“The council broke up, and all parties were prise of the people. I have mentioned this insatisficd. When the sultan left the yourt and cident to show what the Kirghis will do with appeared before his tribe all his splendor, horses that have never been in harness; but the nothing could exceed their astonishment; they danger is too great to be pleasant, and my

fellow evidently thought no earthly monarch could traveller, as well as myself, thought one such surpass him in grandeur.”

risk sufficient.” A Kirghis horse race differs greatly from Nevertheless greater risk was run some that of a Goodwood Cup day, for it is over a time afterwards in a sledge and three. course thirty or forty miles long, the object Many details in the work will interest the being to test the endurance of the horse as naturalist. We quote an anecdote destined, well as his speed. The festivities attendant no doubt, to find its way into many a boy's on this advantageous contract with the direc-book : tor of the mines ended with a horse race, in “I have mentioned in my former work that which the distance of thirty-three miles was the bearcoot is trained for hunting by thc Kirghis. run in an hour and forty-two minutes. Car- But I have said nothing of his prowess in his riage travelling behind these horses must be wild state, when he sports on his own accoant, exciting, Mr. Atkinson describes two such and sometimes plunders other ravagers of their rides. One was in a tarantas and twelve :- prey. The following incident will illustrate his

power and courage, besides showing that he “The author, with an artillery officer, in a would prove a formidable opponent to any unlight tarantas, had once boen driven with Cos- armed man, if hunger prompted him to disputo sack horses to an aoul about sixty versts from possession of his gaine. the piquet, where our attendants left us to return Three of these dark monarchs of the sky wero home with their horses the following morning. seen soaring high above the crags to the south, Having spent some days in pheasant shooting, which were too abrupt to ride over. Wc thcrc. we prepared to leave our hospitable host, to visit fore piqueted our horses to feed, and began to another chicf, who lived at a five hours' ride dis- ascend the mountain slope. In about an hour tant. Our friend provided us with horses and and a half we reached the summit, and dean escort of his Kirghis, who, with the help of scended into a small wooded valley, when we our two Cossacks, succeeded in fastening six to observed the bearcoots wheeling round towards our tarantas. One of our men mounted the box, the upper end, in which direction wo hastened. and took the reins of the wheelers, and four Having gone at a quick walk for about thrco Kirghis rode the others. But all their efforts miles, we reached a rocky glen that led us into could not make them move the carriage a single a valley of the Bean, known to be a favorito re yard.

sort of the animals we were sccking. A small • The old chief was exceedingly angry, and torrent ran foaming through its centre, and ordered six more to be attached, with broad mountains rose on each side far above the snowstraps of hide across their chests, and ropes form- line. In singular contrast with the rich foliage ing traces-rather slender tackle for rampant and luxuriant herbage in the valley, the lower and plunging animals. The lines of horses and slopes facing the south were almost destituto men made a formidable contrast with our small of verduro, while those facing the north were vehicle at their hcels; but the chief felt that the clothed with a dense forest. honor of his cattle was at stake. When the We had scarcely entered this sylvan spot word was given to proceed, some of the team when a singular spectacle was presented to our reared and plunged on one side, as they felt the view. A large maral had been hunted down by traces tighten against their ribs; others bounded three wolves, who had just scized him, and the

i in the opposite direction, seemingly intent upon ravenous brutes were tearing the noble animal to tearing the carriage in half. During the confu- pieces while yet breathing. We instantly prosion which followed the leaders made a double, pared to inflict punishment op two of the beasts, and rushed up to the carriage, appearing more and crept quietly along under cover to get within inclined to ride than draw. After many efforts range.' We succeeded, and were levelling oor they were once more got into line, with mounted rifles, when Sergæ called my attention to two Kirghis on both sides of each pair. This suc- large bearcoots, poising aloft and preparing for ceeded, and away they went at a gallop, while a swoop. He whispered," Don't fire, and we the Kirghis shouted with joy as they rushed on shall sce some grand sport.” ward over the plain.

