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DR. WILLIAM TALBOT, Bp. of DURHAM, the only son of William Talbot, Esq. of Lichfield, by Mary, the daughter of Thomas Doughty, Esq. of Whittington, in Worcestershire, was born at Stourton Castle, in Staffordshire, one of his father's seats, a little before the Restoration. He was admitted a gentleman commoner of Oriel College in the beginning of the year 1674, at the age of fifteen; and the year following performed remarkably well in a speech in the Encænia. He took the degree of Bachelor of Arts on the 16th of October, 1677 ; and proceeded to Master of Arts on the 23d of June, 1680: after which, he entered into holy orders; obtained the rectory of Berfield, in Berkshire; and married the daughter of Mr. Crispe, an eminent Attorney at Chipping Norton, in Oxfordshire. After the Revolution, by the interest of his kinsman, Charles Talbot, then Earl of Shrewsbury, he was promoted to the Deanry of Worcester, on the 23d of April, 1691, in the room of Dr. Hickes, ejected for refusing to take the oaths to the new government.
In June following, he was diplomated Doctor in Divinity, by Archbishop Tillotson ; and, distinguishing himself in the pulpit, was inore than once called to preach before the Queen. Upon the demise of Dr. Fell, he was advanced to the Bishoprick of Oxford, to which he was consecrated the 24th of September, 1699, with leave to hold his Deanry in commendam.
His Doctor's degree was recognised in the University soon after his coming to the See of Oxford.
On the accession of King George the First, he was made Dean of the Chapel-royal.
He held the above Bishopric till the year 1715, when he succeeded Dr. Burnet in that of Salisbury ; and, upon the death of Lord Crewe, was translated to the Bishopric of Durham, on which occasion he resigned the Deanry of the Chapel Royal. In the year of his translation he was made Go
vernor of the Charter-house; and in 1721, on the death of Richard Earl of Scarborough, the King appointed him Lord-lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County Palatine of Durham.
The Bishop made his public entry into his Diocese on the 12th of July, 1722, when Dr. Mangey delivered an elegant public speech of congratulation at Farewell-hall. He went directly to the Cathedral church to prayers before he entered his Palace, and pronounced his blessing from the Throne. He preached from thence on Sunday the 15th of July, and on the 4th of August visited Newcastle.
Bp. Talbot rendered himself unpopular by two measures which he pursued.
One of these was, a Bill which he brought into Parliament in February 1722, and which passed the House of Lords, to enable Bishops to grant leases of mines, which had not thentofore been demised, without consent of Chapters *.
Sir John Eden, being then one of the representatives for the County of Durham, strenuously opposed this Bill in the Commons; though it must not be forgot, that his fellow member, Mr. Hedworth, refused to give the tenants any assistance, or to join in the petition against it; however, the oppositions against it were held so reasonable, that the Bill underwent great amendments, which occasioned those who had the conduct of it before Parliament to drop it, and it did not pass. But many of the old Prebendaries of Durham soon after
* Spearman tells us that “ this attempt alarmed the whole Nation, and a vigorous opposition was made thereto, particularly by the Dean and Chapter of Durham, and the copyholders and leaseholders of this County; for it appeared to them, that the Bill was calculated for the Bishop of Durham and his family only, and not for his successors, and to deprive the copyholders and ancient leaseholders of the mines within their inclosed grounds, which the Bishops of Durham have of late claimed. The copyholds are descendable estates of inheritance to the heirs of the Roll tenants."
dying, the Bishop had the opportunity of preferring many of his friends in their places;, and thereby had a majority in the Chapter, to confirm such leases as he thought fit to grant.
Sir John Eden was greatly applauded by all the County of Durham for his conduct, and at his return from Parliament was met by 1500 persons, to congratulate his arrival. This occasioned the Bishop to call on his dependents and friends, to meet him on coming into the Bishopric; and a cavalcade was formed, by many gentlemen, clergymen, and others, on the 23d of January 1739, who attended him into Durham, with about thirty coaches in their train.
The other matter which hurt the Bishop's popularity was, his insinuating to the Dean and Chapter the room there was for advancing the fines on their leases; setting the pernicious example in his own.
In 1725, the Bishop visited the Dean and Chapter, and exhibited Articles." He continued in this See till his death, which happened at his house in Hanover-square, London, on the 10th of October, 1730. He was buried privately in St. James's church, Westminster. • Twelve of the Bishop's Sermons were published in 1731, in one vol. 8vo; in some of which he asserts the notion of Dr. Samuel Clarke upon the Trinity. He was strongly attached to that Divine; and has been heard to lament greatly, that he could not give the Doctor the best preferment he had in his disposal, by reason of his refusing to subscribe the Articles *.
