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will not be deteriorated, but improved, by constant in- something to make them longer-lived, by expending crease of better work. And Lancashire people, chang- more coal, and driving currents of warmed air through ing from the cotton mills to the forge and inetal working, the mills, and taking thought for healthy dwellings for will betake themselves, the men to work and the women them when they leave the mill to sleep or eat. But in to the domestic cares of their families, with a mucha Lancashire climate they must work in enclosure. God's larger sphere of happiness than in the present processes, own wind cannot play upon them, laden with all the wherein men, women, and children work in the mill to-health-giving influences of nature, and they will be gether, guiltless of all knowledge of the domestic arts, etiolated and monotonousthey will not be a people of knowing nothing but how to spin and weave cotton, and joyous temperament, finding pleasure in mere vitality, in short times wearing ragged garments from absolute the mere act of living. The incessant drowsy huin of ignorance of the knowledge how to mend them.

wheels will infallibly check exuberant impulses, will act And not the least amongst the advantages will be the as a “ governor" on their nerves, till they become as a increase in the numbers of a fine physical race of men, part of the machine they tend. They are artificial beings, fitted to do battle for freedom, if need be, against the con- and not humanity in its whole sense. tinental chattels of centralisation, a process that makes Mr. Chadwick says, “moral character and trust. and protects grown children but not men. I like not worthiness must now be sought to work valuable the condition of humanity similar to that of elder machines.” Quite true; but a very low order of clockThebes, the glory of which rose and set with Epaminondas work morals and regularity, compatible with “doing no and Pelopedas. A central Solon, doing all things for his wrong," and also compatible with the exercise of no people, and leaving nothing to be done by themselves, virtue in the high sense. Morals, in mere abstract would put them into the exact condition to be undone by political economy, have reference chiefly to absence of a tyrant or a fool-a Nicholas or a Bomba. Municipality waste and absence of thieving. A man in whose mind may induce much folly, much roguery ; but wisdom and there never sprung up a single impulsive generous emohonesty may also exist in sample and in competition. tion, a mere dull duty grinder, to look upon whom is an But, alas, for the centralisation that can only set forth opiate, reckons in mere politico-economical logic as one example, and that a bad one.

highly as the man whose soul is cast in heroic mould. Let us, however, have no misunderstanding. I do not It is still a world of strife ; and in a wider political wish or propose that our whole people should consist of economy, the hero still counts for much. He is the fair-haired and blue-eyed giants. "No truth is more assurer of the worker—the guarantee that the wealth of certain than that all human beings are born with peculiar the worker shall not be taken away by fierce tribes of aptitudes, all useful if applied to fitting purposes, and barbarians lurking in civilised garbs. He is the upholder sometimes very mischievous if misapplied. The brawny of that freedom which alone induces profitable work, and Saxon tills the ground, and drains the bog, and builds the absence of which may account for the lessened result the house, the shop, and the steam-engine, and the road of overtime labour. The turn-outs and strikes, viewed and railway ; he makes the rough places smooth on the from this aspect, are not altogether losses, but wholesome land, and furrows the tracks of ocean with his great stimuli as well, and we can conceive a state of things in broad business-like hand, that wields the spade, and the which docile people might be kept by shrewd, calculating axe, and the hammer, and holds the tiller and wheel (and not cruel) masters in a condition to give the maxiwith a grip like that of a vice. But the more delicately mum of production, without any exertion of energy organised Celt, with nerves like lute-strings and not like tending to raise them from the ranks,-nominally free cart-ropes, gives us the poetry of life,-music, painting, men, as the dog or cat is free, but under the necessity of sculpture, architecture, and the infinite variety of things seeking a master for daily rations, without any choice cognate to them. Without the Saxon navvies, we might between one master and another, all in dead level, and perchance build temples, but we should dwell in wigwams a universal equality of rations. I should certainly not and bothies. Without the Celt, we should dwell in barns, covet to be either master or man in such a community. guiltless of all art save that of the beaver-made con- In a large political economy, then, the question must struction. The Saxon element conquers and governs; the occur, as to what are, not merely the possible employCeltic element adorns; and therefore is it that France, in- ments, but what are the best employments for a nation digenously a Celt producing country, sometimes makes having regard to the attainment of a generally elevated. colonies with ornamental appliances but no substructure. manhood, and what are the trades which should be disLacking the instincts of government to follow up the countenanced. If it could be proved that any particular conquest of enthusiasm, there is no permanence, and trade tended to make the particular employers wealthy, therefore Canada and other colonies fall into English and to spread a damaging pauperism over the commuhands; and thus, if the genius of disorder for any length nity, it would be quite as competent for the State to proof time plunges France into trouble, her colony of hibit such trades, as it does the kidnapping of girls for Algiers, left to itself, may again become a nest of pirates infamous purposes. Without, therefore, disputing the and a pest to the Mediterranean, in which case it will advantages that have economically accrued to England have to be conquered and governed by England and her by a long monopoly of the trade of spinning and weaving ocean police, and what can be made to grow out of it cotton, the question now is, whether it is worth while. according to its natural capabilities will then be seen. cultivating a mere competitive trade with low-priced

