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their forests, preferred the ficsh of men and over the whole peninsula. We know that women for thcir horrid feasts.' (“Cornish they came across the Indus, because they Drama," vol. ii. p. 461.).
havo left a fragment of their race in the They were two people, in fact, occupying Brahui, on this side of that great stream. nearly the same relative positions that the They belong, as we now know, to the Tartar Red Indians of America do to the European family of mankind, and constitute the whole colonists, — not indeed different to the same population of the southern parts of India, and extent, but still so far dissimilar that the Ro- still underlic the more recent immigrants on man and Greek geographers treated the the north of the Vindhya Mountains. Next more savage aboriginal race as the Britons to them came the great Sanscrit-speaking par excellence, and dwelt on their peculiari-tribes of the Arians. Like the Tartar Taties withı zest, and described them in detail
, muls, they too came across the Indus, and at while they seem to have passed over in silence the time when the Vedas were reduced to the familiar habits and customs of the Belgic their present form, some twelve or thirteen and other settlers, which offered no novelty centuries B. C., as we learn from the reto point a description or adorn a tale. Or it searches of St. Martin, they possessed the may be that the unscientific habits of that age Punjab, and extended from the Jumna in the prevented them from discriminating between east to Cabul in the west, but subsequently the two races, and that, recording those facts occupied the whole of the Gangetic valley, which seemed most strange and interesting, and, as a dominant and superior race, sprcad they ascribed to the whole population pecul- their influence, if not their conquests, over iarities that belonged only to a small section. the entire peninsula.* These two races still This ought not to astonish us when we reflect remain perfectly distinct; and it is hardly too that, although we, with our boasted science, bold a generalization to say that all that has have possessed India for more than a century, been built in India has been built by the and been familiar with it for twice that period, Tartar races,
all that has been written bas it is only now that we are beginning to be been written by the Arians. conscious that India is inbabited by two The great fact, however, which interests totally distinct races of men. The learned, us most in the present instance, is the rise of it is true, have been for some time aware of the Buddhist religion, which is one of the this fact, but it has not yet found its way into most important events, though one of the our popular books. Even those who know least understood, of those which have occurred India personally, and have made it their in the bistory of the human race. The true special study, are not so completely impressed explanation of this phenomenon appears to with the importance of the circumstance as be that in the sixth century B. C., Sakya Sin
take it as the guide to their speculations, la, the son of a chief of the race of Sakas, as and the ultimate test of all the reasonings on his name imports, living near the foot of the this subject. Yet without it India is a mys of the hated Arians, gathered together the
Ilimalayas, being disgusted at the supremacy tery, and neither its history, its religion, nor its arts can be understood.
traditions of his race, and, refining upon them Whether it is that human life is shorter in and moulding them to the state of society as India than elsewhere, or that the enervating he then found it, blended the whole into a effects of the climate prevent families reach- system of religion which even now numbers ing the extent necessary to keep up the popu- more votaries than any faith on the face of lation to the required standard, or whether it the globe. He abolished caste, - the peculiar arises from any other cause, certain it is that institution of the Arians; ignored tho existthe great phenomenon of Indian history is, ence of the Deity, to tbe conception of which that, from the earliest period to the present no Tartar ever rose; adopted metempsylour, nation after nation, horde after horde, chosis as their special form of belief in a has been poured into her fertile plains with- future state; and proclaimed the negative out the cup ever overflowing, or even being creed, that by the practice of the ascetic virfull. The principal migration has been across tues man might conquer happiness and attain the Indus, but tribes have leaked in through to final absorption into the godhead. This the passes of the Himalayas, and small bodies appeal to the feelings and prejudices of races have crept in by sea, but, with one most in- forming at least nine-tenths of the population significant exception, no colony is known
* The Greeks seem to have been aware of this cver to have left her shores, nor any Indian aistinction of the two inces, inasmuch as Arrian, army ever to have crossed her borders in quoting from Megasthenes, says, "From Bacchus search of foreign conquests. Before the dawn to Sandracottus tlio Indians reckon 153 kings, who of the carliest light of tradition the vast Ta- reigned during n space of 6042 years, in all
which mnul race seem to have penetrated apparently by their own laws twice, first for about 300 years,
tine they had only thie liberty of being governed in successive waves, and spread themselves and after that for about 120.”
