his hands a book, in which he was in- I press for the production of these papers or formed he would find the principles laid not. He knew the arguments with which down, upon which the directors wished he should be met: he should be told that their officers to act. There was only one it would be unsafe to agitate this question paragraph in that book, which related to in this country, and that persons here the subject now under discussion, which could not understand the bearing of it. set forth, that while those who did not But he saw nothing to awaken an appreprofess Christianity should not be ex- hension, that by discussing this topic they posed to persecution, but should be pro- would in the slightest degree endanger or tected, Christians also ought not to be impair the stability of the British empire compelled to comply with practices which in India. He had already pointed the their consciences disapproved; and that attention of their Lordships to one conclu the neutrality of the Government in reli- sive fact, that the practices in Bombay gious questions should be perfect, for and Madras were unknown in the other while, on the one hand, they should not presidencies; and he could not underforce Christianity on the people, on the stand why, since there was no difference other hand, they should not evince any in the habits or religion, or religious obapprobation of idolatry. Now, was it servances of the people, there should be a possible to suppose, when that distin- difference as to the interference of the guished person had this book placed in British troops with their religious prachis hands, and when he found that Sir tices. What was safely done with Robert O'Callaghan had issued the order 50,000,000 of people, might be safely already mentioned, that in carrying out done with 20,000,000. From the con. the principles therein set forth, he was current testimony of many wise and good incurring the displeasure of the Govern- men, who had lived in India, and well ment? He believed, however, that the order considered the subject, it was clear that was revoked by the Government, and Sir hardly anything would more tend to Peregrine Maitland, finding that he could cement the foundations, and secure the not conscientiously proceed to discharge continuance, and increase the influence the duties of the post he occupied, placed of the British Government in that country, at the disposal of the Court the command than a firm, consistent determination on of the army at Madras, and his seat in the part of the Government not to interthe council. The reply which he received, fere with the superstitious practices of the was understood to be to the effect, that people-not to thwart or hinder their he had tendered his resignation under an wishes, nor to withdraw any means of erroneous impression - nevertheless his protection to which, by treaty or law, resignation was accepted. Amongst the they were entitled, but at the same time, papers for which he now moved, was the to refrain from all interference, which correspondence between the Court of Di- could by possibility be construed into a rectors and Sir Peregrine Maitland. There sanction of idolatry. He was bound to might be objections to the production of say, that the Government had taken one that correspondence upon grounds with step of which he approved: they had which he was not acquainted; but if given directions for the discontinuance of those objections came from the Court of the pilgrim-tax, that source whence the Directors, he must say, that it was due Government had drawn an immense to the distinguished and gallant indivi- amount of money, part of which went out dual concerned, that they should produce again to the support of idolatry, and part those papers, because in them was to be remained an unholy addition to the gains found the justification of a step which of the company. The tax was abolished no military chief should take, except in the district of Allahabad, but there He believed were many other cases in which revenues, upon strong grounds. but he spoke without any positive inform- were drawn from idolatry; and was it ation that the tendered resignation was not to be deplored, that a Christian not only accepted by the Court of Direc- Government should seek to derive profit tors, but by another branch of the from the superstitions of idolatry, while Government. He should be glad to hear professing to be the worshippers of the what the noble Viscount at the head of true God? And let it be remembered, Her Majesty's Government, would say be- that he spoke not merely of the worship fore he determined whether he should of idols in simple distinction from the VOL. L. {T}


worship of the true God, but of a system which included obscenities, barbarities, and crimes which found no parallel in all the pages of classical mythology. Nothing could exceed the atrocities which were committed under the name of religion in India. The consequence was the entire degradation of the character of the natives, until they had become notoriously and proverbially regardless of truth and honour, so that no testimony given in a court of justice by a native Hindoo, could be relied upon. He did not wish the prejudices of these people to he interfered with in any improper manner; but he would have every means used to let them see that we felt that we were in possession of a holier and a happier religion, which, if they embraced it, would be the means of promoting their prosperity here, as well as their happiness hereafter. He would not have anything done, which would lead them to think it was a matter of indifference, whether they should embrace the true religion, or live in the practices of idolatry. That appeared to him to be so plain, so clear, and so faultless a course, that he could not anticipate what objections could be started against it, except those which were suggested by expediency. But if, indeed, we could secure our dominion of that vast territory-if we must be masters of that immense population, only at the expense of sacrificing the holiness of our own religion, he confessed he would rather give up all; nay, he believed, all attempts to retain it would be in vain, if we acted upon such a principle; for he never could suppose that a merciful Providence, which had entrusted us with that empire for the purpose of carrying out its benevolent designs towards mankind, would keep it in our possession that we should abuse our power and our privilege, and make that a dominion for Satan, which we ought to convert into a kingdom for God. He would now move for

