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The foundations being prepared to carry on the super- ! In this paper my purpose has been, not to make instructure, the stones necessary are lowered down by any vidious distinctions between the ordinary diving-bell now means, either by cranes or boats for the purpose, or by in use and the Nautilus, which occupies so prominent a the caisson method previously described. They will be position herein, but to bring forward the merits and deposited in a given position and lowered in the order in defects of the whole system, and place them in contrast which they will be required in the work. The chief with the machinery which has developed powers, which, mason or onerator then, knowing the precise position of in the opinion of competent scientific minds, overcome deposit, which, of course, will be as near the ultimate many of the difficulties as well as dangers, which have position of permanency as possible, will so arrange his heretofore enveloped the science of suhmarine enfacilities of movement as to pass in a direct line to and gineering. from what may be styled his quarry or place of delivery. He affixes to stone No. 1, and by the power of his
DISCUSSION. machine he suspends it, then moves it, and deposits it. Sir John Rennie, F.R.S., in a letter to the Secretary, Is it not evident that with the great power of lifting in says:-"I am much obliged to you for a copy of Major so rapid a manner, and the movement dependent on his Sears's intended paper to-morrow on the “ Nautilus own will, and the subsequent slight movement of adjust- Diving Machine," and am sorry that I cannot attend. ment in position, that the whole operation could be per- The diving-bell was first endeavoured to be adapted for formed in very nearly the same time that the truck sus-engineering operations by Sineaton, at Ramsgate-harbour, pending the ordinary bell, moving by signals, could be in 1788, but he could make very little of it, and, in fact, placed over the stone ready for lifting? The stone being never used it for building. In 1812 and 1813, my father placed, the nautilus returns to the quarry for No.2. No entirely remodelled the system, and made many improvedelay is experienced, but the action is immediately per- ments, so that he completely rebuilt the East Pier of formed, since all thought necessary is previously exer- Ramsgate-harbour outer head in 16 feet at low water, cised. No. 2 follows No. 1, No. 3 No. 2, and so on; and subsequently employed it at Holyhead, Howth, the exact measure of juxtaposition having been laid | Kingston, Sheerness, Plymouth Harbours, and other down before the machine is called into requisition, and places for the same purpose, and I have done the same, the memorandum of such detail being in hand. So long and it is difficult to find a machine which answers its as the quarry is supplied, as fast as the various powers of purpose more completely. Diving dresses by Bethell. the machine can be called into play the operations must Dean, Siebe, and others, have been used with great adcontinue uninterrupted.
vantage in examining vessels and various other works, The mason or workman feels no sensation of danger. and I believe for building at Weymouth and elsewhere, If his single connection with the surface which supplies but I do not like them so well as my father's divinghis power, be ruptured, he returns to the surface to make bell and apparatus, detailed plates of which you will a reconnection. He is restrained for the time being, I find in my works on the Breakwater in Plymouth from exercising any lifting power, but his safety is un- Sound, and upon British and Foreign harbours. impaired. If a stone break loose its connection, he goes “As to the Nautilus machine, if I understand rightly, to the surface and there remains until he chooses to de- it resembles a good deal an invention claimed as scend to make a reconnection. So long as his supply of American, also by Fulton, called a submarine diver, air is uninterrupted, he cares not for the surface or what which was employed in the late war, 1809-10, for attaching is going on there ; cut off his supply of air, he knows it torpedoes to our ships of war, and thus blowing them and takes his own measures and precaution. While the up at their moorings. It answered tolerably well for a surface of the water is agitated, unless near the surface, time, but at last the diver in it got confused and was it does not interfere with his operations, since there being drowned. He could move under water like a fish, and no suspension and a sufficient quantity of pipe submerged, raise and lower the machine by simply letting in water or anchored below the surface, no action of the water can and forcing it out again by condensed air. impede his movements, as there is no oscillation. The “The diving-bell can be used from a floating-stage or attending floats may be tossed at the pleasure of the vessel very well, and I built Port Patrick Pier-head in waves, so long as they can ride at their anchors or moor- 21 feet at low water with it in this manner, in 1827. ing blocks. Should, however, the water become too rough As for cutting off piles under water, we can do it to operate, the Nautilus returns to the surface, and being better by a circular-saw, worked from above, as we did confined by its anchors, and being a life-boat in itself, at Sheerness. I hope that you will not consider that I no damage can arise by leaving it in position; or the have attempted to depreciate Major Sears's invention, whole afterwards may be towed to a position of safety, which may be very ingenious, and I wish it every sucand there await the cessation of the preventing cause of cess, but in all discussions we ought to know what has operations. The moment those causes have been re- been done before." moved, operations may be resumed at once, since no part Sir CHARLES Fox said he was sorry he was not aware of the apparatus or fixtures has been exposed to deteriora of the nature of this machine before attending this tion or loss.