of India was irresistible, and its success pro- cidate this ; for though travellers bare litherportionately great. For ten centuries Budd- to called every excavation a tomb, there can hism was the religion of India; but the Brah- I be no doubt that many of those at Petra and mins bad kept their books and the old records Cyrene and elsewhere were the abodes of of their former faith; and when the unwritten living ascetics, and not burial-places at all. Tartar faith became corrupt and feeble, from The spread of Pythagorcans everywhere, and its jonate want of vitality, and its uncertainty of the Essenes in Judea, is also an indication of doctrine, the old faith cropped out again, of some such form of faith ; and it is also but, “lieu quantum mutatus !" mixed with curious, though not conclusive, that all the Sivaism and Vishnuism, and every form of barbarous coinage of Britain can be traced absurd fetichism which it could gather from back to that.of Philip of Macedon and his local superstitions, and by which it hoped to successors.* enlist the feelings of the people. This is the All this, however, unfortunately stops short shape in which it now exists in India. exactly at the point where it would be most
Among the mixed populations of Hindostan interesting; for though it may show that at the Buddhist religion has been entirely sup- an early period some form of Buddhism explanted by this strange medley of absurdities; tended to the castern shores of the Mediterbut wherever it has been preached to a purc- xanean, it does not show that it ever penetratly Tartar people, there it remains unaltered cd farther westward; and unless some thread to the present day.. In Tartary, in Siam, in can be found to connect the two, the historiBurmah, and in China, throughout the whole cal proof of the connection of eastern and of Northern Asia, wherever there are Tartars western Buddhism must remain imperfect. or people nearly allied to them there Budd- The question is by no means new, and has bism still flourishes unimpaired.)
over and over again been investigated by It would be extremely interesting if any modern inquirers, but without much success. Indian record told us of the rise and spread Northern antiquarians were carly struck with of this wonderful form of faith. Nothing, many of the points of similarity between the however, was written by its founder, nor ap- Woden of the Scandinavians and the Buddha parently by his immediate successors, and we of the cast; and though there can be little should know little about it but for the fortu- doubt that they originally meant one and the nate mania of the first great regal convert, same person, the Woden, as we now know which induced him to carve his edicts on the him, as a god of the stirring, energetic, warrocks of Cuttack, in Guzerat, and on the like Arian races of the north, was a very difbanks of the Upper Indus, besides engraving ferent person from the quiet, contemplative, them on pillars all over the country. From unhopeful prophet of the Tartars. In Europe these we learn that Asoka's first care after we find him associated with a whole heirarchy his conversion was to send missionaries to of gods of war and peace, of the carth and lands. It does not seem, however, that they future state, and other peculiaritics of Arian penetrated beyond Cabul or Balkh westward. faith. Notwithstanding this, men were early The most interesting record is that contained struck by the similarity of the names. It apin the 13th cdict of the rock-cut inscriptions, peared a strange coincidence that Buddhbar where he mentions having formed treaties or in the should be Wodensday, or, as wo alliances with Ptolemy, Antiochus, Antigonus, now call it, Wednesday, in the west. They Magas, and Alexander; —not treaties of war saw in the sacred tree at Upsala, the counteror peace, but for the protection or aid of hisco part of the Bo-tree at Budhgya. The tumuli, religionists in the dominions of those kings, spread all over Asia and northern Europe, Owing to the imperfections of the stone and seemed to have a common origin, and fifty of tho record it is not casy to make out what other little circumstances seemed to point is exactly intended; but this much is certain, more or less distinctly to the same conclusion. that about the year 256 B. C., Asoka did Then the Edda told how Woden, flying from make arrangements for religious purposes the oppression of the Romans, after the Mithwith Ptolemy Pluiladelphus, Antiochus Theos, ridatic war, had fled from the Crimea, carryAntigonus Gonatus, with Magas of Cyrenc, ing his faith with him to the north, and beand Alexander, who could only be the king queathing his vengeance to his successors, of Epirus and Maccdonia, mentioned by Jus- while the caves of Inkermann and the tumulí tin in the same passage in which he relates the death of Magas.* The existence of rock
* According to Davies, the Triads bring the cut Viharas, or Monasteries at Petra, in thic in the land of Ilav, and this is understood to imply
Cymry, under the conduct of Hu, from Defrobani dominions of Antiochus, and of similar exca- the neighborhood of Constantinople in the caster, vations at Cyrene, go far to confirm and elu- part of Thraco (page 98); and again Tu, the lord
of Mona, is styled Buddwas, the dispenser of good * Justin, “ Historiæ,” XXVI. c. ii. (page 118).
