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Journal of the Society of Arts.
promote the study of science, and to advance the general intelligence of the people.
Among the recommendations contained in this me
morial, will be found the following: FRIDAY, MARCH 13, 1857.
1. The establishment of classes in Metropolitan and Provincial Schools, in which the elements of science may be taught on a systematic plan, and that such classes be
| promoted by government grants in aid of local funds. HONORARY LOCAL SECRETARIES.
2. The establishment of Provincial Lectures, in aid of The following gentlemen have been appointed
| the above classes.
3. The establishment of Examinations. honorary local secretaries :
4. The formation of Provincial Museuns. T. Cooke Ainsworth, Esq., Blackburn.
5. The distribution and circulation of duplicate speci. Rev. Dr. Hume, Liverpool.
mens from the British Museum and other similar Institutions.
6. The formation of Public Libraries. FOURTEENTH ORDINARY MEETING.
7. The more extensive distribution of National Publi
cations, bearing upon the cultivation and advancement of Wednesday, March 11, 1857. science.
8. The augmentation of the Parliamentary grant for No meeting of the Society was held this the reward of useful discoveries in Science and attainevening, in consequence of the sudden and severe ments in Literature and the Arts, so as to admit of good illness of Major H. B. Sears, whose paper «On / Service Pensions to men of eminent scientific merit. Appliances for Facilitating Submarine Engineer- to the Royal Society, whenever special reasons may be
19. The augmentation of the annual grant of £1,000 ing and Exploration," Part II., “ Submarine assigned for this increase. Exploration," had been announced to be read. 10. The formal recognition of the President and
Major Sears was called suddenly to Paris on Council of the Royal Society as a body authorised to adFriday evening, on urgent business, and it is
vise the government inter alia, on the measures necessary
to be adopted for the more general diffusion of a knowfcared that his illness was aggravated by his ledge of physical science among the nation at large. hurried journey back, in order to fulfil his en 11. The alternative proposed of substituting a Governgagement with the Society.
ment Board for the President and Council of the Royal Society.
12. And lastly, that such of the above recommendaDEPUTATION TO LORD PALMERSTON.
tions as involve an expenditure of public money, might
eventually be carried out by appropriating a certain A deputation from the Society of Arts had an / portion of the fees received from Patents; and the meinterview with Lord Palmerston on Wednesday,
| morial concludes with the expression of the opinion of
the President and Council of the Royal Society, that no at Cambridge House, to present the subjoined | application of these fees could be desired more appropriMemorial in reference to the Society's Examina- ate than the devotion of a portion of them to the entions. The deputation consisted of the following couragement of abstract science, to which practical art gentlemen :
is under so many and such important obligations.
The foregoing recommendations of a body of such Col. Sykes, F.R.S., Chairman of the Council. high scientific eminence and historical
the The Rev. Dr. Booth, F.R.S., Treasurer.
Royal Society of London, formally submitted to your The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor.
Lordship, receive, with but one or two exceptions, the
concurrence of the Society of Arts. Those measures for William Brown, M.P.
the improvement of national instruction and the advanceFrederick North, M.P.
ment of science which the Royal Society now presses on Benjamin Oliveira, M.P., F.R.S.
the notice of her Majesty's government, with the full Francis Bennoch.
weight of its high authority, the Society of Arts has
for some time past heen engaged in submitting to the C. Wentworth Dilke, Vice-President.
practical tests of a varied experience. Four years ago Rev. William Elliott.
(Jan. 19, 1853), a Committee of this Society was apJoseph Glynn, F.R.S.
pointed by the Council “ to inquire and report how far
and in what manner the Society of Arts may aid in Peter Graham.
the promotion of such an education of the people as T. Twining, jun., Vice-President.
shall lead to a more general and systematic cultivation G. Fergusson Wilson, F.R.S.
of the arts, manufactures, and commerce-the chartered Thomas Winkworth.
objects of the Society." P. Le Neve Foster, Secretary.