meeting; otherwise he believed he could have stated a The same number of men would be required on the few facts of interest upon this subject. This was another Nautilus as in the ordinary bell, at the same prices for instance in which several ingenious minds had been at labour. The attendant labourers at the surface required work upon the same idea. About two years ago Herr in the movement and suspending the ordinary bell would Bauer, à Prussian gentleman, brought under his notice be dispensed with, consequently the cost of producing a machine somewhat resembling this in construction ; the same amount of work would be less in the case of the but, as it was defective in some of its details it could Nautilus. But I trust that the facilities herein demon- not be brought into practical operation, and he so restrated have shown that the self-acting powers of the ported to the inventor. About the same time, informaNautilus, directly at the control of the operator, afford the tion reached him that there was a machine at work facilities for performing a greater amount of work in removing rocks from Cherbourg harbour, the invention a given time than by ordinary means, and as the amount of Dr. Payerne, which appeared to contain all the essenof labour is less, there must be a saving of both time and tial points of the Nautilus. This was described to him at money. There are other means, such as caissons for con- the time as a machine in which fourteen men could walk structing portions of masonry which are subsequently away from the shore under water for half a mile or more, placed in positions, upon which I need not expatiate. and remove a quantity of rock, remaining without Their use is confined to particular localities, and they communication with the shore or the surface for twelve are not susceptible of general application in the con- hours, and returning to the shore without difficulty or struction of submarine works.
inconvenience. He felt the matter to be so important,
that he directed his assistant, Mr. Cochrane, to go to stone was again lowered into its position. He believed
vented in that way which would enable a diver to re-
Mr. John BETHELL said his experience had been more was given by this Society to a Mr. Spalding, of Edin with diving-dresses than with diving-bells, but he thought burgh, for his invention of a diving-bell,* which appeared a mistake had been committed in the construction of the to possess the main principles of the apparatus now before
old diving-bell. They used to be made very heavy, and them. It had two chambers, an upper chamber to con- were still made of great weight. In his opinion it was tain air, and the other a working chamber, similar to the unnecessary to construct diving bells of such great weight design of Major Sears. By the introduction of air into or strength; all the weight necessary was simply that the upper chamber, the bell was raised to the surface, which was sufficient to sink the machine in the water ; and admitting the water in the place of the air, the bell they had merely to weight the bell in proportion to the sank again to the bottom. He thought that was similar displacement; but with regard to the bell itself, it was in principle to the apparatus of Major Sears. He was unnecessary that it should be of a thick material. not aware whether the machine to which he alluded had | Twenty-five years ago he showed that a diving-bell ever been brought into practical operation. He believed could be made of india-rubber cloth stretched over an it was no part of the design of the inventor to do away iron frame, and it would be just as sound and effective as. with the chain at the top, which he (Mr. Lawrence) could a bell of cast iron, five inches thick, because the bell had not but regard as a double measure of precaution in the an internal pressure of condensed air to counteract the use of such machines. Major Sears appeared to think external presure of the water upon it-the two pressures that connection with the surface by chains was dangerous; balancing each other. He also showed, five-and-twenty but he must be aware that in submarine operations it years ago, that a diving bell might be made of thin sheet was not customary to trust the machine to one chain iron; and in order to enable the divers to move it when only, but a safety chain was attached, together with the they pleased, there was placed at the top an india-rubber hose for supplying air to the machine, and in the event bag, like an air-cushion, which communicated by a pipe of any casualty occurring to the chains, he apprehended with the top of the bell. By the diver turning a cock inside, the machine would be supplied with sufficient air to and allowing a portion of the air to pass into that bag, he afford time for the attaching of another chain to the caused the bell to rise, and by pulling a string attached diving-bell. He thought in Major Sears's invention the to a valve in the top of the cushion the air was let out and great danger would be from the hose breaking, a case the bell sank. Consequently one or two men in the bell, very likely to occur in a strong tideway, if a guy-rope by working the cock, could so regulate the gravity of the should break; and that once broken, it appeared to him that machine that they could conduct it to any place they the raising power of the machine was destroyed, and it pleased, and then allowing the surplus air from the bag would then become in reality a metal coffin to the un- to escape, the bell descended to the required spot. One fortunate persons within it.
