until two working keys or contact levers, the other end being I find it verified by further observations.

joined to the Despatch Distributor, which trial was equally I also examined the wires near Solihull, which had re- successful; and proved, that despatches of various conplaced the old wires which had decayed. The soil in tents sent by two keys could be kept separate and delivered which the wires had decayed was a stratum of blue marl, imprinted by the application of Morse's instrument, on overlying red clay, but as the new wires and boxing were two separate slips of paper. perfect, I had no data for the investigation of the cause A new instrument has since then been constructed for of the decay of the previous wires.

two messages in one direction, and so arranged that During my late experiments, I have not found any messages in the contrary direction, may also be sent. Mr. difficulty in completely destroying one of the most de- Altgelt was instructed by the general Direction of the structive fungi in Europe, without doing the slightest Prussian telegraphs to examine and try this new apparainjury to the plant on which it was growing.

tus, which was connected on the 10th October with the In conclusion, I would observe that there appears to telegraph wires used in the town and at the central be a number of isolated spots, of a few vards in length, stations. The official report of Mr. Altgelt, was already only where the gutta percha has decayed, while at each then so favourable, that the general Direction of the teleend of those particular spots, and in the intervening graphs determined to have further trials made by conparts, the wires are as perfect as one could possibly wish nection with the government lines, which have since then them to be. I believe all the cases I have examined are repeatedly taken place, and Mr. Altgelt has certified his attributable to causes which may be obviated by further complete satisfaction, and that the few alterations prescientific investigation.

viously required in the mechanical arrangements, particularly in the construction of the keys having been successfully accomplished by the inventor, the latest experiments have proved that the most correct printing of two messages by Morse's instruments may now be done, when

in combination with Dr. Bernstein's Despatch Distributor, WESTMINSTER CLOCK AND BELL. so that the adoption of the invention on the Prussian SIR,-The tone of Mr. Denison's last letter relieves

government lines is no longer doubtful, and negociations me from the task of continuing to notice his remarks.

es for the acquisition of it are now in progress. Hitherto I have replied to these letters at length, I ble to submarine telegraphs, but in particular suitable

58. Dr. Bernstein's invention is not only equally applicaalthough from the first the tone has not been inviting; and while he has omitted to adduce proof in support of

iting for these, and as the advantage of doing double or more the assertions made, and resorted to epithet instead, I

work in a given time, and saving the expenses of a

number of wires, is very great, there appears to be every have given references and proof for the statements ad

probability that the invention will ere long have to be vanced. My last reply will, however, appear in the

adopted in this country, if not sooner, at any rate when Mechanics' Magazine of March 14, and in future the re

the telegraph lines in other countries are able to despatch marks I have yet to make on the Westminster clock and bell will not be lengthened or drawn aside from the

two or more messages by Dr. Bernstein's keys, which subject by any measure of unsupported abuse to which

would arrive in the greatest confusion unless a des

patch distributor was here to receive and deliver them he may descend. I need only add that much time has been occupied,

separately.

The practicability has now been proved, and persons and great care taken, to render my letters as accurate as possible, and that they do not contain any statement,

may convince themselves of the same at the Berlin from the first to the last, in which inaccuracy occurs, even

Central Station, where the apparatus constructed for two through inadvertence.

messages is worked, but the same principle may be | E. T. LOSEBY.

carried out for three, four, or more messages, by a single 5, Fitzroy-terracc, Kentish Town, March 4, 1857.

wire, which is fully explained in the Patent Specifica tion. This, and the drawings belonging thereto, and

the certificate of Mr. Altgelt, the managing director of ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS.