This Committee, in its report on Industrial Instruc
tion (presented April 26, 1853), strongly urged on the Charles Critchett, Assistant-Secretary. attention of the Council the value of class teaching, TO TUE RIGHT HONOURABLE LORD VIS-, and the importance of its correlative, periodical exami
COUNT PALMERSTON, FIRST LORD COM | nation.
MISSIONER of Her MAJESTY'S TREASURY.' " We have received," say the Committee, “a very THE RESPECTFUL MEMORIAL OF THE COUNCIL OF THE
large amount of decisive testimony in favour of somo
system of exainination for provincial schools in connecSOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF ARTS,
tion with a central body, which should be empowered MANUFACTURES, AND COMMERCE.
to grant certificates of proficiency. On this subject the The Council of the Society of Arts have learned that evidence is unanimous and decisive. Several of our a memorial has been presented to your Lordship by the correspondents, whose opinions are entitled to the gravest President and Council of the Royal Society, embodying consideration, attach the utmost importance to a pracseveral suggestions as to the most effectual means to tical testing of results by means of examination. Some
would go so far as to say, that without some conserva- on which it has acquired a large amount of accumulated tive provision of this kind, no organisation, however experience. The Society has afforded aid to Institutions perfect it may be at first, can long be secured from and to lecturers alike, by publishing copious lists of lecinefficiency and decay. Amongst others, we would turers, and by giving other facilities. The Council are, direct attention to the important testimony of Baron however, of opinion that much success is not to be looked Liebig, given at page 46 of this Report.”' *
for from metropolitan centralization in this matter. To carry into effect the recommendations of this Com | As regards the establishment of public libraries, the mittee, the Society of Arts did not wait until funds Council believe that Mr. Ewart's Act, slightly amended, should be placed at its disposal, but, drawing from its so as to give power of appeal to a poll, and its provisions own limited resources, had already undertaken to submit made more generally known, would afford all necessary to trial measures nearly identical with those which the and just facilities for the purpose. Royal Society has now deliberately pronounced to be the With respect to the suggestion of the President and most judicious that could be adopted. The Society of Council of the Royal Society, to constitute the President Arts is now engaged in promoting nearly all the objects and Council of that body " the recognised advisers of the commended to the attention of the Government in the Government as to the measures to be adopted for the Memorial of the President and Council of the Royal general diffusion of a knowledge of physical science Society.
among the nation at large," and the proposal not only The Society of Arts has associated with it no fewer“ to augment occasionally their annual parliamentary than 400 of the Mechanics' Institutions of the United grant of £1,000,” but “to place a further sum at their Kingdom, and with all it carries on a mutually bene- disposal from the patent fees," the Council would observe, ficial correspondence. In these associated institutions, that a Committee of the Society of Arts (with Sir Joseph which will probably become the provincial schools of Paxton, its chairman). investigated, during the past year, science, it has laboured to establish class teaching and the subject of the surplus received from patent fees, and systematic instruction; and the Council have much came to the conclusion that it ought to be devoted to ensatisfaction in stating that although the Society's courage and aid the progress of invention, on which so scheme of examinations is practically before the public intimately depends the advancement of the arts, manu. for little more than twelve months, a marked improve- factures, and commerce of the country. The precise ment has already taken place in the character of the mode of its application the Committee did not consider class instruction, and in the attendance on the classes at it their duty to point out. many of the Institutions in Union, while in others, for Finally, the Council of the Society of Arts, beg, with the first time, class teaching has been established ex- much deference, to place before your Lordship and her pressly with reference to the Society of Arts Examinations. Majesty's Government the following facts: That the Stimulated by the hope of obtaining distinction at these Society, incorporated as “ The Society for the Encourageexaminations, young men are found to attend the classes ment of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce," has been with remarkable diligence and zeal. This system of established for more than a century; that it has, on pubperiodical examination was successfully inaugurated lic objects alone, expended upwards of £160,000 in that last June, at the Society's House in the Adelphi, when time; that it has been the originator of several societies prizes and certificates were awarded to candidates, some of great and ackuowledged usefulness ;* that the germ of of whom have since obtained official appointments. The the Great Exhibition was developed within its walls; Council propose to have the examinations conducted on that, for nearly a century past, it has occupied its own a more extensive scale this year in London and Hud- hired house in the Adelphi; that it has never been acdersfield. Again, this year a special prize fund, up-comodated with apartments provided by the State; that, wards of £50), has been subscribed by the promoters of during the whole long period of the Society's existence, the scheme, and this independently of local contribu-l it has neither asked nor received a single shilling of pubtions. Considerably more than 500 of the most emi. lic money for any purpose whatever; and that it has nent manufacturing and commercial firms, and great secured, continues to retain, and will labour to deserve, employers of labour, whether material or mental, the confidence frankly and freely reposed in it by the throughout the country, have signed a formal declara- Mechanics’ Institutions, as also by the commercial and tion of confidence in the examinations and certificates manufacturing classes of the country. They therefore of the Society of Arts, while of the forty-five exa- respectfully submit to your Lordship, that the Society miners who give their unpaid services, and who consti- of Arts, whether tested by its antecedent, or estimated tute the Society of Arts Board of Examiners, nineteen by its present labours, is the proper body in whose are Fellows of the Royal Society. The examinations hands it should be left to carry out the work in which it are not restricted to physical science-they include as is now actually engaged, embracing those measures well mathematics, physical geography, English history, so ably indicated by the Royal Society, for the proEnglish literature, modern languages, and drawing. motion of the scientific and industrial instruction of the The Society of Arts so far as the funds at its disposal country; and they earnestly pray, should it be in the will allow, proposes to develop its scheme of examina- contemplation of her Majesty's Government to make tions until, taking advantage of railway facilities, the any grant in aid of this desirable object, that assistlocal centres of examination shall be so far multiplied as ance may be afforded, commensurate with local conto bring the advantages of the system easily within the tributions, to the classes for systematic instruction in reach of all.
Mechanics' Institutions, but so as not in any way With regard to the distribution of duplicates from the to fetter the free action, or to compromise the inde. British Museum and other like Institutions, the Society pendence of those bodies. As the sphere of the Society's of Arts is now in communication with all the Mechanics' operations is now rapidly expanding, since applications to Institutions throughout the United Kingdom, with a hold periodical examinations, and to award Certificates, view to ascertain their opinions, and to consult their have already been received from York, Birmingham, wishes on the subject. It is here proper to state that, at Huddersfield, Leeds, Nottingham, Salisbury, and other the present time, and for three years past, the Society of provincial centres, they further pray that the Society of Arts has been engaged in eirculating works of art ainong | Arts may so far be recognised by the governinent, and the Institutions associated with the Society.
placed in such a position as will enable its Council to As to the establishment of provincial lectures, it is one of those educational questions with which the Society of Arts has had to deal for several years past; and it is one
* That many of the Scientific and Literary Institutions of our kingdom in various sub-divisions of art and science, have
emanated from the said Society."-Charter of Incorporation * Report on Industrial Instruction, p. 69. 1 of the Society of Arts.
make satisfactory arrangements to develop its plan for that, as rowing boats, they are superior to all others. Of the advancement of systematic instruction, by the help of their properties as sailing boats they cannot yet speak so periodical examination, so as to realise the expressed positively, as nearly the whole of them are stationed on hope of a large majorityof the Institutions of the king-those parts of the coast where sails are not required. At dom, that the Society of Arts shall be authorised and the same time they have every reason to believe them empowered to carry out, for their benefit, to a national equally efficient as sailing boats. success, the great work of industrial instruction it has The Committee say, * The qualities necessary in a deliberately undertaken.
life-boat may be thus summed up :W. H. SYKES, Chairman.