The union of Saxon and Celt, or other cognate races, labour, at the cost of breeding and increasing a race with climate and soil superadded, makes Englishmen, pro- physically inferior in general humanity to what night be bably as Rome of old was made by constant provincial kept up by adhering to more indigenous employments, aggregation and absorption. But this union will not the more especially when we have in India men without make cotton spinners and weavers such as are desired by limit, the natural growth of a soil and climate peculiarly Lancashire mill-owners. Physical strength is clearly in adapted to the spinning and weaving of cotton; and the. stall demand, else, why resort to shoals of women and more especially, when all Lancashire may ultimately be. children. Quiet, gentle, docile people, partaking more employed in producing the machinery for cotton-spin-of the nature of women than of men, indisposed to riot ning, just as Switzerland produces watches, or rebel, obedient as the machine to the hand of the en- I am not proposing to pull down Lancashire cottongineer, soft and silky as the cotton they help to form mills, but simply pointing out that a time is nearer at into threads and webs, are the mill-owners' human staple. hand than is generally supposed, when the exotic trade

We can, doubtless, produce and mould such people, originally imported from India to Lancashire, and proand by following the farmers'examples, do it more effec- tected by circumstances for a long period of years, must, by tually than has yet been done, by selecting the stock, force of natural circumstances, again return to India; and instead of taking it at random. We might even do that, so far from this being a cause of regret, it should be a

cause of rejoicing, for it will improve the general staple Imperial Printing Office, it may be useful to learn that of humanity in England, and render every human body an abridged resumée of M. Le Play's System of Research and mind therein the recipient of a larger amount of has just been published, in the form of an octavo pamphlet, comfort and happiness. I should like to see the time hy M. Augustin Cochin, the eminent French philanwhen every man in England could be a soldier, perfect thropist. at all points--not necessarily a soldier, but practically | In pursuance of a report drawn up by M. Dupin, the able to be so if required, with a national motto, “ Nemo French Academy has awarded to M. Le Play the Monmne impune lacessit," and not the Scottish thistle, with the tyon Prize for 1855, with an invitation to continue his arrogant “Wha daur meiddle wi' me?” which almost statistical investigations; and in furtherance of these, a seems a version of the Irish invitation, “ Will any special society has just been formed, under Imperial jantleman thrade upon me tail,”—but the wholesome sanction, of which M, Le Play himself has consented to blooming briar rose, beautiful to eye and nostril, yet become honorary secretary drawing blood sharply from the rifling hand seeking! One of its purposes is to grant pecuniary rewards to rudely to rob its blossoms.

