each, and in corroboration of this fact, Messrs. Phipps, | or America ; but here the parallel ceases, for we are told of Dover, and Mr. Swan, of Evensham, in Oxfordshire, by the exponents of the theory of the inherent prejudice paid £5,000 each for their paper machines as well as for of the British workman, that the development of any quantity of paper they might manufacture. mechanical appliances to manufactures in America is

In or about 1809, Messrs. Henry and Sealey Four- excited into vigorous action by the much greater scarcity drinier made over to Mr. Matthew Towgood the whole of manual labour, which always stimulates the design of their interest in the St. Neots Mill, and Mr. Tow- and application of labour-saving machines, and, theregood undertook to perform all the engagements entered fore, such application will never excite the prejudice or into by the Messrs. Fourdrinier with me. When Mr. opposition of any workmen, while they see and feel before Towgood had the mill transferred to him, only one of them fresh channels of certain occupation, which is the my paper machines was erected, the second having been case in the United States of America. But how stands sold to Mr. Bartholomew Sullivan, of Dripsey, near Cork. the fact in Great Britain, where a large amount of pauper My two machines were my capital in the concern, but. and criminal labour, which might be profitably employed, unfortunately for me, this had not been stated in the is suppressed, lest it should, by coming into competition partnership deed. Mr. Towgood objected to advance the with the already overstocked market of honest industry, capital for erecting the second machine unless I would increase the depression of wages; and where there are pay my share. Mr. Towgood knew that I had not the such causes for fear, is it surprising that the prejudices of requisite capital, and he then determined upon dissolving British workmen should be excited by the application of the partnership, by which act I was deprived of all my the mighty arms of machines, when made to compete interest in the concern, after having sacrificed ten years with human muscle and sinew, for we cannot disguise the of the best part of my life to the paper machine. fact, that where a balance of labour and employment

I am, &c., JOHN GAMBLE. exist together, the introduction of any power which in5, Hanley-road, Hornsey-road, London.

creases production, if placed in competition with human

labour, must always depress it in a corresponding degree. MACHINERY AND WORKMEN.

These remarks are not intended as an exposition of a SIR,—The valuable and interesting paper read by Mr.

subject of the very highest importance, but merely to Anderson, on the 28th ult., on the application of ma

suggest the necessity of taking into our consideration an chinery to manufactures, produced a discussion that opened

influence so powerfully operating upon the application of up a subject which I consider of no less importance than

labour-saving machines to our manufactures and com. the application of machinery, and equally deserving the

merce, and in justice to the skilled workmen whose serious attention of the Society of Arts, and also of every

occupation is being superseded by unskilled labour in individual, although it did not appear quite relevant to

association with mechanical precision.-I am &c., the subject then under consideration. I refer to the

E. NÁSH. statements then made by Mr. Hobbs and Mr. Webster,

30, Coppice-row, Clerkenwell, Feb. 10th, 1857. in reference to the difficulties which appear to arise with the invention of labour-saving machines, and to expand

NAVAL SEMINARIES. with the development of their powers, as illustrated in / Sir-It is to be regretted that whilst the Society of the very numerous recorded instances of the obstacles Arts is exerting itself so judiciously to promote education, presented to the introduction of such machines into use, Government should do next to nothing towards the by the prejudices of the workmen, sometimes exciting provision of competent persons to supply the different the most determined opposition, even when the wages of grades in its employ. It would have been far otherwise the workmen are increased by the introduction of such had the establishment of Naval Seminaries, as successmachines in the process of manufactures; an apparent tively determined on by the Earls Spencer and St. Vincent, anomaly, which, Mr. Hobbs told us, was peculiar to the been carried out. Though it is not likely that, after the British workman, and did not extend to the United lapse of nearly 60 years, Naval Seminaries should in all States of America, where the workmen were not only particulars be found suitable to the present day, yet as ready at all times to accept the aid of machinery, but they might afford hints for the formation of such estabwere most willing to complete or improve any new ma- lishments now, I venture to submit an outline of Sir S. chine associated with their labour; now, if such is a fact, Bentham's scheme, as proposed and approved of by Earl which I believe it to be, I think the investigation of the Spencer at the end of the last century. This plan procauses producing such results may lead us to the solution vided, in the first place, that Government should be at po of a difficulty which still remains one of the greatest expense for education, for though boys might be admitted impediments to the adaptation of science to the manu- into the seminaries at the early age of seven, paying a facturing arts.