the Central Telegraph Station in Berlin, I have deSIR, --At the French Exposition of 1855, several newly I posited at my leather manufactory, No. 4, Lant-street, invented instruments were shown, by which two electric Borough, for the inspection of any one interested in telemessages could be sent at the same time by a single wire, graphic improvements; and, if further information is in contrary directions. It was not known then that two desired, letters left there, addressed for this purpose to persons may send from the same, or different stations des- Dr. Bernstein, or to Mr. Altgelt, for his practical patches of various contents at the same time in the same opinion, will be forwarded by me to Berlin, and will, I direction by means of one wire, which further improve- have no doubt, meet with prompt replies. ment has since been invented by Dr. A. Bernstein, in

I am, &c. Berlin, who employs for this purpose an instrument

C. A. PRELLER. named by him "Despatch Distributor.”

No. 5, Aberdeen-terrace, Blackheath, S.E. It is about a year since mention was made of this in some of the newspapers, but the manner of carrying out the invention only became known in Díay last, when the specification of Dr. Bernstein's patent, (taken out in this country, in the name of F. Duncker, on the 15th November, 1855,) was published, and a small apparatus shown LEWES.—The following lectures have been delivered at work to a few gentlemen, but it was taken back to Ber- at the Mechanics' Institution during the Autumn Session lin, not being intended for actual work on long lines of of 1856 :—Sept. 24, Rev. Dr. Booth, F.R.S., “On wire. From communications I had a few days ago from the most Effectual Means of Promoting the Education Berlin, and from a letter written by Mr. Altgelt, the of the People ;' Oct. 29, Mr. C. Balfour, “ Poets of the managing director of the Central Telegraph Station in People;” Oct. 16, Rev. John Barlow, F.R.S., V.P., and

Proceedings of Institutions.

Sec. R.I., “ Aluminium the Metal of Clay ;" Oct. 23, 65. Fishery Board (Scotland)--Copy of Reports.

18. National Gallery-Return. R. W. Blencowe, Esq., M.A., " On Some of the Moral

79. Poor Law Superintendents (Scotland)-Return. and Physical Changes that have taken place in the English

53. Duchy of Cornwall-Account of Rooeipts and Disbursements. People;” Nov. 6, Rev. W. de St. Croix, “ The Motive 58. Small Arms-Return.

81. East India Railways-Return. Powers of Animals;" Nov. 20, Geo. Dawson, Esq., M.A.,

2. East India (Law Expenses-Return. - Admiral Sir J. Drake;" Nov. 24, Rev. W. H. Chann

3. Committee of Selection Special Report. ing, U.S., “ The Common Destiny of Great Britain and 9. Railway and Canal Bills-Report of the Board of Trade (corAmerica ;" Dec. 4, Mr. John Cunningham, assisted by rected pages). Miss Payne and Miss Cole, “ Musical Entertainment;"

4. Bills-Imprisonment for Debt.

34. Grand Juries (Ireland) Act (1836)-Amendment. Dec. 18, Mr. Charles Aspull Wells, “ Pneumatics.”

Income-tax. Roys'rox.-At the Institute, on the 10th Feb, and 3rd Turnpike Trusts (England and Wales)-General Report of the

Secretary of State. March, Robert Hunt, Esq., F.R.S., author of “ The

Delivered the 5th March, 1857. Poetry of Science," delivered two lectures, one entitled 409. (Session, 1856). Railways (number and description of persons “ Sermons in Stones," the other " Books in the Running employed)-Return, Brooks." The former lecture embraced considerations of

Delivered the 10th March, 1857.

19. Harbour, &c., Bills (18, Ely Tidal Harbour and Railway) phenomena determining Rock Formation, &c.—the latter,

Board of Trade Report. Water and its physical condition. Mr. Hunt's lectures 85. Silver Coinages (Calcutta, &c.)-Return. were most attentively listened to by audiences that ap 90. Committals (Metropolis) - Abstract of Return.

91. Civil Services-A statement of the Estimates. peared to enjoy the lucid expositions of scientific diff

92. Revenue Departments-A statement of the Estimates. culties with which they were favoured by the lecturer.

Rallways of the United States-Report by Capt.Douglas Galton.