persons in France and other countries, who may send in

essays on the local condition of the working classes, While writing the above. Mr. Chadwick's phrase. " It framed in accordance with the directions contained in was an aphorism of the father of the cotton manufacture the Society's statutes. Of these, copies have been dein England. Mr. John Kennedy, of Ardwick-hall. lately posited for inspection at the offices of the Society of Arts, deceased,” has been puzzling me, for I have always un Adelphi, and of the Statistical Society, St. James's-square. derstood that there were two fathers : Arkwright, who invented the “ throstle," and Crompton, who afterwards invented the “mule." There was a Mr. John Kennedy,

THE WELLINGTON MONUMENT IN a worthy, painstaking Scot, who wrote a book, after

GUILDHALL. making a large fortune; and he states in that book, “I This monument has just been erected. The finishing came from Scotland as a mechanic, barefoot, to learn cotton touches, however, have not yet been given. It consists spinning in Manchester," or words to that effect, but I of a group of three colossal figures, representing the Duke shall have the book shortly, and will quote more accu- between peace and war, and a relievo, introduced below, rately.

of the Battle of Waterloo. It contains about 20 tons of Now, this Mr. John Kennedy was a manly-minded white Italian marble, and has been executed in two years, man, without vulgar pride, who was utterly above the at a cost to the City of £5,000. Mr. Bell, from whose meanness of seeking to appropriate other men's reputa-studio it proceeds, was on the Council of the Society of tion. He possessed portraits of all the chiefs and leaders Arts during the two years prior to the Exhibition of 1851, in cotton, and descanted on them from time to time when that scheme was agitating. At the request of the without hioting at any peculiar merit in himself. Now, Society he also prepared its manuals of freehand outline, is this the same Mr. John Kennedy alluded to by Mr. and he is now one of its Board of Examiners. Chadwick ? If it be, this looseness of statement in a paper of statistics gives an apocryphal air to the whole. Perhaps Mr. Chadwick will give us a short biographical

A NEW CYPHER. notice of the Mr. John Kennedy he alludes to, as a ques

The Secretary has received the following specimen of tion of historical accuracy, to put his paper on a proper la cypher, invented by Mr. N. G. Wilkins, of 27, St. footing.

Peter's-road, Mile-end, who desires the opinion of those I shall be glad if the editor will forward a copy of this

orward a copy of this versed in such matters as to its merits: to the Moniteur, in which Mr. Chadwick's paper was

280 R
112 A

25 Y published. It is a subjeet which can hardly be too much | The inventor states that the above is a short dissertadiscussed, and the acute French intellect will readily un- ' tion (about 100 words) on the subject of the cypher; that derstand that man in the abstract is not a mere politico

it was written in about ten minutes, and with the aid of economical syllogism, to be reasoned upon after the

the key may be translated in about six minutes, though farmer fashion, sacrificing all otherovine qualities to the

The considers it impossible to decypher it without such one consideration of producing good mutton-or cotton.

assistance.

THE WORKING CLASSES OF EUROPE.

Home Correspondence.
As the pages of the Journal contained, some months
since, an analysis of a volume on the condition of the
Working Classes of Europe, published last year at Paris,

BESSEMER IRON. by M. Le Play, Councillor of State, under the title of Sir,- When I wrote my remarks on the subject of the " Les Ouvriers Européens," it may be interesting to the “ Bessemer Process," which appeared in your Journal of members to know a few particulars concerning the success the 31st ult., I thought I had expressed myself clearly, of that publication, probably the most complete ever candidly, and temperately, but it appears your corresbrought out on this branch of social economy so intimately pondent Mr. H. W. Reveley has strangely misunderstood connected with the advancement of manufacturing and me, and he does not hesitate to impute motives, both to commercial industry.

myself and to manufacturers generally, which ought to It is a fact not easily to be accounted for, that in England, be disclaimed as being unworthy of the present time. where the importance of the subject is generally so well ap- I am sure it is not true, that either the leading practipreciated, M. Le Play's work has excited comparatively cal men, or the manufacturers generally of this great little attention. In Fance, the sale of the work has far country, which derives its foremost position from its zeal exceeded the expectation of its author, and more than 200 for improvements, both in the arts and sciences, have, copies have been disposed of in other continentalcountries, as he asserts, “ a doep-rooted anlipathy to all changes ;" nor to say nothing of orders received from more distant parts is it correct that they are influenced by such unworthy of the world, whilst the bookseller, Mr.Jeffs, of Burlington-notives as to combine to defeat any man's improvement, arcade, the appointed agent for this country, has scarcely because such individual may have secured it to himan order to report.