smaller sum than could defray their expenses at home, The nature of man, either in Great Britain or America, they were to employ a part of their time in useful works, is identically the same; therefore such an opposite feeling by which their expenses would be fully compensated. in the workmen of the two nations, under the assumed There were to be three different classes of pupils. The same circumstances, must result from a different educa- first class being that of superior officers both in the civil cational training, or the supposed uniformity of circum- and military service, who were to receive a gentleman's stance must be a great fallacy.

education; the second was to consist of those intended That such difference of feeling and action does not for clerks and similar occupations on shore, or for result from education, is clearly shown by the fact that warrant officers on board ship; the third class was for a great number of American workmen are of British boys intended as mere operatives. The three classes growth, and no education could suddenly transmute the were to be treated alike in regard to sanitary arrangedissatisfied opponent into the willing and active co-ments, but their food, clothing,' &c., to be regulated acoperative assistant.

cording to their respective stations in life. All were to The cause of such anomaly must be sought for from work a portion of their time, as Sir Samuel conceived other and more powerful influences, and a key to the that an adequate knowledge of manual labour could only solution of this important problem is, I think, to be found be acquired by practice, but the working hours were not in the existence of such opposite feelings in two sections allowed to encroach on the time required for higher atof the world's industry.

tainments. In order to excite emulation and to reward The assumption may be true, and I believe it is so, the most deserving, any boy might, at the periodical that the introduction of machinery not only lightens examinations, be raised from the lowest to the second labour, but that it often increases the wages of the work-class, and again, a lad who had attained the necessary men whose industry is associated with it, and this qualifications, might ascend from thence to the highest equally, whether the application is made in Great Britain class. For further particulars, I beg to refer to Sir

Samuel's “ Answer to the Comptroller's Objections,” pp. Arts.-Some very beautiful specimens of Mosaic tiles, 104 to 113; to his Statement of Services," pp. 12 to 14; manufactured by the Patent Architectural Pottery Comand to the report of the Admiralty to the Privy Council pany, and many other objects of interest were exhibited in 1801.- I am, &c.,

M. S. BENTHAM. in the room, and the evening was enlivened by some 26, Wilton-place, Feb. 12th.

good music.-At the annual meeting of the members,

recently held, J. Gosse, Esq., in the chair, the report for DECIMAL COINAGE.

the past year was read. The Institution at the present SIR-I beg you will grant me a little space to correct time is in a very flourishing condition. The library an erroneous statement in Professor De Morgan's paper, has been thoroughly repaired, and all the books have been “ On Decimal Coinage,” in this year's Companion to the arranged under the different subjects of which they treat. Almanac.

It now contains upwards of 1800 vols.; 160 vols. have Referring to the debate of 1855, he accuses the been received from Mudie's Circulating Library, making Chancellor of the Exchequer of “playing with statistics," a total of nearly 2,000 vols., to which the members have by putting forward, “under four different sets of names, free access. A new News Room has also been made, disas four different plans, the farthing system, which pro tinct from the library. These improvements have been poses coins of d., 2 d., 2s. ld., and £1 Os. 10d. Thus, effected out of the annual income of the Institution, in one system, a farthing is called a cash, in another a which for this year has been £117 12s. The current exmil, and so on; it being the same farthing throughout." penses of the year have been £96 5s. 8d., leaving a

With respect to one, at least, of these plans, Mr. De balance of £21 available for other purposes. The fol. Morgan is entirely mistaken. As its humble proposer, I lowing gentlemen were unanimously elected to the rebeg to refer for details to your Journal, Vol. III., page spective offices :-President: Colonel Waugh; Vice390, where it will be seen that the "cash " was not the Presidents: Admiral Brown, J. Adey, J. Browne, J. #th of a shilling as asserted by Mr. De Morgan, but Durant (Mayor), T. Durant, J. Gosse, W. Pearce, R. the oth of a shilling, expressly mentioned ( Times report) Slade, James Slade, I. Steele, M. Kemp Welch, Esqs., by the Chancellor of the Exchequer.

H. M. Aldridge, Esq., Treasurer : J. B. Durell, Esq., My proposal likewise materially differed from that of Librarian: Edwin Kemp Welch, Esq., Curator ; SecreMr. William Brown in rendering unnecessary a fourth tary, Mr. W. Penney : Committee; G. H. Gutch, J. copper token, by the simple expedient of making the Gould, C. Keates, J. W. Martin, E. Mullett, S. Pettit, penny-piece count for five "i cash " instead of four “mils,” Joseph Rickman, C. J. Stone, F. Styring, J. Touchet, J. and the halfpenny and farthing for two “ cash " and one W. West, Esqs., and Mr, J. Budden. In acknowledge“ cash” respectively.

ment of the valuable services rendered to this Institution I have since submitted to your readers my reasons for during a long course of years by the late Curator, Mr. abandoning altogether the millesimal division of the J. Budden, the thanks of the meeting were cordially pound as the basis of a new system.

awarded to him. A vote of thanks to the Chairman conI am, &c.,

cluded the proceedings.