"Copies of so much of any despatches sent by the court of Directors to India since the 8th of August, 1830, as relates to the abolition of taxes in India, connected with religious observances of the natives, or to the employment of Christian troops in the religious processions and festivals of the natives. Also, copy of the memorial sent to the Governorgeneral from the presidency of Madras on the subject of the attendance of Christian troops at the religious precessions and festivals of the natives; togethe. with the appendix to such

memorial. And also, copies of the despatch
of the 18th of October, 1837, to the Governor-
general in Council, No. 14, Revenue Depart-
ment; and of Sir Peregrine Maitland's letter
thereon to the Court of Directors, tendering
army, and of his seat in council."
his resignation of the command of the Madras

Before he sat down, he would trouble the opinion of an individual who had retheir Lordships so far as to read to them sided long enough in India to take an accurate estimate of the question-one who was eminently distinguished by his services in the cause of religion-the Bishop of Calcutta. The extract was from a charge delivered by that right rev. prelate in July, 1838 :—

"Before I quit the subject of missions, it may be proper for me to mention the great obstruction to the progress of the gospel, which has been directed to be renewed by that reof February, 1833, which did them so much markable despatch of the Court of Directors honour, and which is, indeed, one of the most able and conclusive documents I ever read. What progress has been actually made in India itself, in carrying into effect the aboliobserve that delay is creating feelings of sortion of the pilgrim-tax, I am not informed. I row and impatience in the generous hearts of British Christians.

brethren, that everything we can properly do I can only say, rev. to direct and rouse public opinion, both here and at home, it is our duty to undertake. It is frightful to think, after all that Providence has done for us in India, that we should be debased idolatries-should still be identifying still countenancing the most degrading and ourselves with the blood-stained car of Juggernaut; and should still be enlisting the Christian virtues of prudence, sagacity, forti tude, and perseverance, in arranging the abominations, in preparing and decking out ting idolatry. Thank God, we are exempt, the pageants, of the grossest and most polludirect countenance, which at Madras and on this side of India, from the personal and Bombay the authorities are understood to be called upon to give to heathenism and Mahometanism. I need not say that I honour Bishop Corrie, for the manly and, to his gentle nature, difficult part he took on this subject; and I beg to be understood to partake, as metropolitan, in all the sentiments of the memorial, which has brought down such unmerited calumny on his name, but which will ever be considered as amongst his highest eulogiums by all who estimate the duties of a Christian bishop."

Viscount Melbourne hoped he felt as deeply impressed as any man, with a sense of the serious nature of the subject upon which the right rev. Prelate had descanted; he hoped he felt the importance

of the subject to this country, and to the
great spiritual and future interests of the
people concerned, as well as to the sta-
bility of that vast empire, which we now
possessed in India.
He did not in any
respect disagree upon the general princi-
ples upon which that empire ought to be
religiously governed. He agreed with the
right rev. Prelate, that every respect
should be shown to the religious preju-
dices of the country-that no disrespect
or insult should be offered to the religious
feelings of the inhabitants-and that at
the same time no undue honour should be
paid, no unnecessary respect should be
shown, to their superstitions; and that
all practices which could be construed to
giving any sanction to them, should be
carefully abstained from. He would not
enter further into the general considera-
tion of this question on this occasion; but
he had hoped, and he still hoped, that on
these general principles, there was no dis-
agreement. The right rev. Prelate had
given a history of the proceedings in con-
nexion with this subject, from the time of
the despatch of 1833, down to that period
of the last year, when he did, unques-
tionably, in answer to an observation of
that right rev. Prelate, inform him, that
measures were about to be taken by the
Court of Directors of the East India Com-
pany, which he hoped would prove effec-
tual in securing the object which the right
rev. Prelate so much desired, and answer
the expectations of those in whose names
he spoke. It was with great concern that
he learnt from the right rev. Prelate, that
he considered that pledge as remaining
unfulfilled; because, as far as he under-
stood the objection taken on the present
occasion, and the reasons and principles
laid down by the right rev. Prelate, it ap-
peared that the despatch sent out in-
structing the Governor-general of India,
which had been laid before the House, did
proceed upon the very principles laid
down by that right rev. Prelate. They all
admitted the justice of those principles,
and he believed it was the intention of the
Government here and in India to carry it
into effect. The right rev. Prelate had
spoken of the pilgrim-tax; and what said
the despatch?