of the most simple, and at the same time most profitable Mr. HEINKE remarked that his experience related to diving-bells ever worked, was that employed in recovering diving dresses rather than to the diving bell itself, and property from the wreck of the Thetis frigate. That bell he believed that the diving apparatus had been brought consisted merely of a ship's iron tank. A hole was to such a state of perfection that by its aid they could knocked in the bottom of the tank, which was weighted accomplish everything for which the diving bell was with a few pigs of ballast. The fire-engine pumps were designed. One great objection to the apparatus of Major employed as air pumps, and there was the diving-bell all Sears, as far as he could see at present, was its cost, which ready for use. By that means property to the value of was a consideration in engineering matters. By means £500,000 was recovered from the Thetis frigate. With of the recent improvements in diving dresses, a diver regard to the apparatus now before them he would could sink or raise himself with the greatest ease by remark that it was very ingenious, but exceedingly means of valves attached to the helmet, which were complicated. The mode of making a diving-bell perfectly under his control. At the works at West- was very simple indeed. A bell capable of holding minster-bridge, a diver met with the accident of breaking six divers could be inade for a small sum, and by the glass of his helmet whilst under water, by striking it attaching the air bag in the way he mentioned it could against a large spike in one of the piles. He was nearly be moved about with facility. Twenty years ago he sent stunned by the blow, but having the presence of mind to out closed diving dresses; the air was supplied to the close the valve in front of the helmet, the result followed, helmet by an air pump, and the foul air was driven off as in the case of Major Sears' apparatus—the diver came through an open pipe leading from the top of the inside to the surface. The fracture of the glass operated in the of the helmet down to, and discharging its air into, the ame manner as the opening of a valve. On another water just above the diver's right shoulder. The diver occasion, at the same work, it was found that one of the had merely to apply his finger to close this pipe, and he stones of the foundation had not been properly laid on came up immediately, and on taking away his finger he its bed, owing to a quantity of dirt getting beneath it. sunk again. By these means he could raise himself to This was about 11 o'clock at night. By signal from the any height in the water and to any spot desired, diver the stone was raised a few inches, so that he could or on to the sides of rocks on which he might have to introduce his arm, and having cleared away the dirt, the operate. These dresses had not only been used in
Europe, but in many other parts of the world. Two * Transactions of Society of Arts, Vol. 1, p. 220. of her Majesty's ships were saved by the use of these
dresses. The Wellesley, 120 guns, on entering the other words, it enabled men to work under water, and harbour of Ceylon, in 1838, struck upon the rocks, move heavy bodies, which could only be lifted by cranes; and would have foundered, but the diving apparatus was and to place stones for foundations, with as much accurigged out, and in twenty minutes the carpenters re- racy as could be done by a mason working on land. This paired the ship thoroughly. The other ship, the struck him as one of the principal advantages of the Thunder, ran upon rocks off the Bahamas, in 1837, and machine. Although a great portion of the work could sprang a leak. It was ascertained that there was a be performed by the men within the machine, yet there diving apparatus at Nassau, belonging to Dr. Lee, who was nothing to prevent men wearing the diving-dresses lent his dress to Capt. Owen, and after the damage had assisting in the operation outside. He regarded the been surveyed by the captain and first-lieutenant, machine as an exceedingly useful invention. With in the dress, the carpenter was sent down , and in half- regard to the observation of Mr. Bethell, that it was difan-hour the leak was repaired. The water was pumped ficult to get engineers to pay attention to this subject, ho out, the ship got off the bank, and proceeded on her might say that engineers were occupied largely with homeward voyage. On reaching home, it was admitted works above