H. M. Dockyard, Pembroke-dock, Feb. 9, 1857.

To Correspondents.
Proceedings of Institutions.

ERRATUM. In the last number of the Journal, page 212, col.

1, line 63, for “inches” read “miles." PoolE.—The second Conversazione in connection with the Town Library Literary and Scientific Institution was held at the Town-hall on Monday the 2nd inst. Amongst MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. those present were M. Kemp, Esq., E. Kemp Welch, | Mon. Royal Inst., 2. General Monthly Meeting. Esq., the Misses Welch, and the Misses Welch of Christ

London Inst., 7. Rev. H. Christmas, “On the History and church; the Rev. G. Morgan, Mrs. Morgan, Isaac Steele,

Antiquities of Heraldry; and on some other branches of

British Archäology." Esq., Morris Were, Esq., A. P. Hamilton, Esq., M.D.,

Chemical, 8. Prof. Abel, “On recent Improvements in the and Mrs. Hamilton, the Rev. E. R. Conder, the Rev. R.

Manufacture of iron." Goulty, G. B. Aldridge, Esq., and Miss Aldridge;

Entomological, 8. -McGilvery, Esq., G. Belben, Esq., and Mrs. Belben;T.

Med. and Chirurg., 8. Anniversary.

TUES. Royal Inst., 3. Prof. Huxley, “ On the sense of Sight." Durant, Esq., Miss Gosse, Mrs. and Miss Wanhill, J. B.

Civil Engineers, 8. Mr. Jabez Church, C.E., " On the ReDurell, Esq., D. Durell, Esq., Miss Pardy, J. Adey,

sults of the Use of Clay Retorts for Gas-making." Esq., Mrs. Adey and family, Mrs. J. Adey, Miss Adey,

Linnaean, 8. Prof. Owen, "On the Characters and Subdivi

sions of the class mammalia.' T. Eliott, Esq., and Mrs. Eliott, W. C. Nutt, Esq.;

Pathological, 8. Mrs. Churchill, the Misses Chrchill, Mr. and Miss Wed. London Inst., 3. Mr. E. W. Brayley, “On Mineralogy and Chaman; E. Mullett, Esq., Mrs. C. Hill, Miss Lacy,


Royal Soc. Lit., 44. Mrs. James Slade, Mrs. Parmiter and Miss Kent, ř.

Society of Arts, 8. Major H. B. Sears, “ On appliances for Saunders, Esq., T. Saunders, Esq., J. Gould, Esq., J.

facilitating Submarine Engineering and Exploration." W. Whelan, Esq., J. Crabbe, Esq., Mrs. and Miss

Part I. Submarine Engineering.

Microscopical, 8. Crabbe, &c., &c. The chair was taken by M. Kemp

Pharmaceutical, 84. Welch, Esq., who, regretting the absence of the Hon. THURS. Royal Inst., 3. Prof. Tyndall, “ On Sound." and Rev. Samuel Best, called up the Rev. E. R. Conder,

Philosophical Club, 54. who said, that if such Institutions as these were really

London Inst., 7. Dr. R. E. Grant, “On the Natural History

of Extinct Animals." to tell upon the progress of national education, they

Antiquaries, 8. must not be made Institutions for the purpose of amuse

Philological, 8. ment, but for application to useful practical subjects and

Photographic, 8. hard study. No man became wise by play ; neither

Royal, 84

FRI. Archæological Inst., 4. did any nation become great or wealthy by play. There London Inst., 81. Mr. E. B, Denison, “ On the Great Bell must be hard work in order to the acquisition of anything

of Westminster." which was worth possessing.

Asiatic, 2.

The question was in London Institution, 3. Mr. T. A. Malone, “On Experiwhat manner could Literary and Scientific Institutions

mental Physics, chiefly in Relation to Chemistry." be made proper means of furthering education? The Royal Institution, 3. Prof. Phillips, “On the Origin and rev. gentleman then directed the attention of the meet

Progress of Life on the Globe-Vertebrata."

Royal Botanic, 34. ing, to the plans now being carried out by the Society of Medical, 5. Anniversary Oration.



Par. No.

