by the Maha-murrie, and in the moderate from rain, and with enough of level ground sized village of Sipjoogee, about forty people for a small party. Hereabouts, the masses were carried off by it.

of granite rock are of a most colossal size, 16th October.—Started as usual about sun- many of them being as large as parish rise, and got to Akroat-Kotee (the Oak Vil. churches. All these must have been de. lage) to breakfast; road very rugged, with tached from precipices many hundred feet heavy ups and downs. Passed some stu- above their present site, and have tumbled pendous ced or deodars (God's ees), down the mountain sides like foot-balls, worthy indeed of such a name, for the deo- crushing the patriarchs of the forest like dar is the noblest tree in the forest to look stubble beneath a wagon wheel. The deat, and its wood is almost imperishable, from scent of a large one must have been worth being surcharged with resin. Of all timber going a hundred miles to sce. About a mile that grows its wood is most prized for build- above Beem-Oodyar crossed a small stream ing, but as it is not very abundant, it is of clear water strongly impregnated with chiefly used for the construction of temples, sulphuretic hydrogen. Halted an hour for or the houses of the priesthood.

breakfast on the skirts of the forest : foliage Descended many hundred feet to Jilmin- almost European, the oak, the mountain ash, puttan, a place without any habitation, where the alder, the birch being the last trees to two mountain torrents meet; crossed one be seen. As we advanced the scenery asof them by a wooden bridge, and wended sumed quite a new character, the trees gave our weary way up the right bank of the other place to the dog-rose, the rose to the fern, (the Mundagnee), far above its level, along the fern to the moss, the moss to the lichen, à slender deer track, stretched along the the lichen to absolute sterility.

On turning brows of almost precipitous mountains, and a corner, the open valley of Kedarnath came often carried from headland to headland by suddenly into view, walled in by lofty brownmere ladders laid upon the most crazy sup- colored naked rocks, from which numerous ports, that required all my courage to cross streams of water poured forth, the infant them. Scenery exceedingly grand, now and tributaries of the great Ganges. At the end then exposing the snowy peaks overlooking of the valley, apparently at the end of the Kedarnath, no long distance off. Arrived world, stood the most sacred temple of Keat the halting place, Gowreekhoond, about darnath, still a good way off, from which the two P.M., where there is a comfortable little main chain of the highest mountains of the dhurmsala for the accommodation of travel- world rose, rugged, rocky, and precipitouslers, but no room to pitch a tent.

hill piled upon hill, glacier resting above Gowreekhoond gets its name from a spring glacier, alp piled upon alp, far above the of hot water that bubbles out of the ground, reach of man's ambition, far above the view and fills a little tank on its way to the river. of the wild goat or ibex, far above the soar The temperature of the spring I judged to of the eagle, in an atmosphere too rarified be about one hundred and twenty degrees, for animal existence, where the snow-flake, the water strongly impregnated with iron the lightning, and the sunbeam are the only and sulphuretted hydrogen. Such a spring visitants,—where nature sits alone enthroned in Europe would be a valuable estate, but in unapproachable majesty, and surveys the here it is only an object of superstition. wonderful creation of God !—Almighty !

Though this is the main stream of the Though the main chain of the HimmaMundagnec, it here takes the name of the layah is nearly thirty thousand feet above Kaligunga ; it is only a few yards broad, but the sca, yet science has demonstrated that exceedingly deep and impetuous, one con- it must at one time have been submerged tinued cascade stunning the ear with its deep below its surface. Though the general

formation be granite, yet stratified rocks can 17th October.--I slept but little owing to readily be recognized by the telescope, and the excessive fatigue of yesterday, the cold- scientific travellers have found marine fossils ness of the dhurmsala, and the tremendous in abundance on some of the passes about roar of the Kaligunga, only a very few yards fifteen thousand feet above the sea. How distant. Started at sunrise. A few miles infinite, then, must that subterranean power above Gowreekhoond saw some wild goats, have been to have upheaved from ns' called thars, on the opposite side of the depths into rarified air, such immeasurable river, but quite beyond reach of the rifle ; so masses of mountain matter! How incomI was contented to look at them with a tel- prehensibly omnipotent the Creator of such escope. They looked nearly as large and as powers ! heavy as donkeys with very long, hairy coats, No wonder that the natives hold those of a dark-gray color. About eight passed sublime mountains in such veneration, that Beem-Oodyar, a cave formed by a large mass they worship them as the abode of the deity; of overhanging rock, affording good shelter and that they are ever ready to offer them







selves as victims upon the altar of Mahadeo mense stones brought down from the over(the great God) in the patriarchic belief that looking mountains by avalanches, every year the more valuable the sacrifice the more ac- adding to their numbers, and thousands of ceptable it would be to the deity.

