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style in narration is simple, and his more few years later. His style also is full of impointed and sarcastic sentences are often perfection whenever he begins to indulge in short and neat.
reflections that belong to his own philosophy Johnson, as we have said, was not great in of morals. Those dreadful sentences beginappreciatory criticism. He was far too gener- ning with “He that," and divided off into ous not to praise heartily when he praised couplets of opposed adjectives and substanat all, and every thing he praises would be tives, are not so frequent in the Lives as they praised in these days for the exact quali- are in his earlier works; but they come ties he finds in it to approve. He is far too much too often. They were perhaps approgood a critic to be always sneering. Noth- priate and acceptable to the age in which ing can be warmer and more unreserved than they appeared, and we may hope that it is a his panegyric on Dryden's Odes and Pope's sign of our advancing virtue that they are no Rape of the Lock. But he did not care longer palatable to us. At any rate, they much for the very highest poetry, and he prevent our regarding the Lives as a model had none of the metaphysical analysis which of more than partial excellence for modern Coleridge worked with so much subtlety a criticism to imitate.
MAKING GAS FROM PRAIRIE STONES.—The the gas works, and a large quantity of stone Chicago Democrat chronicles an important dis- submitted to a test which will leave no doubt of covery which has recently been made in that the practical benefits growing out of this unexvicinity. It says a large quantity of prairie pected discovery. stone,
ncar tlie western suburbs of that city, “The Chicago Stone Coal-Mining Company has been found to yield immense quantities of have, as it were, stumbled into an almost incalgas and saltpetre. The particulars of the dis- culable fortune. They own twenty acres of land covery, which was brouglit about while search- filled with this trebly-valuablo stone, and suding for indications of oil, are as follows :- denly find it advancing in value from six to
“A small bit of this stone, a piece perhaps eight dollars to forty or fifty dollars a cord!” four inches equare, was taken by Mr. Wm. Cumberland, a well-known chemist of this city, a day WILLIAM THE SILENT.—In the recently pubor two since, for the purpose of endeavoring to lished volume of Lord Macaulay's Biographics, extract oil from it. The experiment, so far as there occurs a sentenco which "somewliat carethe end in vicw was concerned, was a failure, lessly endorses a popular and erroneous view of but in tho progress of it other discoveries were the characteristics of a great man. Speaking of made of startling importance and great interest. parliamentary government as it shaped itself in The stone has been broken up and placed in a England from Pitt's day downwards, Lord Maretort, which was then subjected to the action of caulay observes: “In a perilous crisis, such the licat. A vapor was seen to issue from the men” (as Windham and Townshend) “would neck of the retort, and on a match being applicd have been found far inferior in all the qualificait ignited and burned brilliantly for half an hour. I tions of a ruler to such a man as Oliver CromIt gave a light fully equal to the same volume well, who talked nonsense, or as William the of coal-gas, and emitted no odor of any kind ! Silent, who did not talk at all.” It is a comThe burnei stone was then analyzed, and found mon crror-clearly sustained here by Lord Mato contain fifty per cent of saltpetre, which being caulay—that the great founder of Batavian libremoved, the residuo was excellent lime!
crty was a man habitually taciturn, or deficient “Here indeed was a discovery! A stone was in the gift of cloquence.' William of Orange found existing in inexhaustiblo qnantities, and was a remarkably eloquent speaker, and could obtainable at very little cost, which made gas as and did deliver, when occasion needed, lengthwell and as freely as the best coal; which yielded ened, powerful, and brilliant speeches. In prififty per cent of pure salıpetre; and which then vate life he was joyous, genial, and rich in conwas as good line as could be had anywhere. versational talent. As you are aware, he was
"Additional experiments having been per- nicknamed “The Silent," simply because he formed, in the presence of the superintendent of gave abundant proof that he could hold his the gas works, and others, resulting in a con- tongue when it was wise not to speak, and befirmation of the discovery, arrangements have cause, in one peculiar and memorable instance, been made to experiment on the manufacture his self-control led to the revelation of a famous of gas from prairie stone.
royal complot against Protestantism. "A retort and gasometer will be prepared at
From The United Service Magazine. My personal staff consists of a butler, a A TRIP IN THE HIMALAYAIIS. valet, a cook, a waterman, a washerman, The long-looked-for 1st October has at a dog keeper, two grooms, and two grasslength arrived, and I am now entitled to my cutters, making up a marching establishment month's holiday. The windows of heaven of about thirty individuals. With such a are closed for the season, Binsur and Nun- party I broke ground at Almorah in progress didevy have thrown off their cloud caps. to the far-famed shrine of Hindoo pilgrimThe main chain is become more interesting age, Kedarnath, at the base of the great by a light fall of snow, and every interme- snowy chain. diate mountain ridge is sharp and clear as if Almorah is the ancient capital of the freshly moulded by Nature's hand.