Delivered on the 14th and 16th February, 1857.
Affairs of Naples-Correspondence.
Queen's College, Galway- Report.
Queen's College, Belfast-Report.
Prisons-Twentieth Report of the Inspectors (Home District),
Part I.

Delivered on the 17th February, 1857. 23. Savings Banks (Number of Depositors, &c.)- Account 24. Savings Banks (Sums paid in or withdrawn by the Trustees

Return. 28. Russian Dutch Loan-Account. 29. Sardinian Loan-Account. 30. Greek Loan-Account. 43. Paupers-Returns (a corrected copy). 6. Bill-Reformatory Schools.

Delivered on the 18th February, 1857. 4. Grants for Religious Purposes-Return. 26. Naval Receipt and Expenditure-Account. 36. Bank of England-Copy of Applications, &c. 39. Bullion (Bank of England)-Return. 45. Local Acts (1. Birkenhead Docks-Construction : 2. Carlisle.

Liddesdale, and Hawick Railway ; 3. Ely Tidal Harbour and
Railway; 4. Great Yarmouth Britannia Pier ; 5. West
Somerset Railway ; 6. West Somerset Mineral Railway)
Admiralty Reports.
China (Registration of Vessels at Hong Kong)-Correspondence.

Delivered on 19th February, 1857.
35. Bank of England-Annual Accounts.
40. Mint-Account.
44. Trade and Navigation Accounts (31st December, 1856).
55. Debt (Funded and Unfunded – Return.
16. Bill-Public Health Supplemental Bill (1857).

Delivered on 20th February, 1857. 2. County Elections-Return. 8. Highways (Metropolis) - Return. 38. Education (Capitation Money)-Return. 42. Army in the East-Return. 17. Bills-Lunatic Asylums (Ireland). 18.

Sea-coast Fisheries (Ireland). 21.

Education (Cities and Boroughs).
Fire Insurance Duties—Report by Mr. Coode.

Delivered on the 21st and 23rd February, 1857.
47. Poor-relief (Ireland)-Returns.
27. Irish Reproductive Loan Fund-Account.
50. Bishops (Scotland)-Correspondence.
54. Court of Chancery-Return.
56. Criminals-Copies of Memorials.
11. Bills-Industrial Schools.
22. Extra-parochial Places.
24. Minister's Money (Ireland).

Lighting of Towns (Ireland).
Marriages in Ireland-6th Report of the Registrar-General,
Operations in the Canton River-Further Correspondence.
China (Entrance into Canton Correspondence.
Civil Service Commissioners-2nd Report.

Delivered on the 24th February, 1857.
57. Army, Crimea-Returns.
33. Army Estimates.

Insults in China-Correspondence.
Queen's College, Cork-Report.

Delivered on the 25th of February, 1857.
19. Harbour, &c., Bills (1, St. Helen's Canal and Railway;

Navigation Report of the Board of Trade. 44 (1). Trade and Navigation Accounts (31st January, 1857). 49. Spirits (Navy) - Copies of Contracts. 23. Bil-Court of Chancery (Ireland)--(Titles of Purchasers). 25. Bill_Court of Chancery (Ireland).

Dated 3rd February, 1856. 311. Richard Laming, Hayward's-heath, Cuckfield, Sussex-Im

provements in purifying gas, in obtaining materials useful for that purpose, and in working up into useful products certain ammoniacal and phosphatic substances obtainable as residues

in the purifying of gas. 2. James Taylor, Middlesbrough-on-Tees, Yorkshire--Improve

ments in the governors for the engines of screw steamers, and

other vessels propelled from the stern. 313. James Taylor, Middlesbrough-on-Tees- A compensating crane. 314. George White, 5, Laurence Pountney-lane, Cannon street

Certain improvements in dyeing and printing textile fibres

and fabrics. (A communication. 315. Charles Cochrane, Ormesby Iron Works, Middlesbro'-on-Tees

-An improvement in heating blast for blast furnaces and

cupolas. 317. Henry Unwin, Sheffield - Improvements in the application of waste heat from coke ovens.