Presently one of the cagles shot down like an “This was a scene I shall never forget. The arrow, and was almost instantly followed by the men were enraptured, caring nothing for the other. When within about forty yards of the bounds of the carriage, which rendered it no casy group, the wolves caught sight of them, and inmatter to keep our seats. Even the horses en- stantly stood on the defensive, showing their tered into the spirit of the race, for this it more rc- long yellow fangs, and uttering a savage howl. sembled than travelling. After about an hour's In a few seconds the first bearcoot struck his gallop the stocds became more reconciled to their prey: one talon was fixed on his back, the other work; still, some refractory animal occasionally on the upper part of his neck, completely securshowed a desire to be free and range over the ing the head, while he tore out the wolf's liver vast plain around him. Night was closing in with his beak. The other bearcoot had seized fast when we dashed up to tlic aoul of the chief, another wolf, and shortly both were as lifeless as the team white with foam, greatly to the sur-l the animal they had huvted.

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“The third brute snarled when his comrades set imals, and the feathered race that inhabit them; up their wailing howls, and started for the cover; and the daring attack by the bearcoots was the he was soon within range, when a puff of white most interesting scene he had witnessed.” smoke rose from Sergæ's rifle, and the wolf rolled over, dead. The report startled the bear- We have quoted only from those lighter coots, but we remained concealed, and they portions of the book which will ensure its commenced their repast on the stag. Their at- popularity, but it is most to be valued for its tack had been made with so much gallantry: interesting geographical details and for the that neither the old hunter nor myself could sketches of characteristic scenery with which raiso a rifle against them, or disturb their ban. it is illustrated. Mr. Atkinson cares quite qnet. When satisfied, they soared up to somo lofty crags, and Sergæ took off the skins of the as much for plains, rivers, and mountains as poachers, which he intended keeping as trophies for men in those far lands'; he has a painter's bravely won by the eagles.

pleasure in the rock and water, and as to the “My old friend had spent thirty years in the ground he traverses, has also science enough vast forests and mountains of Asia. He was to tell him what to tell. thoroughly acquainted with the habits of the an

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The word “ventilate” is of no modern ori.

“Ventiler, v. a. Il signifie aussi, discuter gin; it was used in England before the existence une affaire, agiter, débattre une question avant of America was known to civilizcd man.

que d'en délibérer en forme. Il faut ventiler preIt was the ordinary term used in courts of law mièrement cetle affaire; co sens est vieux." from the earliest day to signify the raising of Arno's Court.

JOHN WILLIAMS. a discussion on any point. (See Du Cange, Notes and Queries. Ventilare causam-eam agitare, de ea disserere.") An instance of its use in France is cited, A.D.

FOUR-BLADED CLOVER.J. N. asks for some 1367 :

corroboration for belief in this incantation, and

I may mention that in the west as well as in the “Et toutes leurs causes mues et à mouvoir, “far north" of our country, although the belief soient ventillées et determinées en nostro i has not fairly died out, it is in a rapid state of chambre de Parlement."

decay. Boys and girls in their summer rambles Another instance is cited more than two cen

in the fields may yet sometimes be discovered turies earlier :

carefully searching for the four-leaved clover, not

however as an object of superstition, but as one Cumque diu hæc causa fuit ventilata."

of curiosity, being extremely rare to be found. In pleadings in our own courts, especially the

Its use in dispersing the power of “glamour," ecclosiastical, thc word is of ordinary occurrence, ancient times ; indeed nobody knows how long.

or of witchcraft, has been famous since the most and has been used for at least seven centuries.

X. X.

A curious illustration may be cited from the

Last Battell of the Soule in Death, by Mr. ZachYour American correspondent H. N. will find ary Boyd, 1629 (p. 68; reprint, 1831, p. 24), that the word “ ventilato" was used in England

wherein «
The Pastour

says to “The Sicke in its present sense above three hundred years

Man ago. It is in Sir T. Elyot's Governour, and in “Sir-it shall bee your furre best to suffer the Bishop Hall's Old Religion, the quotation from louo of Christ swallow vp the loue and all other which, being shorter, I add :

considerations of worldlie thinges, as Moses his “The ventilation of these points diffused them serpent swallowed up the serpent of the Magicians. to the knowledye of the world.” C. 2. Whateucr seemeth pleasant into this world ynto

tho naturall cyc, it is but by juggling of the Harrington also has it in his Oceana ; and senses : If we have the grace of God, this graco other esainples will be found both in Johnson's shall be indeede liko as a foure-nooked Clauer, is and Richardson's Dictionaries.