Goorkah province of Kumaon, and the headI have, therefore, disburdened myself of quarter station, both civil and military, of the cares of professional duty, shaken off the the company's government. The elevation harness of society, withdrawn myself from its above the sea is between five and six thoupleasures and perversities, and am about to sand feet, with a climate and vegetation alplunge deep into the sublimities of the Hima- most European, and a residence here makes layahs.
one forget he is in India. 'I should most willingly have had a com- Left dear old Almorah about eight in the rade or two, but it is not every officer that morning, and got to Hawalbagh about halfcan accomplish such a journey. Some are past nine-a very pretty little station on the too lazy, some are not gifted with the neces- banks of the very pretty littlc river, the Kossary length of wind and tension of muscle, sillah, where four companies of my regiment some have no appreciation of the picturesque, are cantoned. the stern economy of subaltern rank restrains The houses of the officers are excellent, some who have the necessary physical quali- surrounded with cedar trees, weeping wil. fications, and a giddy head and nervous lows, and fruit trees, amongst which the temperament unfit others, possessing ample cherry, the plum, and the apricot predomimeans to meet every contingency. So I nate; myrtles and rose trees almost rival must perform my pilgrimage alonealone so them in size, while the intervening patches far as the want of fellow-feeling and inter- are clothed in richest pasturage, or with a change of sentiment constitute solitude, for heavy crop of hay. The elevation of HawalI can expect nothing of that sort from my bagh'is about fifteen hundred feet less than native fellow-travellers.
that of Almorah; its climate is neither temTo the European traveller, with his knap- perate nor tropical, but a happy union of the sack on his back, and his hotel at the end of two extremes: the palm tree and the pine his day's journey, or the grandee with his grow together on equal terms, and an extenfamily-coach and his posse of inmates and sive tea plantation, under the auspices of govoutside domestics, the ways and means for a ernment, is here in full bearing, the tea bringmonth's journey in the Himalayals will ap- ing a market price far above that of Chinese pear intolerable; but there is no help for it, growth. and every thing beyond the simplest fare of A tea plantation resembles greatly a nursthe native bazaar must be carried along with ery of gooseberry bushes, the shrubs being
about the same height and arranged in rows. My kit consists of a small tent, ten feet by The leaves are plucked several times during eight, a bed, six feet by two; a table and the scason by native hands, and then made chair, cooking pots and crockery; thirty pints over in basketfuls to Chinamen, imported on of Guiness' stout, thirty pints Allsop's ale, purpose from China for completing the manthree bottles sherry, three bottles of brandy; ufacture. The leaves are dried quickly in a fat sheep to kill when wanted, a round of iron pots or ovens, and finally soldered up in beef, a ham, three tongues, thirty pounds tin and wooden boxes for the market cither potatocs, fifteen pounds flour, eight pounds of India or Europe. I believe government rice, three pounds candles, besides biscuit, would willingly withdraw from their plansugar, tea, butter, and jams; a dozen fowls, tations, and allow an opening for private a milch goat, a pair of ponies, a couple of capital, and the speculation would, undoubtpointers, a rifle and double gun, fishing-rod, edly, be a profitable one. pikestaff, telescope, etc., etc., etc.