Dated 4th February, 1857. 8. Andrew Steinmetz, Middle Temple--A inethod, mode, contri

vance, or management to check the honesty of omnibus conductors and other receivers of money under similar circumstances, to be accounted for to their employers, without

machine or mechanical appliance. 319. James Hamsher, 16, Elizabeth-street South, Pimlico-Im

provements in the manufacture of blacking for polishing, softening, and preserving boots and shoes, and other leathern

articles. 320. Odoardo Gandine, 4, Newman-street, Oxford-street-An indi.

cating target. 321. Edward Lewis and Gideon Bohm, Coleman-street-Improve

ments in printing in colours, called an improved photogalva

nographic chromographic process. 323. Saul Hart, 33, Portland-street, Liverpocl-Improvements in

apparatus for raising and forcing water. 324. Charles De Bergue, 9, Dowgate-hill-Improvements in the

method of, or apparatus for, laying the permanent way of

railways. 325. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Improvements

in pianofortes. (A communication. ) 326. Alfred Vincent Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-An improvement

in machinery for polishing flat surfaces of glass and other

substances. (A communication.) 327. James Burrows, Wigan-Certain improvements in steam en

gines. 328. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields-Improvements

in the treatment of flax and similar textile materials. (A

communication.) 9. Robert Holmes Houston, Greenock- Improvements in effecting general conveyance or transport on water.

Dated 5th February, 1857. 330. Thomas Summers, Northam Iron Works, Southampton-Im

provements in gauges for indicating pressure and vacuum. 331. Philipp Schafer and Frederick Schafer, Brewer-street-Im

provements in travelling bags, or cases, and an apparatus for

carrying fittings therein. 332. Alfred Vincent Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-An improvement

in casting metallic articles. (A communication.) 333. Clarance Brazil and William Nicholas Crummack, Chorley,

Lancashire-Improvements in looms for weaving. 334. Henry Smith, Stamford, Lincolnshire-Improvements in hay

making machinery. 335. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Certain in

provements in breech-loading fire-arms. (A communication.) 336. George Chowen, 7, James-street, Covent-garden-Preventing further casualties on the Goodwin Sands.

Dated 6th February, 1857. 337. Thomas Stott, Sabden, near Whalley, Lancashire-Improve

ments in pickers. 339. William Green, Pembroke cottages, Caledonian-road, Islington

-Improvements in manufacturing or producing substitutes for leather for boots, shoes, and other uses, and in machinery

or apparatus for effecting the same. 340. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street- Improvements

in preparing or dressing threads and other fibrous materials,

and in the machinery employed therein. (A communication.) 341. James Gilroy, Auldhousefield, near Pollockshaws, Renfrew

Improvements in applying starch or other semifluid matter

by machinery to woven fabrics. 342. John Mayo Worrall, Salford-An improvement in finishing &

certain description of fustians called " diagonals." 343. George Wright, Sheffield-Improvements in stove grates or

fireplaces. 344. Thomas Newton, Walsall-Improvements in the construction

of Stockmen's saddles and appendages thereto. (Partly a

communication. 345. Antoine Dècle and François Alexandre Drault, Paris-Im

provements in the manufacture of bracelets. 346. Pierre Poisson, Paris-Improvements in preparing a surfaces for painting.

Dated 7th February, 1857. 347. Henry Heald and Arthur Heald, Sabden Whalley, Lancashire

- Improvements in looms, and in pickers used for weaving. 348, Nicholas Nomico, Manchester, and George Heyes, Bury-Im

provements in looms. 349. James Alfred Limbert, Royal Navy-Improvements in marine

steam engines. 350. John Coope Haddan, 4, Cannon-row, Westminster-Improve

ments in marine steam engines. (A communication.)


Dated 17th December, 1856. 2993. Godwin Meade Pratt Swift, Viscount Carlingford, Swiftseath,

Kilkenny-An aerial chariot or apparatus for navigating the air.

Dated 2nd February, 1857. 17. John Wilson, St. Helen's, Lancashire-Improvements in the manufacture of steel.

Dated 8th January, 1857. 64. Julius Goodman, Abraham Myers, and Louis Goodman, 25,

King David lane, Shadwell- Improvements in the manufacture of caps or coverings for the head.

Dated 21st January, 1857. 186. Henry Medlock, 20, Great Marlborough-street, WestminsterAn improved method of purifying water.

Dated 26th January, 1857. 226. Adolphe Hensel, 4, Stafford-place, Pimlico-The manufacture of German yeast from flour.

Dated 2nd February, 1856. 303. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn-fields-Improvements

in heating the feed-water of steam boilers. (A communica tion.)

351. Charles Crickmay, Guildford-place, Lower Kennington-lane- 383. Jabez Morgan, Kidderminster-Certain improvements in the Certain improvements in breech-loading guns or pistols for

manufacture of steel and iron wire for umbrella and parasol military and other purposes, and which said improvements

frames. are applicable, and will admit of being applied, to guns or 384. William Richelieu Hodges, Manchester-Improvements in the pistols now in use.

manufacture of an elastic material, and of its application to 352. Francis Wrigley, Manchester-An improved apparatus for cut

certain purposes. ting tobacco.