self by patent; much less is it possible that the iron To those persons who may have been rather deterred trade could abstain from adopting, even at a great cost, by the size of the volume than attracted by the typo-(however disposed to do so, as has been imputed to them,) graphical perfection with which it has been got up at the any mode in making iron or steel which would produc

a saving of 40s. per ton, as it was asserted by Mr.

WROUGHT IRON. Bessemer would be the result of introducing his process. SIR.-The various processes now under discussion for That which all manufacturers who know their business the conversion of crude cast iron, are all, without excepoppose, is the dictation of men who, being mere theorists tion, a revival of the Catalan forge under different cirand experimentalists, have the assurance to try to teach | cumstances and adaptations, and it may not be perhaps those whose whole attention has been directed to acquire | without its use to give a short account of that ancient a knowledge of their own business,-teachers whose con- and still practised method of producing bar iron, as well fidence in assertion is greatly pro rata with their igno-l as to show at the same time the identity of the processes rance. Imagining themselves to have something new, I both old and new. and something excellent, but very partially understanding The Catalan torge is merely a common smith's hearth the true nature of what they may be dealing with, they | on a very extensive scale, furnished with a powerful jump to conclusions which the more experienced readily | water-blast of not much less than 14 lbs. to the inch. see to be erroneous; and, prompted by men more ignorant | The blast is produced by two or more old-fashioned than themselves, they do not hesitate to condemn those blowing trunks, simply set in action by a fall of water of whose judgment and knowledge their own is but a from 20 to 30 feet in height. The hearth of the forge bare reflex at the best. and generally so imperfect as is very long, with a pool or basin immediately under the only to distort, nay, not unfrequently to imperil, the blast, and the tuyère, or nozzle, points downwards to the truth.

centre of the basin, at an angle of about 45°. My friend Mr. Hall, whose B.B.H. iron is known every-! A large quantity of chesnut wood charcoal is piled where as superior, and whose make cannot be less than | upon the hearth from end to end, and supposing the fuel 1.000 tons per week, has offered to give a large sum for ignited, the ore, as it comes from the mine, about threeMr. Bessemer to distribute among the public charities, if or four bushels at a time, is thrown on at the further he will either excel him in quality or economy, and has end, in order to be gradually roasted as it is slowly stirred also offered every facility for Mr. Bessemer to apply his onwards to the more heated portion of the fuel, where it process at the Bloomfield works, a challenge as fair as ultimately falls into the basin in the form of fluid castDr. Reveley could desire; but a life-time of experience has

iron. After the lapse of ten or fifteen minutes, occupied already shown Mr. Hall all that Mr. Bessemer has done,

| by the fireman in stirring the melted mass with a long and much more than he has yet produced.

iron bar, it becomes converted, by the combination of an Away, then, with the notion that the ironmasters are intense hollow fire with the powerful water-blast, into a unwilling to adopt improvements; nay, it is essential to

rough ingot or ball of malleable iron, which is hooked . their existence to encourage them; and the fact that so out and slipped under the water hammer, where it is many came from all parts to see, at Baxter-house, Mr.

drawn into commercial bar iron. No flux whatever is Bessemer's experiments, proves how ready,they are to ex

used with the ore, but water is abundantly sprinkled over amine every attempt towards improvement, but which is

the outside of the burning mass of fuel in order to pre(in this quarter at least) yet to come, as I said in my

vent useless combustion and concentrate the heat where last, ** from something still unspecified.”