Crossed the Kossillah by a very fine susFor the carriage of the above, no fewer pension-bridge of iron, while the river ran than seventeen coolies are required, and by rippling far below, clear as crystal, with a special favor, the magistrate has furnished shoals of fishes of the size of sea trouts me with a written puwarna to indent for steadying themselves in the stream, but sulky fresh men at the end of each day's journey, beasts that wont look at a hook. Marched up paying for the same at the rate of about 3d. the right bank of the river till near sunset, each man for his day's hire.
through very fine scenery, in which the pine
tree was most conspicuous; many of the thigh bone, and which was wont to hop about trees having a spiral twist like cordage, and most cleverly upon its three legs, was one not a few of them showing marks of having morning found partly devoured in its fold. been tapped for their resin, or of having I have known a leopard in broad daylight been set on fire by incendiaries.
make a dash at a large dog, and carry him I intended to have encamped at Somesur, off from under his master's stirrup as he but sound I had got so far ahead of my fol. rode through a jungle ; I am, therefore, not lowers that I thought it prudent to halt till nconcerned about my live mutton, and they joined me, near a small village called have given most stringent orders to have Manar. Seeing me all alone the pudan, or the sheep tied up in a place of safety. My head man, came to pay me his respects, two dogs I cannot trust to themselves, and bringing with him a bunch of plantains, and have effected an insurance on their lives by a lota of new milk. About dusk the tent chaining them to the tent poles, and my two came forward, but the coolies were heartily guns stand ready loaded to meet any emertired, so I had it pitched on the grassy road, gency. while the followers found good shelter in an As for danger from the natives, either in adjoining water mill.
person or property, I have not the least apI was glad to compound with my kidmut- prehension: indeed, far less so than I should gar for à cold pie and a pint of beer for have in old England, for few travellers could dinner; while the coolies, like glowworms, encamp on a village common at home withlighted up the darkness of the night with out being robbed. their cooking fires, and soon had a smoking 22 October.—Slept soundly, notwithstandsupper before them. About eight I went to ing the brawling of the Kossillah : mustered bed, under no apprehensions of being run all hands at sunrise, and reached Somesur over by a mail coach or a wagon, nor yet about nine. Had breakfast on my knees apprehensive of a midnight visit from a leop- under a tree, indented on the pudan for fresh ard or a tiger, the denizens of the neighbor- coolies, and renewed the march about eleven. ing forests. The tiger is too noble a hunter Somesur is a very extensive valley, with a to prey upon humanity, and regales upon the number of thriving villages scattered over wild deer of the jungle. However, when old it, each surrounded with broad fields of rice and unable to hunt he turns homicide; he ground ; these fields, or khates as they are. takes to the roads, and is very glad to find an called, are all laid out in terraces rising one old wife or a cripple on easy terms. Such above the other like steps of a stair, extendtigers are called man-eaters, and when they ing uphill as high as the supply of water fall by the hand of man they are found mangy from a mountain-stream admits of irrigation. and furless, which has given rise to the popu- The stream is turned on upon the upper lar belief that the human nature of their diet khate, and eventually irrigates all the others deprived them of their fur.
below it. The harvest had lately been gathBears are numerous hereabouts, but they ered in, and the natives were busy having seldom act on the offensive, unless interfered the grain trodden out by cattle, and winwith in grubbing up roots and gathering nowed. This they do by throwing the straw acorns; to meddle with them while so en- upon a smooth thrashing floor, and driving gaged, is very dangerous. The most fright- two or three muzzled oxen over it, till the ful lacerations caused by their resentment grain is detached from the straw; thereafter, are numerous in the hills; the human face the straw is piled up in stacks upon the tops divinc being almost effaced. I have seen of the houses, upon long poles stuck into the cases of eyes torn out, lips, and noses, and ground, or upon the forks of trees. The rice ears torn off, and the mouth and nose thrown is then winnowed by the wind, and stowed into one hideous ravine, by the claws of away in garners for the winter's consumpbears. I remember the case of a man who tion; it is unhusked as wanted by beating was in the habit of tying one side of his the grain in a wooden mortar with a heavy lower lip to his car by means of a string, beam of wood shod with iron. and when he ate he was obliged to cast off After leaving Somesur and the Kossillah the string and let the lip fall like a door off valley, we passed over a ridge of mountains the hinges.