of Klierson Lore silent testimouy to the truth able portion of their book to an attempt to of this record.
explain how it arose. The explanation on The evidence has been repeatedly sifted, which they principally relied was the tradiand all that can be said of it seems to be this, tion that the reformer Tsong Kaba had been, that it is sullicient for the purposes of any in the fourteenth century, educated by a one who knows that Buddhism did and does Christian priest, and from him bad learned exist in the cast, and believes that he finds it the ritual and the doctrines which he is said in the Wodenism of the west. Feeling cer- to have introduced into his native country. tain that the one must have sprung from the Unfortunately for their theory, we know from other, tlic slight traces of its progress along architectural remains in India, which date the valley of the Borysthenes is all that he back as far as the Christian era, and from the cares for; but unless the explorer is con- writings of Chinese travellers who visited vinced that the religions are identical
, this India from the fourth to the seventh centuclass of proof will scarcely prevail with him. ries, that this form of worship existed in all If, however, it can be shown that there is essential particulars, exactly as it now does, something in the religion of the west which is at least 1,000 years before the reformer was identical with that of the cast, and so pecu- born. M. Luc's other suggestion, “que le liar that the identity cannot be accidental, diable y est pour beaucoup,” is less open to the conclusion is inevitable that the one must objection, but can hardly be accepted as either be borrowed from the other, and it only re- a philosophical or complete explanation of mains to show which was the earliest. Now the mystery. the fact of there being a most remarkable A third suggestion, which has been fresimilarity between the religious forms of quently put forward, both in this country and Buddhist countries and those of Christianity abroad, is that Christianity is borrowed from as practised in the Middle Ages, is so striking Buddhism. A more unfounded assertion that no one now seems inclined to dispute it, never was advanced, nor one that will less though the causes that gave rise to this coin- stand the test of even the hastiest examinacidence are little understood, and the most tion. It may be safely asserted that there is various, and, it may be added, the most ab- not a trace of Buddhism in the Bible itself: surd, theories have been proposed to account all that is Buddhist is found in mediæval and for it. No traveller ever entered a Buddhist more modern Christianity. It was introduced monastery in the cast, and saw a long line of long after the age of the Evangelists, and if shaven priests issue at matins and at vespers we are not mistaken can be traced to the from their monastery, and range themselves barbarous nations who were incorporated with on cach side of the choir in the temple, where the Roman Church at the downfall of the Roincense is burning on the altar in front of an man empire. image of the queen of heaven or the statues It is not necessary, even if it were possible of the threc precious Buddhas, nor ever heard here, to enumerate all the similarities bethe low monotonous chant in which they tween Buddhism and Roman Catholicism. A drawl forth their liturgy in an unknown and few of the principal resemblances and casiest long-forgotten tongue, without being aware to be understood will suffice for our arguthat he has seen something very like it in the ment. One of the most prominent is found far west. If he follows these monks back to in the institution of an infallible head, who is their cells, sees them governed by a mitred not only the chief of the hierarchy, but the abbot, and arranged as deacons, priests, and vicegerent of God on carth. The idea of ncophytes, learns that they are bound by conferring infallibility by election to an office rows of celibacy, are separated from the laity, did not exist, either in the religions of Greece live by alms, and spend their lives in a dull or Rome, nor in any of the religions of the routing of contemplation and formal worship, West; nor is it, so far as we can judge, sancho must fancy that he is transported back to tioned by any thing in the New or Old Testasome Burgundian convent in the middle ages, ment, but belongs cssentially to the Buddhist or that the unchangeable cast has retained cismes, l'encensoir soutenu par cinq chaines, et what has passed away in the more progressive pouvant s'ouvrir et se fermer à volonté; les bénéwest.
dictions données par les Lamas en étendant la main When those enterprising travellers Huc droite sur la tête des fidèles; le chapelet, le célibat and Gabet were sojourning among the Lama- ccclésiastique, les retraites spirituelles, le culte des serais of Thibet, they were so struck with the bénite: voilà autant de rapports que les bouddhis
saints, les jeûnes, les processions, les litanies, l'cau identity of the forms of worship and of mon- tes ont avec nous. Maintenant, peut-on dire que astic habits * that they devoted a consider- ces rapports sont d'origine chrétienne? Nous le * La crosse, la mitre, la dalmatique, la chape ou dans les traditions, ni dans les monuments du pays,
ponsons ainsi ; quoique nous n'ayons trouvé di pluvial, que les grands Lamas portent en voyage, aucune preuve positive de cet emprunt; il est perou lorsqu'ils sont quelque cérémonie hors du tem- mis néanmoins d'établir des conjectures qui portent ple; l'oflice à deux châurs, la psalmodie, les exor- tous les caractères de la plus haute probabilité.