D. S.

in the opinion of some, viz. a most powerfull This word has long been used by tho French could seeko this grace, it would let us see the

meanes against the juggling of the sight : If wee in the sense to which I suppose é. N. alludes. vanitic of such thinges which beguile the natural The Dictionnaire de l'Académie has the follow

senses." ing:

-Notes and Queries.

G. N.

From The Saturday Review, 21 July. of bearing with the impotence of the Turkish

empire is over. France is prepared to see It is now some time since any event has the government of Syria pass into firmer occurred calculated to cause so much dis- hands. No intimation is given as to the fuquietude as the massacres in Syria. The ture to which Turkey and Syria are destined; outbreak assumed a new character when a but France has taken the first step, and it is large city like Damascus was successfully a very long step, towards ending the rule of attacked, and the fanaticism which had pre- the sultan on the borders of the Mediterviously been engaged in the destruction of ranean. hillside villages ran riot in the capital of Any alteration in the position of the TurkSyria. The loss of life has been terrible, ish empire affects England so nearly that and thousands have to mourn homes burnt this manifesto in the Constitutionnel, eviar pillaged, and relatives killed or carried dently intended to pave the way for French off to a fate worse than death. But the suf- intervention in Syria, is scarcely less alarmferings of the Syrian Christians, great as ing to us than it is to the Turks. It is usethey have been, seem a small matter by the less to shut our eyes to the fact that the inside of the grave consequences to which fluence of France in the eastern corner of the these massacres will probably give rise. The Mediterranean is spreading very rapidly. gultan appears to have written a note to the The Christians of Candia have gone over by emperor expressing the sorrow which the thousands to the Latin Church, in order to outbreak has caused him. He may well be secure French protection ; and the little visorry and alarmed. It is hard for him to tality that exists in Syrian Christianity is all Qeal with Christians, but it is harder still to on the side of the power which is supposed have to punish Mahometans. The plot dis- to befriend the pope. We cannot compete covered last September at Constantinople with the French in this combination of polirevealed one of the most serious dangers with tics and religion among half-savage tribes which the Ottoman government is threatened. like the Christians of the Lebanon. ProtThe conspiracy then detected was a move- estantism is admirably adapted to the area ment of the subject Mahometan races against of intellectual civilization, or to the simple the dominant race and the whole system of savages of such utterly barbarous tribes as government which has been adopted in re-, are open to the influence of the fatherly care cent times by the Porte. The outlying Ma- and personal courage of English missionaries. hometan tribes seem to be penetrated with a But it is not suited to tribes whose notion of notion that the Porte is at once faithless to Christianity is that it is a name to fight for, its religion and inefficient in its adminis- and who love to compensate for the crimes tration. It is considered wicked and weak; of bandits by ceremonial observances and and a notion more dangerous to a govern- asceticism. Our bishopric at Jerusalem is ment could not be entertained. For some a dead failure, whereas Latin Christianity is years these tribes have been longing for an not only an enduring but an increasing reopportunity to recall the nominal head of ligion in the Eastern Mediterranean. The their religion to a sense of his duty; and a French have a basis of intervention which combination of circumstances has inspired we have not, just as the Russians have a the belief that would be safe and easy to

basis of intervention in the Christian popudo so. The Porte must, therefore, watch the lation of European Turkey. The threat of mission of Fuad Pasha with the greatest ap- intervention held out in the Constitutionnel prehension. If he acts fairly, and makes an is therefore very alarming. For it must be example of the offenders so striking as to remembered that the occupation of Syria is prevent an imitation of their offence, he will only one part of a great scheme of French encourage the persuasion that his govern- policy which has for some years been steadily ment is false to its religion. If he attempts pursued. The idea which floats before the to compromise matters, and to exact only a eyes of those who think it is the business of colorable vengeance, he will strengthen the France to reconstruct the map of the world conviction that his government is weak. consists in the foundation of a great depenThe relations of the sultan to his Mahometan dency which shall rival British India, and subjects are therefore full of difficultics; but make France the mistress of Europe. This his relations to the Christians are still more dependency is to include Algeria, Egypt, embarrassing. The sorrow which he states and Syria, the eastern coast of Africa, and himself to have felt on hearing of the mas- Madagascar. This may only be a dream, sacres will be considerably heightened when and, as most Englishmen would think, a he reads the ominous article in the Constitu- foolish dream ; but steady endeavors to lay tionnel. He will find that a scribe who is the foundation for at least a possibility of known only to hold the pen while the em- realizing it are made every year. The Suez peror dictates bas announced that the time Canal has been so managed that, if France