covered with oak and rhododendron forest, The leopard has not the courage to attack and after a weary long distance, arrived at man, but prowls about like a cat, ever on the Byznath, on the little river Goomty. watch to carry away a dog, a sheep, or a 3d October.-Halted to-day at Byznath, goat. I have known a leopard break into a several of my servants were knocked up; sheepcot at night, and kill and mangle a one of the sheep was dead-lame, and it was number of sheep. On one occasion à fine not yet convenient to save the mutton by fat deer, whose hind leg I had amputated in killing it. consequence of a compound fracture of the Byznath was a place of very sacred importance many, many years ago, but two, as I rode into it, I asked a buxom damsel in miserable villages alone represent a once Hindostanni, what was the name of her pretty populous city. Its importance may still be village, when she smartly told me to ask the read in a few fine temples of a high descrip- pudan, and ran off laughing at her smarttion of architecture, filled with stone idols, ness. beautifully carved, and in fine preservation, At ten started again, and after one trenumerous enough to stock a museum. The mendous ascent through oak and rhododencountry round Byznath is overgrown with dron forest, got to the summit of the ridge grassy jungle, and extremely unhealthy, and about noon, and after an hour's continued this unhealthiness was probably the cause descent arrived at Cheeringee, on the banks of its ruin.
of the river Pindar. Not a village nor a hut The Goomty, a small river of the size of between Cooling and Cheeringee; road upon the Kossillah, running clearly over a shingly the whole pretty good. One could ride upbottom, is very well stocked with fish, and hill, but not down, and the back sinews were these are partly domesticated, inasmuch, as sorely tried in the descent. A pikestaff and they readily congregate like ducks, at a par- a pair of ammunition boots were invaluable. ticular spot by beat of drum, to be fed by the Those whose muscles are not well strung Brahmins. Í exerted my utmost skill to would do well to use a dandy in such detake one with the rod, but the water was too scents. This consists of a long, stout pole, clear to admit of their being hooked ; re- with a sort of hammock tied upon it, upon solved not to be disappointed in having fish which the weary traveller may either sit or for dinner, I called for my rifle, and singling recline: four men carry it with ease. out the largest as he steadied himself in the 5th October.-Descended the river Pindar stream, fired at his head and killed him ; he by a very fair bridle road to Tirally. Here
. instantly rolled over belly up, and floated a wooden bridge was formerly erected over down the river, when one of my men rushed the river ; but it was lately broken down by into the middle and dragged him to shore, the floods. At present a gossamer sort of a fine fish of six or eight pounds' weight. suspension bridge, made of straw ropes, conThe Brahmins were very much horrified at nects the two banks. Though made by the my impiety in killing what they considered natives themselves out of the raw materials a sacred animal, nearly as much so as if I of the country, it is very similar in principle had killed a child, and I narrowly escaped to our iron suspension bridges. The foota prosecution in the civil court; however, way is a mere ladder wound with a stratum the fish was very excellent to eat, notwith- of reeds. The whole affair looks, from a disstanding.
tance, like a gigantic cobweb waving to and Towards sunset a thunder-storm threat- fro with the wind. It is certainly very nerened our little camp, but so slowly did it ad- vous work crossing it, with the roaring torvance, that ample time was found for prepa- rent raging below one, as I experienced. It ration; so tent pins were driven home, extra is, of course, fit only for passengers. I inout-rigger ropes were bent, and trenches out- tended swimming the ponies across, but the side and inside the tent were dug to carry stream was too furious, and the banks on off the surface water. At last the storm ap- cither side too steep and rocky to give a proached, and made the tent crack and flap chance of their crossing alive. I was the less like a wet umbrella ; the water burst over inclined to run the risk, as a pony only a few the trenches and flowed through in full days before was drowned in the attempt to stream, but the little tent stood fast, and lit- drag him across by means of a rope. tle damage was done. The sheelings erected 6th October.—Encamped near the village by my people were all blown to pieces, and Harmoony. Tent pitched on one of the rice they were forced to seek shelter amongst the terraces, the flattest and smoothest I could ruins.