385. Austin Chambers, Canterbury, and William Harrison Cham353. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields- Improvements

pion, Lynsted, Kent-A mode of working railway breaks. in casting metals. (A communication.)

386. George Bedson, Manchester-Improvements in coating metal 354. Joseph Nicolas Victor Cadiat, Paris–The application of cen

with metal and metallic compounds. trifugal force in purifying minerals, or any other similar 387. August Frederick William Partz, New York-An improved hard substances, by washing.

method of evaporating fluids, condensing and absorbing va355. Joseph Skertchly, Culford-road, De Beauvoir-square-Im.

pours, gases, and fumes, arresting and precipitating floculent, provements in, and in the manufacture of saggers.

metallic, or other particles, and transferring heat from air or 356. William Greenslade, Bristol, and James Wood, Saint Pancras

steam to fluids and pulverulent substances. -Certain improvements in brushes, especially applicable to 388. Thomas Fielding Johnson and John Williams, Leicester-Impainters' brushes.

provements in screw gill machinery for preparing wool and 357. James Taylor, Upper-street, Islington, and Edward Owen,

other fibrous materials. Aberdeen-terrace, Blackheath-Improvements in the manu 389. John Forrest Watson, St. John's-square, Clerkenwell-Imfacture of yellow prussiate of potass.

provements in the construction of watches. 358. Felix Lieven Bauwens, Ranelagh-road-An improved mode of 390. Jesse Bridgwood, Burslem, Staffordshire Potteries - Improvetreating and distilling fatty matters, and in the apparatus

ments in connecting pipes to the basins of water closets and employed therein.

wash-hand basins, and also in the means of stopping the 359. Thomas Brown and George Parry, Ebbw-vale, Monmouth

outlets of wash-hand basins. Improvements in the manufacture of iron.

391. William Wood Pilcher, St. Margarets-at-Cliffe, Dover-Im. 360. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-An improved

provements in straw shakers of thrashing machines. method of obtaining motive power. (A communication.) 392. Abraham Royds and John Kenyon, Lower-place, Rochdale361. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-Improvements . Certain improvements or a certain improvement in machines in measuring the capacity and contents of casks and other

for spinning or doubling, commonly known as throstles. similar vessels, and in instruments or apparatus employed 393. Richard Archibald Brooman, 166, Fleet-street-An improvetherein. (A communication.)

ment in or addition to the locks of fire-arms. (A communi362. George Tomlinson Bousfield, Sussex-place, Loughborough

cation.) road, Brixton-Improvements in lamps adapted for burning 394. Thomas Howard, King and Queen Iron Works, Rotherhitheresin oil. (A communication.)

Improvements in the construction of cranked shafts or axles. 363. William Hirst, Bath-Improvements in manufacturing felted 395. Henry Heald and Arthur Heald, Sabden Whalley, Lancashire fabrics.

-Improvements in pickers and picker checks employed in 364. William Wilkens, Baltimore, U.S.-An improved cannon,

weaving. which he calls a revolving battery. (A communication.) | 396. Henry Tibbets Ropes and David Wilson Thomas, Liverpool 365. Perceval Moses Parsons, Duke-street, Adelphi-Improvements

Improvements in the application of filters to cocks, taps, or in the permanent way of railways.

other valves used to draw off liquids. (A communication.) Dated 9th February, 1867. 366. James Murdoch, 7, Staple-inn-An improvement in the pro

cess of treating the threads of floss silk, which is also appli..
cable to the threads of other fibrous materials. (A commu-

February 20th.

2068. William Smith Mitchell nication.)

1959. Thomas John Chipp and and Charles Martin Er367. James Taylor, Britannia Works, Birkenhead--Improvements

Richard Bitmead.

nest Gartner. in machinery for crushing various substances.

1966. Edward Hallen.

2081. Charles Louis Lapito. 368. Henry Cartwright, Dean Broseley, Shropshire-Improvements

1969. William Racster.

2101. Rd. Archibald Brooman. in the application and mode of working eccentrics on steam

1971. Alexander Moses.

2144. Richard Peyton. engines.

1983. John Perry.

2373. Jean Alexandre Labat, jun. 369. Charles Turner and Louis Watermann, Liverpool-Improve-| 1984. Wm. Alenry Perkin.

2558. Benjamin Goodfellow. ments in or applicable to the class of hats made from straw,

1990. Edmund Simpson.

2906. John Aston and John Brant. grass, palm leaf, or other like materials.

1992. Alfred Vincent Newton. 3022. William Mill. 370. Léon Talabot, 57, Chaussée d'Antin, Paris-Improvements in

hanssée d'Antin Paris Improvements in 1999. Alfred Vincent Newton. 3030. James Redgate, Edwin Elthe manufacture of iron and steel.

