FROM NOVEMBER 21, 1856, TO NOVEMBER 13, 1857.






No. 209.


Vol. V.

accommodation and comfort of our members. It will, no doubt, be in the recollection of very many members, that when it was necessary, ten years

ago, to redecorate the Great Room, in which we FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 21, 1856. are assembled, it was necessary to invite special

subscriptions, and borrow on debenture £1,000, FIRST ORDINARY MEETING.

for the purposes of the Society. We have reason

to congratulate ourselves on the contrast which WEDNESDAY, Nov. 19, 1856.

our present position exhibits. It has not now The First Ordinary Meeting of the One

been necessary to ask for subscriptions, or to

borrow money for the costly work of redecoration Hundred and Third Session was held on Wed

and repairs. Our means have not only sufficed Desday, the 19th inst., Col. W. H. Sykes, F.R.S.,

.D., for these objects, but the promise of the Council Chairman of the Council, in the Chair.

in their last report has been fulfilled, and £500 The following Candidates were balloted for,

of the debenture debt paid off. Increased and duly elected :

accommodation will be afforded. By re-arrangeBenham, Frederick. I Hill, Rev. James, B.D.

ment the Council propose to devote to the Benham, John Lee. Masterman, Wm. Stanley. Dudgeon, Patrick. Shaw, Bentley.

y members three apartments on the ground floor

as reading and reception rooms and library. The following Institution has been taken into ir

en into The treasures of the library, which have hitherto Union since the last announcement:

been less prominently before the Society, and 423. Black Dike Mills, Literary and Scientific Institution. have been less available than they deserved, as

Colonel W. H. Sykes, F.R.S., as Chairman of the volumes mostly contain records of important the Council, delivered the following

facts, will have such a disposition as to invite

members to their profitable use. The inconve. ADDRESS.

niences of last year, arising from defective light· I find that the Bye-laws of the Society of ing and ventilation, it is to be hoped are now Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce demand from obviated, and it will be patent to the members the Chairman of the Council of the Society an that the necessity for an improvement in the apaddress upon the opening of the new session; and pearance of the Great Meeting Room has not in execution of the duty required from me, I pro-escaped the attention of the Council. While on ceed cheerfully to attempt the task, regretting the subject of your present location and home, it only that it has not fallen upon some other mem- is right to invite the members to a prudent foreber, whose knowledge and experience in the thought of their whereabouts hereafter. The working and objects of the Society would have Society of Arts and its domicile, which have bemade it more advantageous to the interests of the come venerable together by near a century of assoSociety, and certainly more acceptable to its ciation, are threatened with a rude disseverance inaugural meeting. My duty, I believe, is less by the termination of their legal tie to each to give a retrospect of the work of the past year, other; in short, in ten years the Society's lease than a foreshadowing, as it were, of our proposed expires, and, considering the magnitude of the operations and aspirations for the forthcoming Society, the magnitude of its association, the session. Properly it is the duty of the Council scale of its exbibitions, and its past, and, it is to in its Annual Report to review our byegone be hoped, increasing reputation, its domus or labours; nevertheless, the example of my prede- home should be in keeping not only with its cessors in this chair will justify me, in case I find present dignified position, but with its anticipated it desirable, momentarily to recall your attention future development. Considering that that marto any subject already disposed of. And first, vel of our times, the Great Exhibition of the with respect to that which is of immediate in- Industry of all Nations, had its germ in the terest to ourselves, in relation to the improved working of this Society, and that its successful results were chiefly owing to the personal interest | ples the inventive faculties of others, would be to taken in the Exhibition by our President, Prince trifle unjustifiably with your time and attention ; Albert, and by the aid and advice of the Council | and, by an advocacy or an argument, would imand leading members of the Society-consider-ply a doubt, which can have no existence in the ing, I say, these facts, it appears to me that it mind of any one I have the honour to address. would only have been in harmony with the Assuredly great caution should be exercised in common objects of the Exhibition and of the So- the adjudication of distinctions which give to the ciety, that the Exhibition, from its accumulated selected the advantages of public confidence and wealth, should have testified to a grateful sense of respect, to the possible detriment and damage of its parentage by an assignment or contribution confiding individuals, and certainly to the disof funds for the erection of a domicile suitable to credit of the Society, in case the medals and the Society's wants, upon the frieze of which the prizes were adjudged upon insufficient ground, Prince would probably have desired to see in- and more particularly in case the inventions themscribed