find. The site of the village is one of the most 4th October.—Spent a very uncomfortable beautiful; on the bold brow of the mountain night in cold and damp, and at daylight that shelves down to the Pindar, and about found the fog excessive: got fresh relay of one thousand feet above the level of the river. coolies, and started about eight. As I as- Judging from appearances, no situation ought cended, every hair had its dewdrop, and I to be more healthy, but the pudan assured me could have washed my face well with dew; that his village had, several months ago, been rode uphill at first, then along an undulat- visited by the Maha-murrie, which carried ing slope, then up, up, up, through forests off fifteen people out of a population of about of most gigantic pine trees, each of which fifty; that the inhabitants, as is their custom, was fit for the main-mast of a ship of the had then deserted their habitations, and were line, but doomed to die and rot where it living in temporary sheds beyond the reach first raised its head. Halted for breakfast of infection, in hopes of eventually returning under a tree at a little village called Cooling; when the infection had ceased to exist. One old woman alone refused to leave her dwell- Their clothing consists of a coarse, rough ing; she was, of course, debarred from all blanket of wool or hemp, spun and woven by communication with the refugees, and the themselves, seldom or never washed or pudan pointed out the old creature wander- changed, and pinned upon their persons by ing about the haunts of her childhood, hav- great brass skewers. The disease is acknowl. ing courted death in vain. I found the edged to be much more virulent amongst the pudan an intelligent man, and had a long wearers of wool than the wearers of hemp, conversation with him in Hindostanee. He or even of cotton; and to prevail more in the said that the Maha-murrie made its appear- hot and rainy season than in the cold weather. ance frequently along the valley of the Pin- At present I believe there is not a case in dar, and caused the greatest possible con- the province of Kumaon. sternation. The word Maha-murrie means The most probable cause of Maha-murrie is great mortality, and probably our word Mur- the filthy state of their persons, and their no rain comes from the same origin. From all less filthy habits of their domestic economy: I could learn the disease very closely resem- and the most salutary mode of reform would bles the plague. It is issued in by high be to have more frequent ablution, and abanfever, followed by delirium, and ending fa- don the system of converting the lower story tally about the third or fourth day, generally of their dwellings into cattle sheds. with suppuration of the glands in the armpit Withal, it is very difficult to trace effects and groins, under the jaw or behind the knee. to their true causes, and the perplexities of Very few of those attacked survive, and the European science in accounting for the prevpopulation of entire villages is sometimes alence of the most familiar epidemics at carried off by its virulence-old and young, home, makes one diffident in coming to demale and female, being alike subject to the cided conclusions on so mysterious an epidisease.
demic as the Maha-murrie. The Maha-murrie is generally preceded by This afternoon my attention was directed a murrain amongst the rats of the village, to what appeared a dense movable cloud and cautious people then taken the warning hovering over a lofty range of mountains to and desert their houses for an entire season the north, and I was informed that it was or longer. The Maha-murrie is believed to caused by an immense multitude of locusts be highly contagious, and when it breaks that for some days had been endeavoring to out in a village separation from the infected cross over the snowy range into the valley becomes imperative, and self-preservation of Kunawur, but could not on account of the extinguishes every social and domestic affec- cold. The army had made various attempts tion. The son deserts his sick father, the to encamp and refresh themselves upon the daughter her afflicted mother, the husband fields of the villages, but were speedily put his affectionate wife, leaving them to their to flight by the beating of drums and the firfate, without assistance, and without remorse, ing of muskets. It was suspected that the to die in their houses or their gardens, like whole host would eventually perish—a prosthe rats that precede them; nor do they ven- pect that the natives seemed to enjoy. Such ture back to perform even the rites of funeral Hights are by no means uncommon; the till all risk of contagion is supposed to be ground is sometimes covered some inches over. Moreover, if an individual from an deep with their carcasses, and these are infected village were to venture into an un- gathered up in basketfuls to be parched for infected village, he would be stoned to death food. There was something intensely painstantly. Even the old woman that lin- thetic in the fate that seemed to await this gered amongst the ruins of Harmoony dared invading army, reminding one strongly of a not venture out a mile to join her former as- similar fate that befell the French armies resociates without the sacrifice of her life. turning from Moscow, or the Carthagenian
That such a pestilence should break out armies attempting to cross the Alps. Picked in a populous town tainted with the essences up several invalid locusts, resembling large of disease is not surprising; but that it should brown dragon flies, three or four inches in originate amongst a most frugal people, liv- length, that had dropped from cold and huning in primitive houses, in a temperate and ger. delightful climate such as this, is indeed 6th October.-Started this morning by mysterious.
moonlight, having a very long journey beThe houses of these hills are built of stone fore us, and descending along the left bank cemented with clay, and roofed with large of the river Pindar, halted for an hour at slabs of clay slate ; the family living on the the pretty little village of Ming: Here we upper story, the lower being filled with their learned that the road some miles further cattle. Certainly much filth and offal lie down was carried away by the river, renderaround, and the persons of the natives are ing our intended route that way impassable, any thing but satisfactory in a sanitary sense. J and making a detour of many miles neces