Delivered the 11th March, 1857. 80. Swansea Cemetery--Correspondence.

84. Public Debt, &c. --Accounts, MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK,

s. Exchequer Bills-Account. Mox. Statistical, 3. Anniversary.

36. Bills-Industrial Schools (amended).

Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction.
London Inst., 7. Rev. H. Christmas, “On the History and
Antiquities of Heraldry; and on some other branches of

Customs Duties.
British Archæology."

41, Copyholds, &c., Commission Continuanco.
Chemical, 8.

42. Municipal Corporations Act Amendment. Tues. Royal Inst., 3. Prof. Huxley, “On the Principles of Natural

History."
Civil Engineers, 8. Discussion upon “ High Speed Steam

PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT.
Navigation and the Relative Efficiency of the Screw Pro-
peller and Paddle Wheels."

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.
Linnæan, 8. I. Dr. Cobbold, “On a species of Medusa new
to Britain." II. Dr. Thomas Thomson, “On the structure

[From Gazette, March 6th, 1857.]
of the seeds of Baringtonia and Careya."

Dated 21st November, 1856.
Pathological, 8.

2768. Alexander Clark, Gate-street, Lincoln's. inn-fields-ImproveStatistical, 8. Dr. Farr, “ On the Pay of the Ministers of the

ments in the application and construction of revolving window Crown."

shutters and blinds, and metal window sashes. Wed. Royal Soc. Lit., 45.

Dated 22nd January, 1857. Society of Arts, 8. Dr. Letheby, “On the Economy of Food." | 190. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements THURS. Royal Inst., 3. Prof. Tyndall, “ On Sound."

in the preparation of oil for lighting, and in lamps, wicks, Royal Society Club, 6.

and chimneys. (A communication.)
Numismatic, 7.

Dated 27th January, 1857.
Antiquaries, 8.

241. David Yoolow Stewart, Glasgow-Improvements in moulding Philological, 8.

or manufacturing cast-iron pipes. Royal, 8.

Dated 12th February, 1857. Frl. Royal Institution, 87. Mr.J. W. Brett, « On the Submarine 409. William Bridges Adams, 1, Adam-street, Adelphi-ImproveTelegraph."

ments in buildings and other structures. Sat. Asiatic, 2,

Dated 16th February, 1857.
Royal Institution, 3. Prof. Phillips, “ On the Limits 446. Jean Marie Letestu--Improvements in signals.
Variation in the State of the Globe-internal Heat."

18. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane- Improved maRoyal Botanic, 3.

chinery for manufacturing nuts and washers. (A communiMedical, 8,

cation.) 450. Thomas Newcomb, 10, Cowley-place, Commercial-road-Im

provements in machinery for manufacturing nails. PARLIAMENTARY REPORTS.

52. Joseph Quick, junr., and Alexander Fraser, Sumner-street,

Southwark--Improvements in apparatus for regulating tho SESSIONAL PRINTED PAPERS.

drawing off and the supply of water and other fluids. Par. No.

453. Alexander Parkes, 8, Bath-road, Birmingham-Improvements Delivered on the 3rd March, 1857.

in the manufacture of nails. 46. Incumbered Estates Court (Ireland)-Return.

454. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's--inn-fields-Improvements 41. East India (Territorial Revenues and Disbursements-Accounts.

in machinery or apparatus for the manufacture of pasteboard. 29. Bills-Registration of Long Leases (Scotland).

(A communication.) 32. - Savings Banks.

Dated 17th February, 1857.
Delivered on 4th March, 1857.