principle that man may conquer godhood by of piety or charity towards the church on the force of his own exertions and the practice of part of those outside its pale. certain virtues. In Thibet the Delai Lama is if we turn from the hierarchy to the machosen when a child ; in Italy the Pope is se- terial forms of worship, we find the same lected in mature age; but in both cases the norelties and the same striking resemblances. infallibility, which is the essence of the office, As is now perfectly well known, the princiis attained by the transmission of some not pal object of worship in all Buddhist couneasily defined virtue, supposed be inherited tries is and always was the veneration paid from the founder of the religion.
to relics. As carly as the time of Clemens A far more striking and exact parallel is of Alexandria it was known in the west that found in the segregation of the clergy from the followers of Buddba worshipped a pyrathe laity, and the institution of the monastic mid, which was supposed to contain a bone, a orders, which formed so important a part of relic of their god. The truc old Tartar foim the arrangements of the Middle Ages, and of this was thic homage paid to the bodies of has done so in all times in Buddhist countries. the dead; but the Buddhists have refined on Practically, the two institutions are absolutely the primitive practice. No bodies are veneidentical ; - established for the same pur- rated but those of persons who have attained poses, governed by the same laws, exercising Buddhahood in some shape or other, and then the same powers, and developing the same it never is the body as buried that is reverresults. In both institutions, all parties join- cnced, but some bone or utensil, or some spot ing them give up all worldly possessions, have rendered sacred by the presence of a saint, all things in common, take rows of celibacy, or where some miracle was performed by and live apart from the rest of men. Pov- some holy, person. The worship of boly erty and absolute dependence on alıns have places and holy things rose in the Middle always been the rule in Buddhist countries, Ages to be the most prominent of all forms as they were with the mendicant friars of the of devotion, but did not exist before, and has West, and were more or less professed, if not died out to a great extent since, though, practised, by all orders of monks. The es- while thousands flock to see a holy coat at tablishment of a hierarchy of priors, abbots, Trèves, or the blood of St. Januarius at Nabishops, and cardinals, and of the corre- ples, or to worship at Loretto or Compostella, sponding offices in the East, is perhaps a ne- it cannnot be said that this Buddhist formula cessary consequence of the organization of is yet extinct in modern Europe. any large body of men among whom it is in- The similarities of the liturgies may to dispensable that discipline must be main- some extent be accidental, and have no doubt tained; and is common to the two institutions been caused by the similarity of institutions; as a consequence of the segregation of so but it can hardly be considered an accident large a body of individuals into a separate that the great act of devotion in onc church class, rather than as a preordained part of should be the endless repetition of “ Ave Mathe institution.
rias” and “ Paternosters," and in the other Canonization is another remarkable insti- a still more continuous utterance of “ Om tution common to these two religions, and to mani Padmi Hom,” or such-like formulas; these only. It has frequently been attempted though it must be confessed that in no age to draw a parallel between the demigods of did the Romish Church carry this so far as is Greece or Rome and the institution of saints done in Buddhist countries through the invenin the mediæval church; but the argument tion of the praying-wheel, by which mechanhas always broken down, as in fact there is ical means are employed to say the prayers no essential similarity between the two. The of those who are too lazy to perform that ofminor gods of the heathen Pantheon, though fice themselves. remarkable for their power or virtues, were
It would be tedious to dwell on the many all more or less connected by birth or mar- minor points of resemblance between the riage with the great Olympic family, and forms of the two religions. It must be already owed their rank rather to their descent than clear that the Reformation in the sixtcenth to their virtues. It is true that, in later times, century was only a rebellion of the Arian the deification of Roman emperors, and others races of Europe against the Buddhism which of that class, which the abject flattery of a the Celtic races had superinduced upon the corrupt age introduced, was a nearer ap- Cristianity of the Bible; and that all the corproach to the usage of Buddhism which was ruptions which the reformers attacked were then flourishing in the East. But, when the (with the single exception of transubstantiacustoin is adopted in its purity, the attain- tion) Buddhist doctrines or formulus, such as ment of Buddhahood, or of saintship is owing popery, monachism, relic-worship, etc. After neither to birth nor to office, but to the prac- that great struggle it was found that