2003. Charles Durand Gardissal.

lis, and John Cropper. 371. Joseph Fenn, Newgate-street-An improvement in oil-cans 2014. John Fletcher and William

February 24th. and other like vessels. (A communication.)


1982. George Warriner. 372. David Falconer, 68, Causeyside, Paisley-Improvements in the 2024. Manoah Bower, Richard | 1985. William Frederick Bush mechanical arrangement for raising and forcing of water or

Peyton, and Joses Weaver

and William Hewitt. other fluid, air, or gases.


2004. Charles Durand Gardissal. 373. John Harding, Beeston Manor Iron Works, Leeds-Improve 2026. Matthias Edward Bowra. 2040. Joseph Lamb. ments in the treatment of metallic ores.

2037. James Apperly.

2052. Constant Jouffroy Dumery. 374. Thomas John Taylor, Sekforde-street, Clerkenwell-An im | 2048. Jules Mozard.

2080. Alfred Vincent Newton. proved construction of stereoscope.

2057. William Keates.

2186. Louis Jacquemier. 375. Samuel Groves, Judd-place East-Improvements in organs. 2058. George Anderson.

2236. Alfred Vincent Newton. 376. Henry Willis, Manchester-street, Gray's-inn-road-Improve-2060. William Moberly.

2414. George Collier. ments in organs.

2065. Henry Edward Cradock | 2446. Jacques Félix Deshayes. Dated 10th February, 1857.

Monckton and William 2890. Lodewyk Polak Kerdyk. 377. William Thomas Walker, 55, King-square, St. Lukes-Im


3060. Charles Sylvester Rostaing. provements in apparatus used in gas works for exhausting,

47. Louis Antoine Ritterbandt. forcing, transmitting, and regulating the flow of gas, and cleansing and warming gas apparatus.

PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP DUTY HAS BEEN PAID. 378. Abel Stokes, Birmingham-New or improved machinery to be

February 16th.

408. John Ramsbottom. used in the manufacture of nails, pins, screws, and other 394. Bashley Britten.

February 20th. similar articles.

416. Ernest Gessner.

396. Nicholas Riggenbach, 379. Julian Bernard, the Albany, Piccadilly-Improvements in the 431. James Boydell.

432. Thomas Settle and Peter manufacture or production of boots and shoes, or coverings

February 18th.

Cooper. for the feet, and in the machinery or apparatus employed in 403. Harvey Hilliard.

457. Auguste Edouard Loradoux such manufacture.

405. William Milner.

Bellford. 380. Daniel Benjamin Herts, Bunhill-row-Improvements in appa

February 19th.

544. William Clay. ratus for stamping and embossing. (A communication.) 401. John Chisholm.

February 21st. 2381. Benjamin Webster Owrid, Dundalk, Louth-An improved 407. John Urie.

436. Charles Walker. method of connecting and disconnecting pipes or tubes. 382. Joseph Graham and James Shepherd, Burnley, and Thomas PATENT ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £100 HAS BEEN PAID. Whitaker, Acrington-Certain improvements in power looms

February 20th. for weaving.

2497. John Johnson.


No. in the Date of
Register. Registration.


Proprietors' Name.


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Fumigating Apparatus for the Curels Whicker and Blaise (late Sales
of Syphilis and Diseases of the Skin $11 vigny and Co.).

}67, St. James's-street.
Àn Enema or Syringe .......... ... Whicker and Blaise

67, St. James's-street.
Waistcoat Shirt .................................. Joshua E. Kellick ..... ..7, Ludgate-hill.
Anti-Garotte Cravat .........


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and renders necessary constructions to obviate its own difficulties; and yet, at the same time, lends a helping hand to assist greatly in conquering itself. You are re

quired to restrain its power by opposing a barrier of rock; FRIDAY, MARCH 6, 1857.

it receives the rock and buoys it up, relieving you of one-third of its weight. You desire to submerge a

buoyant object; water will then reverse its power and THIRTEENTH ORDINARY MEETING. cause it to sink. Being thus of a nature to oppose and

yet assist us, and being governed by immutable and WEDNESDAY, MARCH 4, 1857. well-recognized laws, if those laws be properly enforced,

or rather complied with, we may on the one hand reThe Thirteenth Ordinary Meeting of the Onest

be Thirteenth Ordinary Meeting of the One strain its dangerous efforts, and on the other, compel its Hundred and Third Session was held on Wed- assistance in ministering to our necessities. nesday, the 4th inst., John Hawkshaw, Esq., | The grand principle that air in an enclosed and inF.R.S., in the chair.