most wanted. For finer descriptions of bar, the first Having satisfied Mr. Reveley, I trust, on this head, I

make is: faggoted as usual, and again drawn out until it will now simply again put forward Mr. Bessemer's pro

ssemer s pro- has acquired its ultimate state of toughness and tenacity. posal as it was given to ine :-" That his process was to | Who cannot see the identity of the action of the CataInake malleable iron of pure quality direct from the pig, lan forge with the puddling and finery processes, as well was to save the forge process, by enabling the manufacturer as with those of Bessemer and Martien? In the old to roll the ingot or product of his furnace at once into

method the smelting, puddling, and finery operations the bar, or rail, or plate, as required." Thus, a saving of

are all performed at one and the same time, as well as 40s. per ton was to be achieved, and not only so, but the

continuously, as fresh ore and fuel are added as fast as quality was to be more equal and pure than is attained |

they are removed or consumed, so as to lose neither time by any mode of operation previously known or at present nor heat; and though the operations may appear to be on practised.

a small scale, as they are continued day and night withBy putting aside the whole forge process, viz., the

out cessation, the produce is large, and direct from the necessary fuel and use of the puddling furnace, the

ore without further manipulation. shingling, rolling in the forge, and piling for the mill, no In Bessemer's and Martien's processes, the blast is updoubt such saving would accrue; therefore, any such pro• wards : in the Catalan forge, downwards; but the result position could not possibly be overlooked by the trade, l is the same, for the water blast is sufficiently powerful to as every individual interest would be involved, and penetrate the melted and well-stirred mass, and to connecessitate its universal adoption, if only once introduced.

doption, it only once introduced. vert it from crude cast-iron into malleable bar. But none of these, however, have yet been set aside, as / Lam not prepared to speak as to the relative economy insuperable objections are discovered and noted by the lofthe Catalan process, but may observe that it requires a very ironmasters in the proposed plan; indeed, on examination, I small capital to set up, beyond the necessary water power. it will prove to be more uncertain and more expensive In regard to the properties of the water blast, I can than the method in common use.

state from the experience I have had of two high Mr. Bessemer has done nothing more than is the re- I smelting furnaces in the same works, and under similar sult of Mr. Martien's patent, and it is questionable circumstances, with the exception of one being worked whether the process of the latter can be used with ad-by the water 'blast, while the other was supplied with vantage; while it is less pretentious, as it does not attempt the dry blast from an engine, that when malleable iron to do away with the forge process, but only to purify and was required, the pig from the water blast was infinitely economise in a moderate degree.

superior to that produced by the dry blast, and that I could give a full detail of the ordinary process of

when fine soft pig for casting was wanted, the latter manufacture, and point out where the difficulties of these had greatly the advantage. but no sharp castings can inventions must arise, but it would be too extended for | be made from charcoal furnaces. a mere letter, as it would embrace so many points of in- The position of the tuyères has also great influence terest, that, to do it justice, it should rather take the

on the quality of the pig. When they are inclined form of a paper for your Society, than appear among downwards towards the centre of the hearth, as in the your correspondence.

Catalan forge and water-blast high smelting furnaces, I am, &c.,

white hard pig is produced, but when they are horizonTHOMAS M. GLADSTONE.

tal, soft grey pig is the result.-I am, &c.,

HENRY W. REVELEY. 11, Austin Friars, Nov. 11, 1856.

| Poole, Dorset, Nov. 10, 1856.

AMPHIBIOUS CARRIAGES.

sals, fastened in proper frame work, in which these longer Sir,--Mr. Bourne having applied to me for drawings rods are securely fixed. To the unattached ends of these of Sir Samuel Bentham's amphibious carriages, my at- latter rods are the four pointers or tracers, which trace the tention has been drawn to the navigation of the smaller | motions made in the articulation of speech. rivers of India, and I herewith trouble you with a copy 1 It may here be observed, that none of these natural of my letter to him. I had also informed him that motions are straight, but each word forms a combination Sir Samuel had found no difficulty in steering the

of curves, proportioned in their size to the vehemence jointed vessels he invented.