ground, whereas they had not frequent opthat the damage had been repaired as effectually as if portunities of building walls below the surface of the it had been done in one of the naval dockyards. It struck water. Submarine engineering operations were comhim that engineers had paid less attention to the use paratively rare, and generally involved great expense. of diving dresses and diving apparatus generally, It was not from want of attention to the subject on the in submarine works, than they deserved. He had part of engineers, but rather from the fact that if they endeavoured to interest them in the subject on other took all the submarine works during the last 10 or 16 occasions by descriptions of those apparatus, but how-years, and added them together, they would form a very ever pleased they might be at the moment, their atten- insignificant item compared with the other descriptions tion had not been given to the subject. They still re- of works which had occupied the attention of engineers tained the ponderous diving-bell, with its costly stages, during that period. At the same time, he would say, on platforms, and piers, whereas a common ship's boat behalf of the profession generally, that they were exwould serve the purpose with greater safety to the divers.tremely glad to see any improvement in the machinery The great-in fact the only-point with regard both to adapted for the purposes of construction under water. diving-bells and diving apparatus, was to keep up a con- Sir CHARLES Fox explained, with regard to Dr. stant supply of condensed air to the divers, and Payerne's apparatus, that when at work they had no to have condensing air-pumps and pipes of the communication with the shore, because, when they had best quality. He ought to mention that his diving to work in heavy weather, it was necessary to get into dresses had been employed in the Bay of Nava- still water before they could work, and with that machine rino, in recovering guns from the Turkish ships, they could bring away each time four cubic yards of at a depth of 500 feet, which had been effected with blasted rock, or other material which had to be removed. out difficulty, and with perfect safety to the driver. He would conclude by observing that he entertained a
Mr. LAWRENCE remarked that diving bells were not high opinion of the merits of Major Sears' invention, usually made heavier than was required for sinking them which he thought calculated to answer well the purposes in the water, but the chains must be of a strength suffi- for which it was intended. cient to bear the whole weight of the bell when out of Major SEARS, in reply to Sir John Rennie, said water. In a bell 9 feet by 4 feet by 6 feet, the dis- that he was fully aware of the improvements made placement would be six or seven tons, and such bells by Sir John and his father in the ordinary divingwould weigh about eight tons, therefore the chains must bell; he would beg, however, to correct him with be able to lift that weight.
regard to the similarity of the machine used, not in Mr. NEWron remarked that he had gathered from the 1809-10, but, during the revolutionary war between paper, that Major Sears proposed to move his machine, England and the colonies, when the submerged when submerged, by the divers pushing it from the out- boat, the same as that now used by Dr. Payerne, was side. If that were the case it involved the use of the adapted to blowing the enemy's fleet out of the water. diving dress by the persons so employed, and if so he did [A description of the failure of the enterprise was here not see the necessity for a diving bell of this description. given by Major Sears.] In reference to cutting off piles, For the purpose of moving heavy weights, he thought it was a question of economy whether the circular-saw the caissons ordinarily used in constructing breakwaters, or the arrangement with the Nautilus would be most &c., answered every purpose. With regard to the ob-economical. In answer to Sir Charles Fox, he would servations of Sir Charles Fox, he (Mr. Newton) would say that, although Sir Charles characterised the invensay the case mentioned by him was not the first attempt tion as nothing new, and as combining the same princito blow up enemies' ships. During the American war of ples as Dr. Payerne's machine, yet, while admitting that Independence, a plan was proposed for blowing up the there is nothing new in engineering science," it was British ships, which did not suceeed.