1. Extra buoyancy,
2. Self-relief of water.
6. Speed. The result of the competition for a prize offered, in the
7. Stowage-room. year 1851, by his Grace the Duke of Northumberland,
8. Strength of build.”' for the best model of a life-boat, was a boat by Mr. 1. The chief peculiarity of a life-boat, which disBeeching, of Great Yarmouth, which, more than any tinguishes it from all ordinary boats, is its being rendered of the 280 competitors, combined the essential qualities unsubmergible, by attaching to it, chiefly within board, of a life-boat. The Committee of the National Life-boat water-tight air-cases, or fixed water-tight compartments Institution were, however, not quite satisfied that under a deck, or empty casks. This property in one or further efficiency might not be attained, and believing more of the above forms is common to all life-boats, that a boat of a safer and more efficient character might although some possess it in an inadequate degree, or be produced, requested Mr. Peake, Assistant-Master-Ship- badly distributed. So long as the necessary space for wright in H.M. Dockyard at Woolwich, who had been rowing and working the boat and for the stowage of shipa member of the committee appointed by the Duke of wrecked persons is not interfered with, the amount of Northumberland to decide on the relative merits of the this “extra buoyancy" cannot be too great. Especially models and drawings competing for his prize, to furnish it is essential that the spare space along the sides of a a design for a life-boat, which might combine as many life-boat, within board, should be entirely occupied by as possible of the advantages, and have as few as possible buoyant cases or compartments; as when such is the case, of the defects, of the best of the models examined by on her shipping a sea, the water, until got rid of, is conthem. A boat was accordingly designed by Mr. Peake, fined to the midship parts of the boat, where it to a great and, by the authority of the Lords of the Admiralty, extent serves as ballast, instead of falling over to the lee was built at the expense of the Government, at Woolwich side and destroying her equilibrium, as is the case in an Dockyard. Some modifications were from time to time ordinary open boat. Barrels or casks, which do not conmade in her, resulting from various experiments, and a form in shape to the sides of a boat, but leave large intrial of her in a gale of wind at Brighton. This boat, to-terstices to be occupied by water, are not, therefore, gether with others on the same design, built at the cost suitable vehicles for providing extra buoyant power; yet, of the Duke of Northumberland, the President of the at the present moment, the Liverpool life-boats and some Institution, was placed on the Northumberland coast in others are provided only with empty casks as buoyant the autumn of 1852. The result of the trials was con- power. The north country or Greathead class of lifesidered highly satisfactory. The Committee thereupon boats, of which those at Shields may be considered the decided to proceed with the building of other boats on type, have their extra buoyancy provided by a waterthe same plan; and at the present time no less than 23 tiglit deck at the load water-line, the space between of these boats are in the possession of the Institution, and which and the boat's floor is formed into water-tight air stationed on the coasts of the United Kingdom, in addi-chambers; water tight compartments are also built along tion to 3 which have gone to other countries, and to 10l the sides of the boat, within board, sloped from the gun which have been built for harbour trusts and other bodies wale to the deck, thereby effectually excluding any water on our own coasts.
shipped from settling on one side. The life-boats of These boats have, for the most part, been of two sizes, Messrs. White, of Cowes, have their buoyancy incrcased viz., 27 feet and 30 feet in length, with 7:1 to 8 feet beam, by similar air-compartments along the sides, extending and rowing from 8 to 12 oars, double-banked, their weight from the gunwale to the boat's floor, but without any enaveraging two tons. As, however, boats of this class closed space under a deck. The large sailing life-boats and size have been found too heavy to be managed in on the Norfolk and Suffolk coast have very wide detached some localities where but few boatmen are to be obtained air-boxes or tanks strongly made, to correspond in form to launch and man them, some of less beam and weight, with the boat's sides, and extending from the thwarts to rowing 6 oars single-banked, but on the same design in the deck. A great amount of extra buoyancy is also in other respects, have been built under the denomination these boats derived from large end air cases built across of second-class life-boats, to meet the necessities of such the bow and stern, and occupying from 3 feet to 4 feet localities.