or lowness with which the words are uttered. "A principal objection to the navigation of the lesser! The tracers are placed in sockets, to which are atrivers of India, is that they are liable to have their tached sinall helical springs; from each of these tracers course obstructed by rocks and rapids. It has, there is a small wire, fastened to a string, by which the speaker fore, occurred to me that this difficulty might be ob- lifts the pencils from the paper at the termination of viated by constructing a short railroad at such places each word or syllable. to convey the boats themselves, without unloading them,

1 The pointers must have small adjusting springs to and resuming navigation when the rocks and rapids keep them in position, before and after using. The head should be passed. It would be easy to keep a supply is to be kept steady in speaking, so as to give regularity of wheels at each station, so that the navigable vessels to the written or traced lines. The method of trial which should not be encumbered by them, and the wheels I adopted was extremely simple-consisting of two slides might speedily be attached, as was proved in the in- or guides for the carriage, on which was fastened the stance of Sir Samuel Bentham's amphibious carriage. I tracing paper-a long screw, a spur wheel, catch and No engineering difficulty or costly works would be re- handle. At cach word or syllable I moved a tooth. And quired for a kind of dock at each station, where the although the motions were not well defined, from the boats might be hauled on to the rail. In some cases

loose construction of the machine, they were sufficiently the force of gravitation might be made available by the satisfactory to establish a belief, that if a machine were descending boat and cargo drawing up the ascending one." | perfectly constructed, and regularity given to the motion

I am, &c., M. S. BENTHAM. of the carriage by further mechanical arrangement, the 26, Wilton-place, 10th November.

pointers being so adjusted as to give clear room for the

movements of each tracer, so that they need not be lifted STENOGRAPHIC MACHINE.

until the completion of each word, or not at all, it SIR, -As I am not aware that any stenographic or short

would give not only the time taken in uttering a speech, hand machine has ever been constructed or invented, the

but also the time and nature of accent on each word or following description of such an effort may not be unin

sentence. The practised ear, by means of the slethoscope, teresting as a preliminary to a fuller development of the

can readily detect the unhealthy affections of the lungs; contrivance. The most essential conditions for such a

so I think as readily may the practised eye detect the machine, are quickness and precision; so that the slowest

peculiarities of words and speech (to coin a word) by as well as quickest speakers shall have, not only their

means of the vocalagraph. speech, but their idiomatic peculiarities and manner of

The chief difficulty will be in obtaining correctly the delivery clearly represented, as nearly as art can do it. I

motions of the tongue. To obtain them correctly may be A stenographic letter or type machine will never ac

an insuperable difficulty-yet they may be obtained with complish this, being of a mechanical nature, and not

sufficient accuracy to give a varied form to the expression possessing the expression of sound, if I may so say, 1);

of each word, which is all that can be required. If one in its arrangement. I constructed two different ma

linguadental tracer be not sufficient for the purpose, chines on this principle some months ago and al

one or two others might be added, with small horithough considerable dexterity could be acquired in their

air zontal pieces attached for the tongue. The larynx, manipulation, I did not think the plans good enough for

vocal chords, and guttural and nasal sounds I have not further prosecution. I therefore reflected on the sugges

considered, as I think they will be found more useful in tion, that all speech is the result of motional arrange

the modulation of tone, than in the formation of speech. ment-chiefly of the tongue and lips ; and that the

Walker, in his “ Observations on the Greek and Latin articulation of different words required a corresponding

Accent," says, “ But till the human voice, which is the change in muscular motion. I naturally concluded, if

dod same in all ages and nations, is more studied and better access could be obtained to these speech-producing

:n understood, and till a notation of speaking sounds is adopted, motions, they could, by mechanical means, be trans- |

I despair of conveying my ideas of this subject with ferred to paper. This transfer I partly effected in the

sufficient clearness." He afterwards expresses his confollowing rough way:-I got four pieces of plane

viction that the ancients had a notation of speaking tree, one for the chin, one for each lip, and one for the

sounds, and states that he had formed one for himtongue. Each of these pieces I had thinly cut and

1 self, and that he hopes some one will be able to unravel formed to suit their respective places. That for the

this mystery in letters, which has long been the approtongue was, as I foresaw, most difficult to arrange; how

| brium et crux granimaticorum, the reproach and torment ever, I did arrange it so as to produce motion, though im

him of grammarians.