dare, she could any day find a pretext for re-, the moment of action comes each of the riducing the viceroy of Egypt to a state of val powers is likely to shrink from attemptcomplete subserviency. Great pains have ing to solve it by force. If the Emperor rebeen taken to excite hopes of French aid in solves on a French intervention in Syria, he the whole Christian population, not only of will be obliged to proceed very cautiously, the Mediterranean islands and of Syria, but of and at each stage of the process we shall have Abyssinia and the more southern Christian the time and opportunity to make his intersettlements in Africa. The port of Zula has vention as harmless as possible. If he inlately been acquired by France as a station tervenes, we can intervene; and if he stays in the Red Sea, and as the key to maritime there, we can stay there. The Turks may communications with Abyssinia. The Imam be driven out of Syria, and it is not easy to of Zanzibar has very recently been com- see how the Porte can escape the terrible al. pelled by armed force to yield certain claims ternative of quarrelling either with its Chrispressed on him by the French consul, and tian friends or its Mahometan subjects ; but within the last few years two attempts have we can take care that the overthrow of the been made to get a hold on Madagascar. Turks shall not mean simply the incoming We cannot absolutely disregard these things, of the French. and it is foolish to deny their possible importance. We may reasonably hope to take such defensive precautions as will keep the

From The Saturday Review, 28 July. Mediterrancan and the Red Sea open to

SYRIA. English commerce ; but we shall not make The acquiescence of the English Cabinet it more easy to do so by treating with too in the French attack upon Syria seems to superb a contempt the political designs of a have been at the same time unwilling, and country that possesses half a million of hasty, while it was, perhaps, ultimately inev. armed men, and that burns to rival and itable. Lord John Russell properly required eclipse us.

that a convention should be signed with the We do not the least wish to thwart the Porte, but it does not appear that he suclegitimate influence of France, nor have we ceeded in obtaining any promise that the any reason to complain if Greeks turn Latins forms of international law should be even to please her, and if Latin Christians look up ostensibly respected. The French Ambasto her for protection. What we object to is sador relied, with admirable coolness on the that she should use her power to close our treaty of 1856, which expressly provides for communications with India, and shut us out the exclusive sovereignty of the sultan in his of the commerce of the East. This, we may own dominions by excluding all right of inbe sure, is her secret aim in the formation of terference on the part of foreign powers ; the great dependency of which she is dream- and an expedition into the heart of Asiatic ing. We can only resolve to do our best to Turkey was organized before it was thought prevent it, and we have a very fair chance of necessary to go through the form of asking succeeding. We have the great advantage the assent or co-operation of England. The of being on the defensive. Something must disembarkation of the first corporal's guard be changed to our loss before we can be in on the coast of Syria, without the previous serious danger. We hold the best positions. authority of the Porte, would be an act of Malta and Corfu in the Mediterranean, Perin war, as it would undoubtedly be the comand Aden in the Red Sea, and Mauritius in mencement of an intended territorial conthe Indian Ocean, are incomparably better quest. According to the semi-official Conpositions than any the French have got, or stitutionnel, “the most energetic adhesion can get without beating us at sea. It is true will reply in Europe, as in France, to the that, if France and Russia were to combine, noble initiative of the sovereign who governs we should have hard work to hold our own, us. No one will be surprised to hear that and we could not prevent the Ottoman Em- French troops will be immediately embarked pire falling to picces at once. But there is a to bear succor to the Christians in the East." great deal that must happen before France It is true that the sovereign who affects to and Russia can really combine. It is a stand-govern Europe, and who is now making his ing maxim of Napolconic policy that France first attempt upon Asia, would excite Little can never permit Constantinople and St. surprise if he disturbed the peace of the Petersburg to be held by the same Power; world by a sudden assault on any

unoffend and unless Constantinople is to be the price ing neighbor or stranger ; but it is not altoof Russian assistance or connivance, why gether satisfactory that England should take should it be given ? M. de Rémusat has very a part in the energetic adhesion" of which truly remarked, that the Eastern question is his organs naturally' boast. Another Parisso complicated and so alarming, that when ian journal amiably suggests a motive for