nevertheless'true that new combinations produced new The CHAIRMAN said that he had had a previous oppor- results, and that Dr. Payerne's principle involved serious tunity of inspecting the model upon the table, and he disadvantages, inasmuch as, admitting that his boat was much pleased with the obvious attention which had might lift by the exhaustion of water, one or two been paid to a number of practical details, which all stones, yet, when that power had been exerted, it was mechanics knew were the desiderata in a work of this necessary to return to the surface to get a fresh kind. All of them who in their younger days had read supply of air. According to the report of Lieutenant books upon mechanics, would remember that machines Tylor, R.E., it took thirty minutes more to descend had been proposed for locomotion under water, and no in forty feet of water than the ordinary bell, doubt the idea itself was an old one; but, after all, and assuming the latter to occupy ten minutes, the carrying out was dependent on the successful ar- the time required to ascend and descend would necesrangement of minute details. He must say, with sarily be not less than an hour, in which time the regard to the machine before the meeting, he was Nautilus would place three or four stones. In reply to Mr. much pleased with the evidence of the careful considera- | Lawrence, Major Sears admitted that, like Spalding's. tion which must have been devoted to bring this bell there were two chambers, and perhaps, in some cases machine to perfection. It did not seem calculated to even more; yet, as Mr. Lawrence remarked, Spalding's supersede the diving dress. No doubt the facilities of bell had never been brought into use. Mr. Spalding fered by those dresses, for moving under water were very certainly used suspensory chains. It was well known great; but the peculiarity of this machine appeared to that in addition to the suspending chain there was a be the subaqueous motive power that it afforded; in safety chain, but that chain was liable to become fouled
with the suspending chain, and when human life was at evening next, the 11th inst., a paper by Major stake no precaution should be omitted. It might be
might be H. B. Sears, “on Appliances for Facilitating
P°s. possible for the divers to have a sufficient supply of air to enable them to wait for a reconnection, yet, they
Submarine Engineering and Exploration," would would of necessity be very uneasy, being dependent on be read. Part II. Submarine Exploration. the exertions of others; but, in the Nautilus, even supposing the hose to be broken, the divers had within the machine itself several distinct means of bringing it to the
SOULAGES COLLECTION. surface. In reply to Mr. Heinke, he would say, it was not intended to supersede submarine armour, but to The following correspondence has taken place make use of it as an adjunct. As to cost of apparatus, lin reference to this collection : the extra cost would be more than compensated by the extra labour performed; inasmuch as the Nautilus To THE RIGHT Hox. Sir BENJAMIN HALL, Bart. M.P. could do more work than ten or more men in armour. SIR,— We beg leave respectfully to call your attenIn reply to Mr. Fraser, he would remark, that the dimen- tion to an importation recently made into this country, sions or form not being arbitrary, the Nautilus could known as the “Soulages Collection,"consisting of numerbe adapted to perform the work required in a well ous interesting objects of an artistic and decorative with ninety feet of water; as it might be made from character, illustrative of the tastes and manufactures of five to ten feet in diameter, and with a lifting power of Italy in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and exfrom one to six tons. In reply to Mr. Bethell, he tremely valuable as examples for study to artists engaged thought that, theoretically, india-rubber on an inflexible in the various departments of industry and manufactures. frame might answer, if the relative density could be to which art is applicable. maintained between the inside and outside; yet, as so It is because we feel strongly the great importance many contingencies were apt to arise, it would not do to of the formation of a museum or collection of such obplace trust in so frail a material. As to the weight of jects and examples of industrial art, and the immense the ordinary bell not being necessary, it must be allowed advantages that would necessarily result in the progress that, when the volume of air had displaced a certain of many branches of our munufactures from providing amount of water, it was necessary to compensate by ineans and facilities for seeing and studying the artistic weight for the weight of water displaced, and therefore works produced in other countries and in former ages, he must insist that chains, capable of bearing six or that we venture to trespass on your attention, and reseven tons, were required for an ordinary bell. As to quest your assistance as the representative of a constithe air-bag on the top of the diving-dress, or bell, it was tuency which comprises a great number of persons enbut of little value, as the supply of air was necessarily gaged in occupations that would be greatly benefited limited. In answer to Mr. Newton, he would remark thereby. The want of a collection of this nature has that that gentleman had evidently misunderstood his long been seriously felt in the metropolis, and the princimeaning; where there were no currents, the operator ple of the formation of such a museum has been recogstepped through the lower trap of the Nautilus on to nised by the government, and acted upon by purchases the bed of the sea, and, pushing with his hands against made at the sale of the Bernal Collection, at the