I am yours, &c., perfectly. To each of these pieces I had a thin piece of

THOMAS ALMGILL. slightly elastic thread passing round the head, to keep

or

Mone

Manchester, Nov. 17, 1856. them in position when acted on by the organs of speech. | INDESTRUCTIBLE NATURE OF FERNS. To each of these pieces I had jointed four other long Sir,-Ferns are said to withstand the effects of even & pieces of about eight inches respectively, and not quite very prolonged immersion in water, with scarcely any so thick as an ordinary penholder. That, of course, for change, whilst not only the soft tissue of plants, but the the tongue at its extremity, was made much thinner, so heart wood of trees, decays so completely under the same as to work with as little obstruction as possible. About circumstances, as to leave little or no traces of their half-way, or at the distance of four inches from the character. * Have any experiments been made to turn mouth, these small rods passed or worked freely through to account the above cited property of Ferns, whether jointed sockets, fixed in suitable bearings, and connected for admixture with water cements, formation of durable at their ends to the ends of four other longer rods, of cordage o.tissues, and with what practical results ? about eighteen inches in length, and placed at right Information on this subject will oblige, Sir, yours,'&c., angles to the smaller set, the ends of each being con

GEORGE TWEMLOW," nected by joints. These joints are loose. At the distance of fifteen inches from these joints are four univer

Colonel Royal Artillery. Vegetable Physiology and Botany, p. 29.

EXAMINATIONS.

accorded to the Institution has been such as to contrast Sir, It was with a feeling of considerable regret that

unfavourably with that which it received in the preceding I read in the Society's Journal of last week that no cer

portion. The number of general members entered, which tificated schoolmaster would, henceforth, be permitted to

was for the first quarter of the past year 373, has only attend the Society's examinations.

amounted in the last quarter to 207. Notwithstanding No doubt the Council had weighty reasons for coming

this, however, there is on the whole year a decided into such a decision, but I would beg permission, neverthe-cr

crease over the year preceding. The number of Hono less, to point out a reason why I think it would be pro

vould be pro rary Members subscribing during the past year has ductive of good if they were to waive that decision with amounted to 92 ; and the number of general members enregard to one particular subject of examination. The

tered has been an average of 294 in each quarter. The subject I allude to is chemistry.

number admitted by transferable cards has been 60, It may be the opinion of the Council of the Society of

making an average total of 440. Compared with the Arts, that as the Committee of Privy Council on Educa_previous year there has been an increase of 31 honorary tion hold special examinations for masters in this subject,

members, 101 general members, and of 16 in the numthere would be less excuse for admitting them to the

ber admitted by transferable cards, or a total increase of chemistry paper than for other subjects not recognised by

148. From the financial statement it appears that there the Committee of Council. And so indeed there would,

has this year been an addition of upwards of £35 to the if certificated schoolmasters, who have worked up this

debt existing at the close of last year. On the whole, extra subject, could present themselves at the Govern

however, the Committee do not think there is much ment examination in chemistry at their own pleasure ;

reason to despond, or to fear that the Institution will but this is very far from being the case. No certificated not recover from its present partial depression. The schoolmaster in charge of a school can present himself at

| Library has this year received considerable additions, such examination without the consent and recommendation both by purchase and by donations. The total number of a majority of the committee of his school. " But surely." of volumes purchased during the year has been 143, you will say, " there can be no difficulty in obtaining Seventy-five volumes have also been added by donation, that." How many masters would rejoice with me if it | The number of volumes now in the Library is 4,504. were so ! But so a verse are the majority of school mana. In the deliveries there has been an increase of 1,292 over gers to the introduction of anything like erperimental those of the year preceding. The Classes in operation science into National Schools, that there is scarcely one during the year, with the average number of members, school in a dozen where the master would be allowed to have been as follows Writing and Arithmetic, junior attend the examination, which, if successfully passed, section, 6

massed section, 66 members ; Writing and Arithmetic, senior would qualify him for the use of apparatus, a grant of

ant of section, 32 members ; Mechanical Drawing, 22 members; which would be made to the school on his account at one