all the tice of the ascetic virtues in the church, or Teutonic races of Europe — who never had been genuine Buddhists —had thrown off the the world at present so dark as that which Buddhist institutions and forms; but that no treats of the doings of the Celtic races of Celtic race had become Protestant, but “ held Britain before the advent of the Saxons, and their old faith and old feelings fast.” So it done to which the light of the new science remains at the present day. Europe is Pro- of ethnography is likely to be of more value. testant in the exact ratio of the purity of the All, however, which concerns us at present, Arian blood in any race, and Romish in pro- is to know that Buddhism, in some shape or portion as the people in any country are other, and under some name that may be lost, Celtic. The inference seems to be inevitable did exist in Britain before the conversion of that the Celts were Buddhists before their its inhabitants to Christianity. If this has conversion to Christianity. The Tentons been made clear, a great step has been gained were not, nor did they ever heartily adhere in the elucidation of the antiquities of this to the unfamiliar forms that had been forced illiterate people. If we may venture to turn upon them. The Buddhism which crept into the lamp of Indian Buddhisin on these bitherthe mediæval church did not come by any of to mysterious monuments, we see, at once, the usual routes of travel or of trade. No what was meant by the inner choir at StoneBuddhist missions were established in Asia henge, by comparing it with the numerous Minor, or Palestine, or Egypt, whence, by examples of choirs in all Buddhist churches. their preaching, their doctrines were spread We understand its enclosing circle by coninto the Roman Empire, and thence commu- paring it with that at Sanchce and elsewhere. nicated to the nations who were gradually We are no longer puzzled by the small granconverted to Christianity. The very con- ite monoliths, standing unsymmetrically betrary, indeed, seems to be the fact. The tween the two original groups, and inside the Greek Church, although in immediate con- principal, for we can, at once, assume them tact with Buddhist countries, has infinitely to be the “danams” of succeeding votaries, less of Buddhism in its formulæ or faith than offered after the temple was finished; and we the Romish, and there is no trace of Budd- can easily see how it came to be a cenotaph, bism having passed through it to the west. or memorial church, dedicated to those who Nor can we trace it as proceeding from Rome died and were buried at Ambresbury. It itself, but, on the contrary, we find all the would explain to us why Silbury Hill, erected peculiarities we have enumerated springing on a Roman road, should not cover the reup gradually among the barbariansavho over- mains of the dead, but be the attempt of a whelmed the Roman empire, and it was by letterless race to perpetuate the memory of them forced on the Church at Rome by the some event, which nothing but a written repressure of circumstances. Nor is it difficult cord could really communicate to future ages, to see how this arosc. The policy of the Ro- We might surmise that the circle at Rolldrich man Church, as set forth in Pope Gregory's enclosed a holy spot, and know that the celebrated letter to Bishop Mellitus, was to stones of Stennis were really the buryingget the barbarians to allow themselves to be place of some chief. There is, in fact, no baptized, and to acknowledge Christ in any winding in the labyrinth through which this form. Even although the first converts were thread might not conduct us in safety, and allowed to retain the worship of “ trees and nothing so mysterious that we might not lope stones,” the missionaries hoped that many by this means to understand it. But to effect would be weaned from their idolatrics, and this end, explorations must be made afresh, at all events that their children would for- and researches set about in a purpose-like sake the Kirk, and take to the Ecclesia. This manner, not aimless gropings in the dark, policy was to a certain extent unsuccessful, such as alone have yet been undertaken. A for the sinple reason that the barbarians out- more systematic inquiry would repay the exnumbered the Romans as a thousand to one; ertions of the carnest bistorical student, for that they were too illiterate to comprehend it is the sole method by which we can expect the arguments on which the new faith rested to throw any light on this branch of our paand too rude to see its beauty, or to appreci- tional antiquities. What is even more imate the doctrines of peace and love which it portant, it is the only clue that is now likely inculcated. If a few were truly converted, to be afforded us for unravelling the mystethe mass still adhered to their old supersti- rious wanderings of the races who peopled tions; and as the Roman element died out, Europe and overthrew the Roman Empire, the old faith came again more prominently whose blood still flows in our veins, and whose to the surface, and was mixed up with the feelings still influence every act, public or higher and holier faith, which it leavened, private, that takes place in the great Euro but neither destroyed nor superseded.