Great the inside of the machine, caused it to move. When, Exhibition of 1851, and the Universal Exhibition at however, currents had sway, the cables were employed as Paris in 1855. It is a requirement which has been described, either holding or moving it as might be abundantly provided for in Paris by the collection at the required. Men with diving-dresses were not habitually | Hotel Cluny, some departments of the Louvre, and the employed inside, although they might be, in particular examples and specimens at the Imperial manufactories cases of exploration. Although caissons might be used of Sèvres, Gobelins, and Beauvais, which have exercised in some localities, yet they were not applicable in all a powerful influence upon the education of numerous cases. The United States government had built al artists and art-workmen, and greatly contributed to the caisson at Pensacola, costing some fifteen thousand improvement and extension of many branches of manudollars, which subsequently cost twelve thousand dollars facture. to remove from the channel, where it had overturned. The Soulages Collection would be a most valuable acFurther, as Mr. Newton could not see the advantages, hequisition in the formation of such a museum as we have would briefly sum them up, premising that any improve- referred to, and government has now the opportunity of ment in science or the arts was to be appreciated by its purchasing it upon terms so advantageous, that we conpractical utility. The Nautilus possessed the power of sider it would be a neglect of duty not to secure it for the commencing the actual work at once, whilst with the nation. It has been purchased by a number of noblemen, ordinary bell extensive preliminary operations were gentlemen, manufacturers, and others engaged in businecessary; and it was but fair to suppose that, before ness, whose names are the best guarantee of its value in such preparations were concluded, by the use of the every sense, whether considered commercially or in an Nautilus, the work would have considerably ad- artistic point of view; and having incurred the risk of purvanced. Then the facility of lifting and transporting chase and conveyance, they have, through the assistance weights certainly afforded the means of constructing of Lord Stanley of Alderley, the President of the Board a work in one-third the ordinary time; since, if of Trade, given many thousands the opportunity of seethe ordinary diving bell could do but four hundreding it at Marlborough-house, and now offer it to governcubic feet per day, the Nautilus could do three times ment for the public benefit at its prime cost of about as much with the same amount of labour. This he con- £13,500, including carriage and all expenses attending its sidered, quite a sufficient advantage, in addition to the importation. time gained in the selection of foundations and their The most favourable opinions have been expressed resubsequent preparation. In a word he would say, that I garding it by those most competent to judge of its merits in all his statements he had asked them to take nothing as a collection. As a proof of this we may point to the upon trust, for he was prepared to verify every word | Report of the Committee appointed to examine it by the that had been uttered, by reference to practical opera- Council of the Royal Institute of British Architects, tions to be performed by a large machine, shortly to be who conclude a long and able notice by saying, "And placed in the Victoria Docks, where he hoped that all they have come to the conclusion, that it would be an irwho were sceptical as to its merits would practically reparable loss of a great opportunity to improve our test its operations.
manufactures, to enlarge the sphere of art application, to A vote of thanks was passed to Major Sears.
increase our commerce, and instruct the public mind, it The Secretary announced that on Wednesday I the government did not accept the offer to sell the whole
to the nation at cost price : an offer so nobly made by sumed, no means at all? Even in the examinations the disinterested and public-spirited men, who, with which are not actually competitive there is a good elesingular generosity, and on their own responsibility, have ment at work, both for the public service and for the at all risks afforled the opportunity to the country of general body of competitors. If out of 100 candidates securing the collection in its entirety."
nominated for appointments 60 or 70 only are pronounced We need not add any observations of ours to the qualified, the rejection of the others at once opens the high authority from which we have borrowed the fore field of nominations to 30 or 40 more, so that, while the going extract, but it is necessary that we should state several departments obtain better servants, well qualified most emphatically, that the gentlemen who have com- candidates obtain a greater number of chances. In all bined to purchase the collection have had in view the respects, indeed, such a scheme ought to work for the adsole object of supplying a public want in a purely disin vantage of the country, and not the least of the beneterested manner. No doubt whatever exists in the minds fits resulting will be found, we trust, as the Commissioners of those most competent to judge, that a much larger themselves anticipate, in the general improvement of sum could be realised by public auction than the cost of education which the application of this stimulus will this collection. To guard themselves against the slightest promote. imputation of interested motives, it has been expressly agreed that, in the event of a sale by auction, the surplus excecding the cost and expenses shall be devoted to
DEATHS FROM SNAKEBITES IN INDIA. the encouragement of art.