He was of a magnificent taste and temper, which often run him into difficulties, his great revenue not being answerable to his expences, and his son was often obliged to extricate him from his embarrassments. After the decease of his first wife, who died without issue, he entered into a second * Biog. Brit.-Wood's Athen. Oxon, vol. II. EE2
marriage marriage with Catharine, daughter of Alderman King, of London, by whom he had eight sons and several daughters *. His eldest son Charles, in November 1733, was made Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, and, on the 5th of December following, created Baron of Hensol in the County of Glamorgan. It is remarkable of this Prelate, that in nine
years time he disposed of all the best livings in his patronage, both his Archdeaconries, and half the Stalls in his Cathedral; and it has been hinted, that he did not come to this opulent See without submitting to a douceur of six or seven thousand pounds of
The annexed Portrait of 'his Lordship is copied from a print of Vertue, after an original Painting, when he was Bishop of Salisbury.
# Those who lived to maturity were, 1. Charles, who became Lord Chancellor ; 2. Edward, who was born in the City of Worcester, and bred at Oriel College in Oxford, where, after taking his first degree of Arts, he was chosen fellow, 30th Oct. 1712. He proceeded M. A. 14th Oct. 1714; and resigned his fellowship 10th Oct. 1715, apparently on account of his marriage with Mary, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Martin. He died in 1720, Archdeacon of Berkshire, having issue an only daughter, Catharine f. 3. Sherington, who, being bred to the army, became captain of an independent company of foot, afterwards Lieutenant-colonel, and thence Colonel of a regiment of foot, 17th Feb. 1747. He married a daughter of Midget, who died the 6th of Sept. 1749; and had issue two sons, William and Charles. 4. Henry, a commissioner of the Salt duty; who married, first, a daughter of Lloyd, by whom he had issue a daughter, Elizabeth; and marrying, secondly, Catharine, daughter of Sir Hugh Clopton, of Stratford upon Avon, in Warwickshire, had by her, who died 17th May, 1754, no issue. The Bishop's daughters were, Henrietta Maria, married to Dr. Charles Trimnel, Lord Bishop of Winchester; and Catharine, married to Exton Sayer, LL. D. who, being bred to the Civil Law at Trinity Hall in Cambridge, became a fellow of that College, and an Advocate in Doctor's Commons; and, after his marriage, was made Spiritual Chancellor of Durham, and surveyor of his Majesty's Land Revenues, &c. He died Member of Parliament for Totness in 1751. + Hutchinson's History of Durham, vol. I. p. 573. of this celebrated Lady see Literary Anecdotes, vol. IX. pp. 766_768.
WILLIAM HUTCHINSON, Ese. This industrious Antiquary was a Solicitor of respectability, at Barnard-Castle, in the County of Durham. His professional engagements occupied a considerable portion of his time; but he devoted his leisure hours to the pursuits of Literature.
Mr. Hutchinson principally distinguished himself by the publication of Three County Histories :
1. “A View of Northumberland, with an Excursion to Mailross in Scotļand, 1776, 1778.” 2 vols. 4to.
2. “ The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham, 1785, 1787, 1794*,” 3 vols. 4to.; a Work now scarce.
3. “ The History of the County of Cumberland, and the Places adjacent, from the earliest Accounts to the present Time; comprehending the Local History of the County, its Antiquities, the Origin, Genealogy, and present State, of the principal Families, with Biographical Notes ; its Mines,
* In a Letter dated Nov. 14, 1793, Mr. Hutchinson informed the Subscribers to the “History of Durham," that after so long and involuntary a delay, in consequence of a late decision, which terminated an expensive suit, the sole property of that work reverts to me. The printing of the Third Volume will not be delayed after I have had delivery of the MS. and the sheets already printed off. I propose to make several additions to complete this volume (a project opposed by the late Printer and contractor); and that the same shall be richly embellished with plates, for which additions a very moderate price will be imposed. But the Subscribers will be severally left to their option, to take the addenda, or receive the promised sheets gratis.".
† Mr. Hutchinson committed a great mistake, in printing by far too great a number of the "History of Durham" (1000 copies; only twenty of which were on Royal Paper). After all the Subscribers were supplied, and he had disposed of as many copies as he could find purchasers for among the different Book sellers, he had still 400 setts remaining; all of which I purchased from him at a comparatively small price. The market, however, having been already overloaded, after selling only a very few copies at the end of several years, 200 setts were actually converted into waste paper; and almost all the remaining copies were consumed, by a fatal fire, February 8, 1808.