years enlarging the débris to the magnitude The temple of Kedarnath, perhaps the most of the mountain range. sacred in Hindoo mythology, stands upon a Treading along to the right, the guide gently sloping plain, resembling a marsh or brought us to a sort of tarpeian rock, called bog, without a tree or a shrub within many Byrovajamp, from the summit of which pilmiles of it, and at an elevation of probably grims were wont to throw themselves as liveleven thousand feet. It is apparently of ing sacrifices, thus ending their days by being modern construction, with a somewhat Gre- dashed to pieces. Such living sacrifices cian façade, and the usual pyramidal tower were considered acts of supreme devotion, at one end, still, strange to say, unfinished. insuring the victim the highest rewards in a The stone consists of mica slate, so soft and future state of existence. friable on being dug out of the quarry that From this rock the no less celebrated Valit admits of being sawed into slabs, or cut ley of the Shadow of Death, called Mahapunt, with a hatchet ; but, when exposed to the air, takes its rise, a long ascending slope between it soon hardens, and becomes durable as two rocky precipices, that ends in perpetual granite itself. There is a large suite of office snow. According to Hindoo mythology, houses near the temple for the accommoda- this Mahapunt is believed to be the most tion of prilgrims. The season of pilgrimage direct road to the world of spirits. With the was now over, and most of the priests and assurance of the most favored reception after the attendants were preparing to migrate to the journey of this life is over, pilgrims bent lower and warmer regions during the rigor upon self-sacrifice took leave of their relaof the approaching winter.

tions, as before an execution; with the resoI found the Brahmins sulky, surly, intol- lution of never returning, and the conviction erant, and unaccommodating; averse to al- that if they only persevered long enough and low me the use of a hut, or the benefit of a far enough, they would be rewarded with a few mats to cover my tent to protect me blessed immortality, they entered the Valley from the intense cold; repugnant to my of the Shadow of Death, and eventually perpitching my tent within the immediate neigh- ished in the snow. borhood of the temple dedicated to Mahadeo Such sacrifices conferred a solemn celeb(the great God,) and every article and every rily upon the surviving relations of the delocality was tabooed. Mahadeo's temple ceased, perhaps equal in their own little circould not be polluted with the presence of cle to that of Marcus Curtius himself in the my unclean tent, on the same ground sward ; proud days of ancient Rome. Of late years to lend me Mahadoe's mats to cover it would these human sacrifices were prohibited by the be sacrilege; and to allow me to occupy one company's government, under the heaviest of their outhouses where holy Brahmins penalties to the accomplices; this ordinance might next season lodge, could not be per- has become as obsolete as that of Suttee, but mitted. Nevertheless, I selected a dry, level tradition records an incredible destruction of spot about forty yards from the temple, and human life in times long gone by. pitched the tent in defiance of remonstrance, The world will cry out, What an infamous while my followers found shelter in the government was that of the old East India houses.

Company, that tolerated such enormities so About two P.M., being provided with an long! How very horrible, indeed! scream intelligent guide, I set off for the foot of the out our very good Christian people. What mountains; and after an hour's gradual as- benighted ignorance! howls out Exeter Hall; cent over a wet, mossy sward, we came to a send out more missionaries—more Bibles chain of rocky hills, from which the feeders drag those heathens from the error of their of the great Ganges rush out in great num- ways and convert them by fair means, or by bers, all of which, uniting within the distance any means! Every good Christian must con. of a mile or two, expand into an unfordable gratulate humanity on the suppression of such river. To bathe in it is esteemed an act of barbarous rites; but however much he may great devotion, and though the temperature reprobate them, they convey a moral lesson was about the freezing point, the Hindoos that may have a good effect on our own more of my party plunged into the sacred stream enlightened society. Have we, good people, over head and cars, though most of them no Byrovajampamongst ourselves over which caught severe colds in consequence of their our victims of society are daily precipitating bath.

themselves, to get rid of a life rendered too On a near approach to the above chain of intolerable to be endured? Have we no hills they were found to be an enormous Mahapunt up which our religious devotees boulder, or morainean accumulation of im- clamber in convent chains till they perish in

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the freezing cloisters of monastic life? Have march to Gopat Kassy, opposite to Okeewe no funeral piles on which our broken- muth. Fired at two Khakur deer or Monthearted widows offer themselves up as vic-jack about three hundred yards off, but tims to their deceased husbands' mal-admin- missed them. Shot a brace of fine Calidge istration ? Have we no Jaggernauth cars pheasants, male and female, very desirable before whose wheels our idolatrous daugh- additions to the larder, now almost empty. ters prostrate themselves and get crushed to These birds have the habit of hiding them. death? Let our fashionable ladies answer. selves in the dense foliage of trees when Is infanticide less known amongst us than flushed by dogs, and sit in fancied security. it formerly was amongst the Rajpoots ? Let I had some difliculty in discovering them our match-making fathers and mothers an- even when under the tree, and shot them as Bwer.