in length from the stem and stern posts togunwale height. Of the former class of boats those most recently built These cases are chiefly intended to provide self-righting by the Institution have so far undergone a further modi-power; but in the event of the boat being stove in, and fication as to be reduced somewhat in beam, and to have the space below the deck being filled with water, they less height, and greater sharpness of bow and stern, in alone have sufficient buoyancy to float her. The lifeorder to enable them to be rowed with greater speed boats built by Mr. Beeching, of Great Yarmouth, and against a head gale and heavy sea. They are also built which obtained the Northumberland prize of £100, are of fir, on the diagonal principle of double planking, within this resqect similarly fitted to those of Mr. Peake, out timbers; whereas the earlier boats were of elm, and! 2. The second peculiar characteristic of a life-boat, and clenched or clinker-built.
which is closely allied to the preceding, although it is The experience of three or four winters' use enables the not possessed by all life-boats, is the capability of selfcommittee to speak confidently of their success. Several discharging in a few seconds any water which may be of them have already performed valuable services by shipped by the breaking over of a sea, or by a boat being saving the lives of shipwrecked persons, and the highest suddenly thrown on her beam-ends. This power is acreports have been received respecting them generally from complished by means of the water-tight deck at the load those who have been intrusted with their management. water-line and a sufficient number of large open tubes, The Committee do not hesitate to pronounce the opinion 'having their upper orifices at the surface of the deck and
their lower ones at the boat's floor, passing through the Water-ballast in an inclosed tank, if properly secured, space between the deck and the floor, but hermetically is, we think, better than loose water, such as we have closed to it; thus providing an open communication be described in the Norfolk boats; but we prefer solid tween the interior of the boat and the sea, yet without ballast to either, as it can be more advantageously suffering any leakage into the air-chambers under the placed, and is more manageable, and less liable to accideck. In some life-boats these tubes are kept always dent. Mr. Peake's life-boats are ballasted with heavy open; in others, plugs, moveable by hand, and having iron keels, and with solid wood and cork ballast stowed lanyards or handles, to them, are fitted, which can be under the decks; which latter, in the event of their withdrawn on water being shipped. In Mr. Peake's being stove in and the space under the deck filling with boats the tubes are fitted with self-acting valves, which water, would then form extra buoyancy as well, thus open downwards only, so that they will allow any water serving both purposes. shipped to pass downwards, whilst none beyond a trifling 4. A fourth property, that of self-righting if upset, is leakage can pass upwards through them. It will be at not a universal principle in life-boats, although it must once readily understood that, as the deck is placed at or be considered a most important one, it being only posabove the load water-line, any water which is above it sessed by those of Mr. Peake's and Mr. Beeching's conwill be above the outside level of the sea, with which it struction. It has been objected to by some boat-builders, has, through the tubes, free communication, and that in from the impression that other more necessary qualities, obedience to the common law of fluids, which binds them and especially that of stability, must be sacrificed to to a uniform level, it must instantly, by its own gravity, obtain it. This, however, is a fallacy; the fact being descend through the tubes until none remains above the that the very means which are employed to produce surface of the deck; or, if the boat be very deeply loaded, self-righting add to the stability of a boat, and improve until the level of the water outside and of that within her in other respects. That the property of self-righting the boat shall be the same.