the submission of the English Government, Italy, a selfish enterprise is decorated with a in the remark that the respect paid by the show of disinterested generosity; but in the Druses to the English Consul at Damascus present undertaking the imperial idea will might be regarded as an insult to a nation be still more visibly connected with an obwhich hesitated to assist the vengeance of ject of material aggrandizement. The emFrance. It is pleasant to be treated as ac- peror's designs on Savoy and Nice were kept complices in the crimes of savage tribes, and secret during the Lombard campaign, but at the same time, to be the humble auxiliaries the dismemberment of the Turkish Empire of civilized ambition. Nevertheless it may be must be the obvious result of a successful prudent to obtain from the aggressor the struggle in Syria. French patronage will fragile security, which may be furnished by be as necessary to the Maronites after they diplomatic courtesies and by formal pledges. have been avenged on their enemies as at More than thirty years have passed since a the landing of the army on the Syrian coast. French army took temporary possession of The tenacity of a French Protectorate has another dependency of the Porte, and Syria been sufficiently displayed during the long will be more tempting than Algeria to the na- occupation of Rome. tional cupidity and vanity. It remains to be The extent of the danger which threatens seen whether the promises of the Emperor the peace of the world can only be duly esNapoleon will be more definite or better kept timated when it is known how far the other than the vague assurances which were ut- neighbors of Turkey are implicated in the Imterly disregarded by Charles X. and his suc- perial plot. Although Russia can scarcely

regard with complacency a project for esThe pretext for the invasion of the sultan's tablishing Latin ascendency in Syria, her dominions has probably already disappeared. repugnance may not improbably have been The Maronites seem to have renewed, by bought off by some secret compact of partisome kind of compact, the peace which they tion. When Prince Gortschakoff received probably broke under the instigation of the eager support of the French Ambassador their priests. The ferocity of the Druses in his overture for creating a disturbance in . may have appeared more formidable than European Turkey, the war in the Lebanon the arms of the distant ally and protector may probably have been anticipated at Paris, who is now prepared to use their sufferings although it was not yet meditated by the as an excuse for his own ambitious projects. Druses. Several months since, the probaLong before the French army can reach Da- bility of Eastern commotions was openly dismascus, the authors of the massacre will cussed at the Tuileries with that prophetic have retired to their mountains ; nor will it sagacity which belongs to soothsayers who be possible to punish the culprits except by have the means of carrying out their own a war of systematic extermination. The predictions. If the Prince Regent of Prusexpedition is designed not for the adjust- sia had entered into negotiations for a treament of disputes among the tribes of the Le- sonable partition of Germany, the mountainbanon, but as the means of converting Syria eers of the Lebanon would perhaps never into a French province or dependency. If have been employed to prepare the disrupthe object is attained, a similar operation tion of the Ottoman Empire. The Russian will take place in Egypt-perhaps on the alliance of 1859, although its terms have pretence of securing the rights of French never been divulged, has always remained shareholders in the imaginary Suez Canal. in force for the purposes which perhaps are The passage from Alexandria to the Red now about to be accomplished. In 1840, the Sea may possibly be left open for Indian union of the four powers defeated M. Thiers' traffic as long as England "energetically ad- attempt to detach Syria and Egypt from Tur. heres to the noble initiative of the sovereign key, under the dominion of a French depenwho governs us.” On the whole, it has been dent. If Russia now thinks it expedient to thought safer to disturb the peace of the offer France the same bribe which the EmEast than to pursue the Rhenish intrigue peror Nicholas held out to England in 1854, after the interview of Baden, or to attempt the division of the sick man's chattels may the annexation of Belgium in defiance of probably be soon commenced. the recent national manifestation. The gen- The allegation that Austria assents to the eral disturber hopes that the ignorance or French expedition requires to be confirmed jealousy of Europe may enable him once or explained. Notwithstanding the pressure more to carry on a single-handed conflict which has been used by France and Russia, with an isolated opponent. Sooner or later, the Austrian government can scarcely be England must resist the meditated conquest blind to the danger of an aggressive war unof the East, but the other great powers may dertaken for the benefit of her two ambipossibly, be lulled into neutrality, or even tious neighbors. The recent approximation bribed into acquiescence. In Syria as in of Austria to Prussia would be utterly incon


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