"In the same spirit we have again to express our anxious desire, that you should accomplish, with as little delay as practicable, the arrangements already in progress for the abolition of the collection of the pilgrim-tax,

and for discontinuing all connexion of the Government with the management of any funds for the support of any religious ceremonies of the people. It is our wish that you should leave them exclusively to the management of their own priests."

That he understood to be the course.

which the Government wished to be taken. That was the course which the Government had pursued, and Government was still proceeding in the same tinuance of all sanction on the part of course, in order to effect the total disconthe authorities to the religious ceremonies of the natives. The right rev. Prelate had said, that they maintained all the pagodas; that they managed the funds, and that they supported the temples; and he had asked, why the Government did not discontinue this connexion, and leave those matters to be settled by the native priests. Now, he would ask whether it which he had alluded, that the Governwas not fully shown by the despatch to ment was anxious to adopt such a course and to leave the management of the temples and revenues to the natives themselves?

following passage, which showed clearly That despatch contained the what the intentions of the Government

were. It said :

that the management of the temples ought to "We wish it to be distinctly understood, he resigned into the hands of the natives, and that the intercourse of all the public authorities with the natives, in regard to those matters, ought to be regulated by the instructions contained in section 62 of the despatch of 1833."

Those instructions prevented the soldiers from being called on to take a part in the religious ceremonies of the natives; but he thought no alteration should be made in the practice as regarded escorts to the princes of the country, as it was evident that those escorts were in honour of the individual, and not of the occasion. The right rev. Prelate had stated that those escorts took part in the religious ceremonies, and that the honour was considered by the natives as paid to the idol, and not to the prince. Unquestionably, it was his opinion that every means should be adopted, and every precaution taken, to show that this mark of respect was paid to the person, and not to the idol; but he must say at the same time, that in his opinion it would not be prudent at the present moment, to discontinue the paying of that mark of respect to the native princes, which had hitherto been paid.

Lord Brougham said, their Lordships were all greatly obliged to the right rev. Prelate for the able, eloquent, and touching manner in which he had brought this important matter under their consideration. He quite agreed in much that had fallen from the right rev. Prelate, and thought that those religious ceremonies ought to receive no encouragement from the Government. He felt, however, that he should not be doing his duty if he did not say, that it was too unqualified a condemnation to state that the natives of India were not be believed upon their oath in a court of justice. There were many natives of India of high character, and in whom implicit confidence might be placed. From his attendance before the Privy Council, where cases relative to India were decided, he was able to speak from experience on this subject, and he should have been unjust to the natives of that country if he had not said this much in their defence.

The Bishop of London said, that the noble and learned Lord must be aware that he had not included all the natives of India. There were many enlightened natives of India in whom perfect confidence might be placed, and his observations did not apply to those persons, nor did they include every one.

It was his wish, certainly, to see those. religious ceremonies discountenanced, and the Christian religion established; but at the same time it was necessary, in seeking the attainment of that object, that they should proceed according to the dictates of prudence; for if they did not attend to what prudence required, their measures might not only endanger the loss of the country, but prove injurious also to religion itself. He had certainly hoped that the despatch which had been sent out would have satisfied the right rev. Prelate, and he was sorry to find that it had not. He still, however, trusted that it would be found that there was no material difference in the course which the right rev. Prelate wished to be followed, and that which had actually been pursued by the Government. He hoped the differences might be reconciled, and that there would be found no great discrepancies of opinion, and that they might all labour by the same means for the attainment of that result which all, he was sure, were equally anxious to see accomplished. As regarded the papers which the right rev. Prelate had moved for, he had to state, that he had no objection to the production of the two first; they had already been laid before the other House of Parliament, and their production could not be attended with any inconvenience. As regarded the The Duke of Richmond said, the noble despatch of the 18th of October 1837, to Viscount at the head of the Government the Governor-General in Council, it had had not told them why, if it was safe to not been yet produced, but he had no ob- discontinue in one province all interference jection to its production. As regarded, on the part of the authorities of India in however, the letter to the Court of Direc- the religious ceremonies of the natives, it tors from Sir P. Maitland, considering was not equally safe to discontinue that that it was the letter of a general officer, interference in all. He held in his hand and that it contained a statement of the a document in which the character of those reasons which had induced him to resign ceremonies was described. It was said in his command, he would put it to the House that document, that the religious rites and whether it was a document which ought ceremonies of the natives might be well to be produced? That general officer had termed scenes of folly, licentiousness, and thought proper to tender his resignation, cruelty, for they were of a character from but there was no charge against his cha- which the most abandoned persons in racter or conduct, and there was nothing Europe would revolt with horror. He in the proceedings which called for a vin- confessed that he had never before imadication of his conduct; and he would,gined that such scenes could have been therefore, put it to their Lordships, without entering upon any further explanation of the transaction, whether this was a document of a nature or of a character which ought to be produced? There were other reasons against the production of this document, and he trusted the right rey. Prelate would not press for its production,