selves were destitute of a palpable practical Esto perpetua,

character. I have every reason to believe, that Such reasonable anticipations not having been the adjudications of the Society have been at all realised, it is a matter for grave thought with the times regulated by the intrinsic merit of the inmembers of the Society to devise such means and ventions and the importance of their application, take such early precautions as shall secure to the and to have been equally free from favour or Society, when the period for the vacation of the affection. present house arrives, a larger and better abode, To show the important nature of the inventions and whose internal accommodation shall be better and subjects which have been under the review suited than the present to the wants of the So- of the Society, is beyond my purpose, and it will ciety, involved in which, it must be borne in suffice to enumerate those of the present year:mind, is space for the exhibition, and, indeed, Silver Medals.—To Messrs. J. Kenyon Blackwell, Humpermanent display, of specimens of the most recent phrey Chamberlain, John Bailey Denton, William

Felkin, Chandos Wren Hoskyns, for their Papers improvements in the several departments of

read at the Society's evening meetings. manufacturing industry, many of which prove A Silver Medal.-To Professor Clark, M.D., for his their worth and practical usefulness by winning “ Application of Lime to the Softening and Purifythe Society's medals and prizes: but with the ing of Water for the Supply of Towns." . Society's present accommodation, the labours for

A Silver Medal.-To Herr Paul Pretsch, for his “ Ap

plication of Photography and the Electrotype to the the accumulation of objects are scarcely com-1 Production of Engraved Copper Plates for Printing," pleted, than the pressure for the admission of the A Silver Medal.—To Mr. James King, for the “ Imporinventions of newer candidates for popular favour tation of Wine, the Growth of Vineyards in New

1 compels substitutions which destroy or disarrange

South Wales.”

Special Prizes, of a Gold Medal.—To Mr. Charles Wye the instructive sequence of the whole. A larger

Williams, for his Essay “ On the Smoke Nuisance;" building than the present, with more accommo- And of a Silver Medal.--To Mr. Charles Hood, F.R.S., dation, is, therefore, evidently necessary, and as for his Essay on the same subject. houses already built are little likely to be adapted But a special prize amongst the members de. to the necessities of the Society, it might be right mands a special notice. The Society's gold medal for the Society to inquire whether, in the vast was adjudged to Mr. Charles WyeWilliams, for his area which the Government is about to clear in essay “ On the Smoke Nuisance;" a nuisance Westminster, a site might not be obtained from which has been suffered so long to exist, equally the Government upon which a building could be to the discredit of the government and the people, erected for the Society, to harmonise in architec- since it has been known for years that it was remetural character with the blocks of buildings diable; a nuisance, also, which will not be wholly which it is understood the Government is about i abolished, even with the aid of the recent to erect. I have dwelt at some length upon this Act of Parliament applicable to that object, subject, for it is one, be assured, involving the unless vigilant attention be paid by the pubfuture interests of the Society.

b lic of London to the constantly recurring inIn proximate association with this subject of fractions of the law; or the quiet and recurthe House, is the immediate and pleasing duty ring neglect of the personal labours necessary to which will devolve upon me, at the termination of secure the efficient working of the smoke conthe address, of distributing the medals and prizes suming furnaces. Every man who sees the adjudged by the Society during the last year. chimney of a manufactory in London vomiting To offer any remarks upon the policy or public forth a cloud of unconsumed carbon, should, advantage of a usage which has characterised the from a sense of duty to his fellow-citizens, unSociety from early times, and in which many hesitatingly act the “informer," and denounce thousands of pounds have been spent to reward the offending chimney, with the satisfactory conthe inventive faculties of praiseworthy and en-viction that he is doing a public good. Inviable individuals, and to stimulate by such exam- deed it might be matter for consideration whether

systematic attempts might not be made to induce carried through, it is to be hoped, to a successful private families to adopt Dr. Arnott's smokeless result. fire grates, which it is understood is not only! The present state of the Patent Law also has efficient but economical ; it would save us from engaged the attention of the Council, and will the alarms and dangers of " chimney a fire," and continue to do so during the ensuing session. the gradual and certain destruction of our costly The subject is an intricate one, and considerable furniture and gilded decorations.