they sat. Horresco referens, but a hungry Let us consult the records of the Coroner's man cannot afford to adhere at all times to Courts, the Divorce Courts, the Insolvent the etiquette of sporting. Another snowCourts, our courts of inquest and our courts storm has to-day whitened the mountains ; of fashion, and we shall find that for one but a large portion of surface continues primitive Hindoo, that sacrificed his life for black and bare, owing to the perpendicular what he considered the good of his soul, a formation of the rocks. This is a very subhundred of our fellow-countrymen—aye, and lime encampment. The great square mounof our fellow-countrywomen, have fallen vic- tain mass of Budrinath on the right, the tims to their own acts and their own hands. serrated range Kedarnath on the left; with Mais revenir a nos moutons. There being no the intermediate field filled up with ranges glaciers hereabouts to interest one, and the of mountains, like the waves of the ocean snow line being at present a great deal too in a storm, of all tints from russet brown high to reach it so late in the afternoon, I made to cobalt blue. my way back to my little tent. I found the Clouds of locusts still hover about in forBrahmins more complaisant than when I first lorn hopes of being able to cross the snowy arrived, and willing to let me have the use range. Saw several cases of goitre here, of the house, but they were all so absurdly but the disease is not uncommon in this low as not to admit of standing upright in quarter of the province. Many would feel them, and so suspicious looking as to fleas, lonely and wretched in travelling so long that I declined using them. With two good without seeing a white face, or liaving_ocmats to cover my hut, and an abundant lit- casion to speak a word of English ; but I do ter of dry grass upon the ground, I made not, and no one capable of appreciating myself as comfortable as circumstances per- such wonderfully fine scenery ought to be mitted to pass a very cold night.

discontented. There is a fine old bird or Learned from a register book shown to beast, perhaps a monitor, to be heard about me that during the last twenty-three years the altitude of eight thousand feet, and oft only twenty-eight Europeans had visited Ke- in the stilly night its familiar call of "what! darnath.

what!” repeated at intervals of a few sec18th October.-Spent a miserably uncom- onds, is very pleasant company. fortable night, though I went to bed with 26th October.—Entered upon a new route my clothes on; the poor dogs felt more than homeward, and made a very long descent to I did, and actually whined with the cold, Bhery, on the main chain of the Mundagnee. and I had to keep them quict by casting off crossed over the river on a good bridge, and their chains, and letting them lie at the foot then found my ponies and my heavy bagof the bed. This morning the ground was gage all safe and sound. Mounted right white with hoar frost, with ice on every gladly, rode up a very long ascent, and enpool. I felt quite benumbed with cold, with camped in very fine forest scenery at the vilgreat giddiness, singing of the ears, violent lage of Kanara. Was informed that about headache, rapidity of pulse, increased fre- three years ago the Maha-murrie raged quency of breathing, and loss of vital energy, dreadfully hercabouts, carrying off twenty all, no doubt, the consequence of a rarified and thirty people in sınall villages, and sisty atmosphere. The weather had become cloudy or seventy in large ones. and threatening, and a fall of snow was 21st October.—Started at sunrise as usual, thought probable, so I resolved to descend and after many ups and downs got to the forthwith, and hastened down to Akroat- first ridge of a softy chain of mountains, kotee. Fortunate it was that I did so, for a overlooking the Pokree valley, and continuheavy fall of snow took place the same af- ing about the same level through oaks and ternoon, whitening the mountains, and pos- rhododendron, and very beautiful scenery, sibly rendering the road for a time impassa- arrived at Pokrec about two P.M. Here I ble.

found the commissioner of Kumaon, and 19th October.—Made a long retrograde became his guest; he was occupying a small



rude bungalow of two rooms, formerly usual crazy straw rope bridge, swam the erected by the superintendent of some cop- ponies across with little trouble, the stream per mines, but the speculation did not an- being very gentle. Continued to ascend the swer, and the mining was stopped. The left bank of the great river for an hour or valley of Pokree is very pretty, with exten- more to Kurnpray, at the junction of the sive rice cultivation, but much sickness at Pindur road, exceedingly rough, rocky, and present prevails amongst the people, and stairy, a masterpiece of engineering-scengreat numbers came to me for medicine and ery wonderfully fine. What a splendid song advice; my little stock was soon exhausted, might be written on the meeting of the wabut I promised if they would bring any of ters at Kurnpray. What an immortal pictheir invalids into Almorah I would do my ture it would make ! best to restore them to health, a promise Here a Sepoy of my regiment was carried that only half satisfied them, for their peti- up to my tent, being very sick and quite untions for present relief were so urgent, that I able to proceed homewards; his legs were felt quite vexed I could not comply with enormously swollen from the bites of the their urgent demands.