sanctioned by a Christian Government. It was certainly not his desire to employ force, and he only wished that the Government should afford facilities to the natives of becoming Christians, and that no encouragement should be given to their religious ceremonies. He must, however, say, that he could not understand the course which had been pursued by the

Government, or by the Court of Directors. | pire. He would entreat their Lordships After the despatch which had been sent never to lose sight of that fact. He knew, out in 1833, it appeared to him rather too, from experience, for he had seen the strange that such a course should have missionaries at work, the little progress been adopted as had been pursued towards which they made, and he knew, at the same an officer, who had resigned because he time, that they created a good deal of had been prevented from carrying the in- jealousy. He warned the Government not tentions of that despatch into execution. to go too far in their measures against the He, therefore, wished to see the letter of idolatry of India, for the Indian empire his gallant relative produced, because, as was one of great importance, and they it appeared to him, they ought to know must not expect to convert 100,000,000 the grounds on which that officer's resig- of idolaters to our holy religion by the nation had been accepted. His gallant small means at their disposal. In regard relative did not object to his resignation to what had been stated by the noble Duke having been accepted, but the Government (Richmond) relative to Sir P. Maitland, had said that he had been mistaken, and he could have no doubt that that gallant he thought some explanation of this mat- officer had resigned his command, as every ter was necessary. Whatever might have honourable man ought, because he had been the grounds for having accepted the found himself unable to perform what was resignation of this gallant officer, he was required from him. There could be no persuaded that Sir P. Maitland had only doubt on that point. He had not seen done his duty as a soldier and a Christian, the paper which had been alluded to, but and he felt grateful to the right rev. Pre- he could have no doubt, from what he late for having brought this subject in so knew of Sir P. Maitland, that he had able a manner under the consideration of conducted himself as a man of honour their Lordships, because he felt that a re- and a soldier. In his opinion, however, medy ought to be applied to prevent the the papers relative to those transactions continuance of those revolting ceremonies. were of such a peculiar nature, and of so The Duke of Wellington had served in delicate a character, that they ought not India for a considerable length of time, to be produced here, for, if they were probut he had never seen, he had never duced in this country, they would cer heard of, anything so revolting in the re-tainly find their way to India. The noble ligious ceremonies of the natives, as had been described by the noble Duke and by the right rev. Prelate. The whole army, while he was in India, except about 50,000 men, consisted of idolators, but they were as good soldiers as could be found any where. They performed in the best manner whatever service was required of them, and certainly at that time the object of the Government, and of every man in the The Duke of Wellington said, there service of the Government, was to avoid were Mahometans in all the armies, but he not only to interfere, but even to seem to was not able to say the proportion to the interfere, in any manner in the idola- Hindoos. He had no hesitation, however, trous rites and ceremonies of the country. in saying, that the Hindoos generally preHe had seen none of the despatches which dominated, and particularly in the army had been alluded to, and he must say, of Fort St. George, and he never rememthat he had seen too much in his own ex-bered any question on this subject having perience to encourage the practice of pro- been raised. ducing documents of this description. He begged their Lordships to recollect, that, with the exception of about 20,000 of her Majesty's troops, and with the exception of the civil servants of the Government, and the few European residents, there was not a man in India who was not an idolater, to manage and to regulate the affairs of that most extensive and important em.

Viscount had not done quite right, he thought, in consenting so readily to the production of those despatches.

The Bishop of London said, his complaint was, that the scruples of the Mahometans were respected, while the Christian soldiers were forced to attend those religious ceremonies. He should not press for the letter from Sir P. Maitland.

The documents moved for were ordered, with exceptions.

COURT OF ADMIRALTY.] The Lord Chancellor rose to state to their Lordships the nature and objects of this bill, and be would assure them, that he should trespass as shortly as possible on their time. The Admiralty Court was one of great

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