(From the Bombay Courier.) The study of objects such as are comprised in this The number of deaths arising from snakebites in the collection is as necessary to the education of the art- various zillahs and towns subordinate to this presidency workman as the study of ancient monuments and edifices having been brought to the notice of Mr. A. Bettington, is to the architect, the remains of Greek art to the sculptor, Commissioner of Police, by several magistrates, that or the works of the old masters to the painter.
gentleman addressed a letter to Government to the folWe therefore hope you will lend the influence of your lowing effect:sound judgment and cultivated taste, and your voice as "I have the honour to report, for the information of the representative of a numerous and important consti government, that the loss of life from the bites of snakes tuency, to induce the government to become the purchasers in some districts of this presidency is considerable. In the of the Soulages Collection, and thus assist in rendering Dharwar Zillah, for instance, no less than 16 deaths are an important service to the public.
reported to have occurred within the last four months We have the honour to remain,
from this cause. It appears that more deaths are occasioned Sir Benjamin,
by snakebites than by tigers. I beg to propose, for the Yours most respectfully,
consideration of government, that rewards be offered for ( PETER GRAHAM. the destruction of snakes-eight annas for a snake of any Signed...
JOHN G. CRACE. kind, and 12 annas for a cobra; to be paid on the produc
JOHN JACKSON. tion of the snake forthwith by the Patel and Kolkurnee of ( EDWARD BOND. the village, who will forward the dead snake (by the
village Mhar), with the receipt, to the nearest Mahul
February 18, 1857. kurry or amlutudar. It is absolutely necessary that Dear Sir BENJAMIN,- I have the honour to transmit the payment should be prompt, and the reward sufficiently herewith a letter signed by three of your constituents | high to induce people to occupy themselves in killing besides myself.
snakes. I purpose to make no exception, because the No other person has been asked to sign, and as the ad- I carpet snake. i foorsa,' the whip snake, and the cobra dresses of those who have signed are not added, I think it (the snakes most commonly met with), are all poisonous, right to state that Mr. J. G. Crace resides in Wigmore
and there can be no exercise of discrimination. In an street, and has done the greater part of the decorative
exceptional case, it would not answer to withdraw paywork in the interior of the Houses of Parliament ; Mr.
ment while ignorant persons, unable to detect the John Jackson is of the firm of George Jackson and Sons,
poison-fang and gland, were debating whether the reptile Rathbone-place, and is the first man in his way of business in Great Britain; and Mr. Bond is the inost active the magistrates shall continue to urge and compel the
was or was not poisonous. It will be necessary also that partner in the firm of Gillow and Co., Oxford-street.
removal of masses of prickly pear from the villages. In Hoping that you will approve of the object we have
many places it does not exist in the form of a boundary in view, and lend your able assistance to accomplish it,
hedge, but in patches of greater or less extent, not only I remain, dear Sir Benjamin,
occupying ground that might be turned to other purposes, Yours faithfully,
but harbouring reptiles and infecting the air.” To the Right Honourable
In reply the government approved and sanctioned the Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart., &c. [To this Sir Benjamin Hall has replied, that he would
suggestions of the Commissioner of Police. The people, forward the letter to Lord Granville as President of the
encouraged by the rewards offered, are occupying themCouncil.]
selves most actively in destroying these reptiles. Each day nearly 300 dead snakes are brought in. Mr. Betting
| ton saw an immense number of every description; the COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION.
most common of all is one called the “ foorsa." The
civil surgeon of Rutnagherry knows no remedy for the (From the Times, March 2.)
poison of this deadly reptile. Ammonia and other stimuWith respect to the competitive system, the Com-lants, if applied in time, are effective antidotes to the missioners make a favourable report of their experience, poison of the cobra and some other snakes, but are of no and, although they admit that the system is as yet in avail against the poison of the foorsa. The poison does its infancy, they anticipate good results from an extension not act on the nervous system, like that of the cobra, of its opportunities. For ourselves we regard this ques. but on the blood alone, which becomes corrupted in a tion as lying in so very small a compass, and being so peculiar manner. transparently plain in character, that we are not disposed to waste arguments upon it. How, in short, is it possible that examiners deputed for the purpose, and employ
GALVANISM AND ITS ECONOMICAL APPLICAing the best known means without any extraneous bias,
TION IN THE ARTS. should not make a better selection of candidates than A committee has been formed in France to examine patrons open to bias, and employing, as must be pre-l and report on the merits of the competitors for the prize