venomous flies in these low places, with nuVisited the copper mines, found the shafts merous ulcers—in fact, he was in a most disnearly horizontal, most of them filled with tressing condition, so I gave him my dandy water or blocked up with rubbish. Found engaged four bearers, and sent him onwards some women collecting the ore from the ref- to Athbudree. Next day when I reached use formerly thrown out by the miners. Athbudree, I found that he had died on the They first bcat the mass pretty fine with a way; the putwarry took possession of his wooden mallet, then they drew it upon an effects to be sent into Almorah to the captain inclined wooden board with grooves, cut out of his company. The body was buried with horizontally upon it, over which trickled all funeral ceremonies by the Brahmins. stream of water, the metallic particles set- As I am now returning over travelled tled upon the grooves, while the earthy ground, I shall not continue this journal parts being light were washed away. further than stating that I arrived at Al

22d. October.-Started at the usual hour of morah on the 28th October, very much satissunrise, and though the descent was contin- fied with my trip to the Snow, very much disuous the whole way, did not get to Bamoath, posed to pity my messmates for pottering on the bed of the Aliknunda till near noon. about the hill-tops, contenting themselves Here the Aliknunda is a very mighty river, with looking at the grandest scenery of the having absorbed the waters of the Pindur world through their telescopes. far above this point. Crossed over by the


A New HIPPOPOTAMUS.-Another hippopot- His keeper, who did not leave him for a moamus was born in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris ment, could not make the least movement but on the 18th of May. He was received at noon his nursling would open his eyes enough to ason the brink of the basin of the rotunda, in the sure himself that his adopted father was not arms of his keeper, and immcdiately taken away. going to leave him. At night he slept with his The maternal liippopotamus had no time to see head on his kceper's breast, and slept well until her offspring, and yet she indulged in a long fit daybreak. of anger. Without the aid of an enormous whip When he wanted to drink he roared like a with which the keeper was furnished, he could calf, which indeed he somewhat resembled in hardly have secured his retreat; but by its aid form. He measured about four feet in length he succeeded in getting out of the basin and and weighed one hundred and thirty pounds at shutting the grate behind him.

birth. His skin, soft, moist, and mellow to the MM. Isidore Gcoffroy-Saint-Hilaire and Flor- touch, had nothing of that rosc-tint which charent Prévost were immediately called in, and acterized the two other hippopotamuses born in they found that the new-comer was a very well- the menagerie in 1858 and 1859. It was blackformed male. He was placed in a basin exposed ish in some places, and in others of a grayish to the sun, and he immediately took to swim- white. There was also a very qucer orange tint ining and splashing about as though he had taken about his lips. lessons from his father and mother.

On the 2d instant it was noticed that his He was fed on warm cow's milk, which he mouth was bloody, and on examination it was drank with avidity ; in four days he consumed found that several teeth were coming through. nearly three gallons of it. Ho slept a good part While they were wondering at this precocity, of each day on a bed of straw covered with a tho poor animal was taken with convulsions and flannel blanket; the rest of the time he amused died in a fow minutes. himself in a basin of warm water.


No. 844.—4 August, 1860.


PAGL. 1. Jerome Bonaparte — his Death, Life, and Wives, N. Y. Evening Post,

259 2. Ho! For the Pole!

263 3. Claremont, and the Princess Charlotte,


269 4. Broad Church Theology,

Christian Observer,

273 5. Mr. Everett's Fourth of July Oration,

Daily Advertiser,

286 6. Mr. Fletcher's Brazil and the Brazilians,

North British Review,

297 7. Hopes and Fears. Part 2. Chap. 7, .

Constitutional Press Magazine, 301 8. Rational Medicine,

Literary Gazette,

316 9. All's Well,

Macmillan's Magazine,



POETRY.-Stanzas for Music, 258. The Upland Path, 258. The Spectre of 1860, 258. All's Well, 318. The City of Extremity, 320. The Two Laments, 320.

SHORT ARTICLES.-G. P. R. James' last evening in America, 262. Jewish Antiquities in Ohio, 268. Mr. Parker Snow's Arctic Expedition, 272. Prince Albert's Speech, 300. Temperature of the Red Sea, 300. Mounds in Minnesota, 315. Extension of the British Museum, 317. Disappearance of London Antiquities, 317.



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