may be useful is proved by the fact that on the only two This quality of self-relief of water can, of course, occasions when self-righting boats belonging to the Naonly be possessed in perfection in boats with a tional Life-boat Institution have upset, the crews have raised water-tight deck at or above the load-water been enabled to get into them again, and their lives have line. The Norfolk life-boats before alluded to have thereby been saved. holes through their floors, with plugs attached, through The self-righting power is obtained by the folwhich they will relieve themselves to the outside lowing means:-1st. The boat is built with considerlevel of the sea, or through which their crews can able sheer of gunwale, the bow and stern being from one let water into them until the common level is foot six inches to two feet higher than the sides of obtained, which they accordingly do whenever they the boat at her centre; and the space within the go afloat in a gale of wind and heavy sea. They boat at either extremity, to the distance of from 3 to 41 have then, literally, several tons of water on board, but ft. from the stem and stern posts, to gunwale height, is the wide side-cases confine the greater portion of it to then enclosed by a sectional bulkhead and a ceiling, and the midships of the boat, where it then serves as a so converted into a water-tight air-chamber, the cubical loose ballast; the boatmen considering it safest to go contents of which, from the thwarts upwards, are suffioff under sail with a boat deeply immersed. These boats cient to bear the whole weight of the boat when she is will therefore only partially relieve themselves of water: placed in the water in an inverted position, or keel upthey are splendid boats, and their crews have the utmost wards. 2ndly. A heavy iron keel (from 4 to 8 cwt.) is confidence in them; but we think in this respect they attached, and a nearly equal weight of light wood or might be improved on. Other life-boats, as, for instance, cork ballast is stowed betwixt the boat's floor and the those at Liverpool, have no relieving holes at all, and, deck. No other measures are necessary to be taken in if filled by a sea, their crews have no resource but the order to effect the self-righting power. When the boat primitive, slow, and laborious process of baling with is forcibly placed in the water with her keel upwards, she buckets; to do which the oarsmen must take in their is floated unsteadily on the two air-chambers at bow and oars, and, for a time, disable their boat.
stern, whilst the heavy iron keel and other ballast being 3. A third and important property in a life-boat is then carried above the centre of gravity, an unstable ballasting. An ordinary open boat cannot with safety equilibrium is at once effected, and the weight of the be taken into a heavy sea with metal, or stone, or other iron keel, falling over on one side, immediately restores ballast having greater specific gravity than water, inas- the boat to her proper position in other words, she selfmuch as that if she were upset or filled with a sea she rights. must then infallibly sink. “As, however, a life-boat is! 5. A fifth property is lateral stability, commonly called provided with a large amount of extra-buoyant power, stiffness, being the tendency to preserve an upright posishe may with impunity have a considerable amount of tion in the water, and proportionate resistance to upsetballast of any description within her. It may be here ting. This property is, of course, held in common by observed that ballast of some kind is very contributive all boats, but is more especially essential to life-boats, to the efficiency of a life-boat. Not only must it add they being more exposed to the risk of upsetting than to her stability and thereby to her safety, but in any others. As explained under the head of ballasting, proportion to the heaviness of the sea does weight it is obtained in life-boats by either breadth of beam or become necessary to insure speed, its momentum being by ballast. In Mr. Peake's boats very great stability is requisite to withstand the blow of each succeeding obtained by an iron keel and other solid ballast, and by breaker, and to carry the boat through it as it strikes flatness and length of floor, with moderate beam only. her; in the same manner that the fly-wheel of a 16. A sixth and most essential property is speed. Withsteam-engine, or other machine, regulates and econo- out speed or capability of being propelled against a heavy mises the motive power, and compensates for its irre- sea and head wind, the safest boat in the world gular or intermittent action. The north country, or would be useless, as she could not be conveyed from Greathead, life-boats have generally no ballast, their the shore to a wreck-frequently against a series of great breadth of beam being relied on for stability ; but breakers of the most formidable description. As some of them have water let into a tank, constructed in ordinary boats, propelled by oars, the greatest for the purpose in the midships of the boat beneath the speed can be obtained by sharpness of bow, and, deck. Beeching's life-boats were also ballasted with water within certain limits, narrowness of beam. Here, howon the same principle; but through a difficulty in ever, the similarity ceases ; for whereas great lightness securing the filling of the tanks, and in preventing the is an advantage in perfectly smooth water and calm weaescape of water from them, serious accidents accom- ther-as stated under the head of ballasting-weight is pained with loss of life, occurred to three of those boats. essential in a heavy sea, and especially a broken sea, in