verted vessel, presenting a horizontal surface, will resist

the entrance of water into that vessel, provided the air The following Candidates were balloted for,

is of the same density as the water, is the principle and duly elected members of the Society : which first determined the use of the ordinary divingFord, Francis | Watney, Alfred

bell, an instrument now so often used in the preparation Ladd, William | Wright, Joseph, jud.

of foundations, and the subsequent erection of works


In localities where the " coffer dam" is inadmissible, Blancheton, Ernest.

either through the cost or difficulty of construction, the The following Institutions have been taken ordinary suspended bell, pendant from a carriage at the into Union since the last announcement :

surface, affords the necessary means for adjusting the

work in such manner as the engineer may desire. It 432. Barnard Castle Mechanics' Institution and Literary has been suggested, too, to use the ordinary submarine Society.

armour or dress for the adjustment in place of the stones 433. Free Public Library, St. Margaret and St. John, of a work, which have been previously fitted at the Westminster.

surface. The following Colonial Institution has been

In suggesting a new mode of operations, by which

suspensory action may be entirely avoided, it would be taken into Union since the last announcement : impolitic to denounce the methods just mentioned, as Antigua Polytechnic Association.

being behind the age, since each would undoubtedly

have its advocates, who from practical operations would The Paper read was :

acknowledge the advantages derived by its use, and ON APPLIANCES FOR FACILITATING SUBMA

perhaps look unfavourably on any innovation. No serRINE ENGINEERING AND EXPLORATION.

vant can be so humble, that, performing his duties well,

though slowly, his services should not be recognized. BY MAJOR H. B. SEARS.

The Dover breakwater is an instance of the thorough

efficiency of the ordinary bell, yet at the same time by Part I.Submarine Engineering.

its use the progress of the work has been necessarily In the paper which I have prepared for the Society slow. this evening, my purpose will be, not to enter into a The plan submitted in this paper for accomplishing, dissertation on the various appliances which may here- as it is confidently asserted, a larger amount of work tofore have been used for facilitating subaqueous opera- in a given time, and at a less cost than by present tions, pertaining to engineering science, but to confine means, is not a mere fancy, brought forward as a myself more particularly to some of the advantages theory which cannot stand investigation and the appliwhich experiment has proved may be derived from the cation of practical knowledge to test its merits; but it is use of machinery, constructed on a comparatively new boldly placed before you, challenging the most rigid plan, and embodying a more complete application of the investigation of its qualities to secure the desired advannatural principles which are the foundations on which tages of cheapness of construction and saving of time. rest all appliances for invading (personally,) the domin | It would be a waste of time to engage your attention ions of the Water King

in speculation based on the mere working of models (exOne of the great objects to be derived from our ac-emplifications of principles), which, by the ingenuity of quaintance with the arts, sciences, and manufactures, man, may be made to work with the utmost precision. is to be enabled to devise means for advancing the pro- The principles involved in the machinery now pregress of these various departments, by throwing new sented to you, have all been thoroughly and practically lights on the previously unknown or little understood tested; not in a single instance, but by months and years details of different subjects, connected with each, or, by of careful investigation, going cautiously forward, investigation, to discover new and more economical | taking the suggestions of nature as the guides to avoid means of accomplishing the same results, either by a the dangers and difficulties which are placed in the path saving of time in the production, or of labour necessary of those who venture to step beyond the apparent bounds, for such production.

which she herself has raised, to bar man's progress toAll science rests on the foundation of natural prin-wards her mysteries. ciples; and we gain largely, whenever, by a simplifica- ! Air and water, the two combined and powerful ele. tion of arrangement, we compel nature to perform man's ments, are both difficult and dangerous to contend with. labour. Water supplies us with steam to drive our pon-Water, by its gravity carries us downward; air, by its derous engines which relieve us from arduous toil.' It lightness or buoyancy, carries us upwards or keeps us at the buoys upon its bosom the creations of man's hands, surface; therefore it becomes necessary in any machinery which transport from distant points articles necessary to independent of suspension, depending on the variable his subsistence, or the gratification of his luxurious preponderance of one or the other of these elements, that tastes. It is a necessary element. It is an element to these powers should be under perfect and complete conbe feared. It is full of dangers. It has its delights. trol. The subtle nature of air requires careful manageIt opposes us-it assists us.

ment, and a perfect adaptation of parts to secure its In the subject now before you, it opposes obstacles, i control.

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