56. Thomas Ball, 3, Hyde-street, Bloomsbury-An improved port73. Revenue Departments-Estimates.

able oven for baking bread and other articles of food, in the Delivered on the 5th March, 1857.

camp, the field, or the house. 12. Harbour, &c., Bills (4. Elie Harbour; 5, Fraserburgh Harbour; . Charles Cowper, 20, Southampton buildings, Chancery-lane8, Great Yarmouth Britannia Pier; 7, Lowestoft and Burgh

Improvements in making drains, and in machinery for that St. Peter Ferry and Roads; 8, Swansea Harbour Trust and

purpose. (A communication.) Swansea Dock Company; 9, Briton Ferry Docks ; 10, Norfolk

0. William Burslem and John Burslem, Cheadle, Cheshire-An Estuary : 11, Sunken Vessels' Recovery Company ; 12,

improved picker to be used in power looms for weaving. Swansea Docks; 13, Nene Valley Drainage and Navigation 462. Thomas Withnall, Manchester-Improvements in the manuImprovement)-Board of Trade Reports.

facture of copper, brass, or other metallic rollers or cylinders, 69. Railway and Canal Bills-Report of the Board of Trade.

464. Harby Barber, Belgrave, Leicestershire-Improvements in 74. Committee of Selection-3rd Report.

knitting machinery. 75. Railway and Canal Bills--Report of the General Committee 466. Augustus Kaltwasser, 5, Grove-street, Camden-town-Anim(Groups).

provement in the action of horizontal pianofortes. Wrecks and Casualties-Abstract of Returns.

468. Robert Barlow Cooley, Nottingham-An improvement in the

manufacture of knitted fabrics.. Delivered on the 6th March, 1857. 51. East India (Judicial Establishments, &c.)--Papers.

470. John Naylor, Winterton, near Brigg, Lincolnshire-Improve

ments in horse hoes. 60. East India (Opium)-Returns.

Dated 18th February, 1857. 72. Liverpool Port-Abstract of Receipt and Disbursement of Dock 471. Charles de Bergue, Dowgate-hill-Certain improvements in and Light Duties.

marine steam engines. Delivered on the 7th and 9th March, 1857.

472. Jacob Green, Philadelphia, U.S.-Improvements in furnaces 19. Harbour, &c., Bills (14, North Level Drainage; 15, Wear

for burning combustible gases under pressure in the manumouth Bridge, Ferries, and Approaches; 16, Victoria (Lon.

facture of glass, iron, and other metals. don) Docks; 17, Watchet Harbour Trust and Watchet Har 473. Hector Christie, Salford-Improvements in finishing and polishbour-Board of Trade Reports,

ing threads and yarns.

of coal will consumptionments in ste

191. Henry

ventilating and Degrand, Paris - or refracting rovements

474. Robert Best, Birmingham-An improvement or improvements 517. George Phillips, Hammersmith-Improvements in stationary in illumination.

cabinets, and in envelopes to be used therewith. 475. John Rylands, Warrington - Improvements in annealing wire. 518. William Gossage, Widney-Improvements in the manufacture 476. Julien Blanc, 59, Rue St. Louis, Batignolles, near Paris-Im. 1 of soda and potash.

provements in making bread and biscuits. (A communica- | 519. Auguste Quidde and Charles Mayet, Biala, Galicia, Austriation.)

Certain improvements in propelling. 478. John Moule, Seabright-place, Hackney-road-Improved appa

Dated 23rd February, 1857. ratus to be used for burning pyrotechnic compositions or 521. William Footman, 24, Rodney-street, Pentonville-Further preparations for producing artificial lights of various colours.

utilizing the illuminating properties of gas, by improvements 479. David Cheetham, Rochdale-Improvements in machinery or

in burners and shades or reflectors. apparatus for preparing, spinning, and reeling cotton and 523. Joseph James Bannister, Southwark-An improved watch and other fibrous materials.

property protector pocket. 480. Samuel Dyer, Bristol-Certain improvements in ships' wind 525. Francis Coniliane La Croix, New York-An improvement in lasses, capstans, bumpkins, gins, and cranes.

reducing and reefing the topsails of vessels. 481. Louis Léon Fancher, 5, Petite Rue Taranne, Paris-Improve 627. James Edward Shearman, Pimlico-Improvements in saddles ments in apparatus for the manufacture of type and other

and collars for horses and other animals. articles used in letter press printing.

629. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lanc-An improved Dated 19th February, 1857.

furnace for locomotive and other boilers. (A communica484. David Lloyd Price, Beaufort, Brecknockshire-Improvements

tion.) in electrical apparatus for giving signals, and appliances 531. Jacques Henri Marie Maissiat, Paris-Improvements in dibbling connected therewith.

machinery for depositing grain and manure. 486. William Halsall and William Hayhurst, Bury, Lancashire 533. Laurent Laurot, 22, Rue Fontaine St. George's, Paris-SepaAn improved self-acting " temple," to be employed in power

rating the different solid fatty acides gras) acids from the looms for weaving.

liquid fatty ones. 486. James Abernethy, Westminster-An improved mode of con. 635. John Milnes, Sutton Mill, Kildwick, Yorkshire, and William structing break waters in deep water.

Thompson, Sutton Mill-Improvements in looms for wearing. 487. James Crook, Winckworth-place, Hoxton-Improvements in

Dated 24th February, 1857. looms for weaving elastic and other fabrics.

537. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements 488. Thomas Clayton, Manchester-Improvements in machinery or

in under skirts or petticoats. (A communication.) apparatus for ornamenting and embossing wood, leather, 639. Joseph Betteley, Liverpool - Improvements in machinery for paper, and other similar articles.

lifting and working anchors, cables, and other weights on 489. William Clark, 53, Chancery-lane-Improvements in the

shipboard. manufacture of sheet glass. (A communication.)

541. Alexander Parkes, Birmingham-Improvements in separating 490. James Lord, 2, Brierly-street, Rochdale, and William Soothill,

tin from tin-plate scrap, and tin or zinc from other surfaces Stock-road, Rochdale-Improvements in steam boilers for

of iron. the more effectual consumption of smoke, whereby a great 543. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields-Improvements

in fastenings for dress and other purposes. (A communica491. Henry Young Darracott Scott, Brompton Barracks, near Chat

tion.) ham-An improved manufacture of cement.

545. Alexander Mitchell, Peterhead, N.B.-Improvements in har. 492. Peter Cato and Joseph Betteley, Liverpool - Improvements in

poon guns.
the masts, yards, and spars for ships or sailing vessels.

Dated 25th February, 1857.
Dated 20th February, 1857.

547. William Wood, Monkhill-house, near Pontefract, Yorkshire493. William Oakes, Stockton-on-Tees, Durham-Improvements

Improvements in machinery or apparatus used in the manuin the manufacture of iron.

facture of carpets and other pile fabrics. 495. Edward Edwards, Abenbury-forge, Wrexham-Improvements 549. James Fenton, Low Moor, near Bradford-An improved me. in the manufacture of chains for cables and other purposes.

thod of connecting the feed pipes of locomotive engines and 496. John Grist, Islington-Improvements in mash tuns and in ap

tenders. paratus to be employed therewith, which apparatus is also 551. Laurent Piaud, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris-Improvements applicable to the heating and keeping up of a continuous

in ventilating and preventing inundations in coal mines. circulation of liquids in any vessel to which it may be con- | 553. Louis Emile Ossian Degrand, Paris--Certain improved lenticu. nected.

lar glasses for lighting and reflecting or refracting. 497. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements 555. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn fields-Improvements in steam digging apparatus suitable for draining and excavat

in apparatus or instruments for measuring distances and eleing purposes, parts of which are applicable to reaping. (A

vations. (A communication.) communication.)

557. Moses Haym Picciotto, 8, Crosby.square-Improvements in 499. John Combe, Leeds-Improvements in the construction and

preparing flax, hemp, and other fibrous substances. driving of power looms in the formation of shuttles, and in 559. Auguste Godet, Capno. de Marines, Bordeaux --Improvements the winding and arrangements of wett, parts of which im

in reefing sails. provements are applicable to other purposes. 500. Frederick Charles Jeune, Gresham-street-An improved manu

WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. facture or artificial leather. 501. Joseph Glover and John Bold, junr., Liverpool - Improvements

March 6th.