diversity of opinion appears to prevail upon its Continuing the subject of labour within our own policy and bearing; but there is a community walls, it may be as well to mention at this stage of opinion that in its present state the Practice of my address, and before I proceed to external and Procedure of the Patent Law requires amendoperations, that the Council has anxiously sought ment. to provide profitable pabulum for the evening Judging from the reply of the present Lord meetings of the Society during the ensuing Chancellor, given to Lord Harrowby, as represession, and they are glad to announce that their senting the Committee of the British Associavaluable coadjutor Dr. Royle, has proposed a tion, there is no indisposition whatever on his paper upon Indian fibres for cordage, clothing, and part, as the Chief Commissioner of Patents, to paper making material. Mr. Birks is good adopt any well considered plans for amendment enough to contribute a paper on some new which may be urged upon him. metbods of dealing with linseed and other oils, I would invite the attention of the Society to in relation to their drying properties, for paints the remarkable fact that in this age, fertile in inand varnishes; and he has promised another paper, ventions and inquiry, the Council have deemed it at an early period after Christmas, upon some right to publish a list of prizes for desiderata in hitherto unrecognised phenomena occuring in the improvements in inventions already existing, or manufacture of steel and malleable iron, in which for new inventions, or matters which our daily Bessemer's and the new Austrian steel process increasing wants call for. This list comprises no will come in for consideration and discussion. less than 216 subjects, and many of them are of Mr. Fothergill Cooke is prepared to describe the the highest importance to almost every class enLeicester Sewage works; and Professor Owen gaged in manufactures, science, or commerce. If will favour us with one of his valuable and in- two or three of them are mentioned as typical of structive contributions, the subject of which is the whole, the practical good sense which dictated the “Ivory and Teeth of Commerce."

their selection, and the earnest desire of the SoThese arrangements provide for the meetings ciety to render their labours useful to the public, of the Society up to Christmas ; after which will, I trust, be manifest. For instance, a prize period hopes are entertained that the resources of for the “ Best methods of distilling coal or bituour numerous Colonies may be illustrated. Mr. minous substances, and utilizing the residuum." Temple, the Chief Justice of Honduras, has For The best means of preventing, salt efiloresundertaken to favour us with a paper upon ence in walls." For The best method of ecoHonduras. It is reasonable to expect that the nomically deodorizing sewage and other waters, overtures which we have already made to form or of precipitating or otherwise extracting the a Union of Colonial Institutions, in which we matier held by them in suspension.” For “ An have been successful to the extent of ten Insti- Essay on the management and maintenance of tions, similar to our Home Unions, will insure us public roads, with special reference to their ala cordial sympathy and aid from our associates tered position since the introduction of railways." abroad, which, we trust, we shall be enabled to For “ An Essay on the various branches of indusreciprocate in a way to strengthen their in- try which are known to be unhealthy, pointing terests and to invigorate their usefulness. It is out the causes of their injurious effects, with unnecessary to enumerate here the terms and suggestions jor prevention or relief." ForThe objects of these unions, as they are recorded at discovery of any simple and efficient apparatus page 568, in the Journal of the Society

for detecting and registering impure states of the The Society during the last year gave its at- atmosphere, either in mines or in overcrowded and tention to the present severe pressure upon Lite- ill-ventilated buildings.For “ A means suitable rary and Scientific Institutions, by rates and for office use of writing, copying, or producing taxes; and, through the medium of its parlia- a single or several copies of a document at one mentary friends, caused a bill to be introduced time by electricity or otherwise.For “ An Essay for the relief of Institutions. Although to some on the various concretes, cements, hydraulic morextent at first opposed by the government, the bill tars, and lutings for pipes, tanks, &c.” Need I passed through some stages, but the session wore furnish further illustrations of the utilitarian on, and the unusually early prorogation of Par- spirit and benevolent views with which the subliament left no time for its passing through the jects for the prizes are selected. House of Lords; it was therefore dropped, but it | Commercial International Law, Tribunals of will be re-introduced early next session, and Commerce, Chambers of Commerce, Manufac

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