Landscape Drawing, 9 members; French Language, 10 third the cost.

members; Reading and Elocution, 14 members; ChemIn a large school, of which I was master two years back,

| istry, 12 members; Mutual Improvement, 13 members; I not only offered to attend the examination, but actually | Essay and Discussion, 36 members. Total, 214 ; or an offered one-half the money towards purchasing the appa

increase of 88 over the number attending in the previous ratus, so that the managers would have had to pay but year;. ?

year. Two lectures have this year been delivered in the one-sixth of the cost, and even then I was refused per

Reading-room ; the first by the Rev. Richard Boyle, on mission to attend. I have, also, frequently met with

v met with Shakspeare's " Merchant of Venice;" the other, on the masters in the same, and even worse circumstances.

“ Study of the French Language," by M. A. Podevin, Only a fortnight back I was assured by a friend that he

teacher of the French Class at the Institution. . had offered to attend the examination and to pay the

BRIGG.–On Monday, the 6th inst., the tenth annual whole of the managers' one-third for the purchase of the

general meeting of the members of the Reading Society apparatus-which would still have belonged to the school was held in their reading-room, W. Brocklesby, Esq., and not to himself—but so wisely were they convinced

ved l in the chair. The report of the committee for the past that it was not good for boys to be educated by means of year,

s of year, which was read by the secretary, showed that the which they had neither the time nor perhaps the capacity Society continues in a very prosperous condition, having to learn the value, that they refused his request though

onest though at the present time, besides honorary members, 203 prothe apparatus should cost them nothing.

prietary members, whose subscriptions for the past year Such instances as these being the rule and not the ex. amounted to £100 128. 6d. ; that the library now contains ception. I trust the Council will consider them a strong 922 volumes, of which 92 have been added during the plea for waiving the exclusion of certificated school- / year; that 13,040 entries were made in the librarian's masters from their examination in chemistry, or at least register of the circulation of books, periodicals, and news.. all those who cannot attend the government examination.

papers, between the 31st August, 1855, and the 1st SepThose who have passed the government examination in

tember, 1856, being an excess of 2,710 entries over any chemistry will scarcely wish to be examined, but the previous year. The treasurer's statement showed a Conncil of the Society of Arts will be doing a friendly

balance in the Society's favour of £22 5s. 31d. The foloffice for others, as it has already done for me, by putting

lowing gentlemen were appointed as the committee for "its stamp" upon the knowledge of those who-having

the ensuing year, viz., John Hett, Esq., president; John obtained it-have been refused permission not only to

Danber, Esq., vice-president; Mr. John Hewson, treaapply it, but to have it legitimately acknowledged.

surer; Messrs. S. Upton and J. Parker, secretaries; and I should feel greatly obliged by your laying this before

Messrs. W. Brocklesby, Thos. Freer, W. Nicholson, J. the Council.

B. Moxon, Wm. Hart, H. T. Jackson, J. Lofley, G.
Lofley, and Thos. Mason. The propriety of establishing

classes in drawing and other important branches of knowLondon-road, Reigate, Nov. 1st, 1856,

ledge, for the benefit of the junior members, and with a view to enable this Society further to participate in the advantages of union with the Society of Arts, was considered, and the committee for the ensuing year were requested to take all necessary steps for instituting such classes as early as it can be found practicable to do so.

The sum of £10 out of the balance in the treasurer's BOLTON.–The Committee, in presenting the Thirty- hands was directed to be expended in the purchase of a first Annual Report of the Mechanics' Institution, regret further supply of new books. Votes of thanks were that during the latter half of the past year the support | given to the officers of the past year, and after the

I am, &C. OUN JONES.

Proceedings of Institutions.

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