2158, Alexander Rowand. consisting of extended uses of photography as applied to

2085. Paul Rapsey Hodge.

2176. Antoine Andraud. dials, tablets, and pictures.

2087. Félix Estivant.

2179. Carl Heinrich Schroder. 502. Wilhelm Zipser and Johann Peter Klein, Biala, Galicia, A us

2103. George Tomlinson Bous-2200. Archibald Templeton and tria-Improved machinery or apparatus to be used in the

field.

John Lawson. manufacture of woollen cloth.

2105. William Smith.

2241. Victor Frederic Antoine 2113. John Taylor.

Prost.
Dated 21st February, 1857.

2128. John Talbot Pitman. 2242. Robert Brown. 504, Elkan Adler, 133, High Holborn – Improvements in spring 2130, Albert Demerit Bishop, 2256. Marius Pellen.

bed bottoms, said bottoms being applicable to other descrip 2160. Robert Elmy Garrood. 2285, Thomas Arthur Dillon and tions of furniture.

2202. William Young.

John Gray, M.D. 505. Alexander Theophilus Blakely, Tonbridge-wells—Improve 2388. Alfred Vincent Newton. 2288. William Gostwyck Gard. ments in ordnance.

2582. William King Westly. 2315. Peter Armand le Comte de 506. John Elce and Samuel Hartley, Manchester-Improvements

2814, Peter Walker.

Fontainemoreau. in machinery for moulding.

2974. Alfred Vincent Newton. 2524. William Brodie. 507. Joseph Fielding, Ashton-under-Lyne-An improved apparatus

3005. Warren A. Simonds.

2694. Andrew Symington. applicable to steam-pipes or cylinders used for heating and

40. David Baker.

2761. William Ed. Newton. drying, which said apparatus may be similarly employed

2781. George Salt. wherever steam is used for such purposes.

March 10th.

2782. James Broadley. 508. John Whitehead, Preston-Improvements in boilers.

2123, James Hudson.

3051. Benjamin Goodfellow. 509. Francis Hay Thomson, Glasgow - Improvements in the manu 2129. Alexander Chaplin.

3091. William Armand Gilbee. facture of iron.

2140. John Elliott.

3. William Rigby. 510. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's. inn-fields-Improvements | 2143. William Whittle.

15. Joseph House. in spinning machines. (A communication.)

2150. Samuel Cunlifte Lister.

18. John Pettigrew. 611. John Barber, Manchester-Improvements in compound printing 2154. Jean Baptiste Justin Lassie) 75. Robert Turnbull.

maundrills. 512. John Middleton, Hyde, Cheshire, and William Stent, Fairfield, near Manchester-Improvements in railway chairs, and in

PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP DUTY HAS BEEN PAID the joining of rails for railways.

March 2nd.

March 7th. 514. John Turner, Syresham, Northamptonshire-Improvements in 623. Joseph Bour.

547. Thomas Dunn. the process of manufacturing bread, and in the component 529. Felix Abate.

668. William Warne. parts of the same.

612. Johnson Hands,

567. William Young. 514. Victor Touche, 14, Rathbone-place, Oxford-street-Improve.

March 3rd.

573. William Peace. ments in the manufacture of paper from bass or bast.

562. James Smith.

580. William Mill. 515. John Williams, Wigginton, Oxfordshire- Improvements in

March 6th.

883, Désiré Parfait Lefevre. common road vehicles.

848. Henry Bernoulli Barlow. 584. Zephirin Boitteux, 516. Michael Grouse, 549, Oxford-street-An improved apparatus

March 6th.

710. George Collier, for giving stability to life boats and other boats.

| 660. George Beardsley.

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