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young man was actually sitting at the same was gone to bed, she stood at the nursery table with master!

window, looking down upon the trees of the Elizabeth smiled to herself, and held ber square, that stretched their motionless arms tongue. Now, as ever, she always kept the up into the moonlight sky-just such a secrets of the family.

moonlight as it was once, more than three About ten o'clock she was summoned to years ago, the night little Henry was born. the dining-room.

And she recalled all the past, from the day There stood Peter Ascott, pompous as when Miss Hilary hung up her bonnet for ever, but with a certain kindly good-humor her in the house-place at Stowbury; the lightening his heavy face, looking conde- dreary life at No. 15; the Sunday nights scendingly around him, and occasionally when she and Tom Cliffe used to go wanderrubbing his hands slowly together, as if he ing round and round the square. were exceedingly well pleased with himself. “ Poor Tom," said she to herself, thinking There stood Ascott Leaf, looking bright and of Ascott Leaf, and how happy he had handsome in spite of his shabbiness, and looked, and how happy his aunts would be quite at his ease-which small peculiarity to-morrow. Well, Tom would be glad kas never likely to be knocked out of him too, if he knew all." under the most depressing circumstances. But happy as everybody was, there was

He shook hands with Elizabeth warmly. nothing so close to Elizabeth's heart as the

“I wanted to ask you if you have any one grave over which the snow was now message for Liverpool. I go there to-mor- lying, white and peaceful, out at Kensal row on business for Mr. Ascott, and after- Green. ward I shall probably go and see my aunts.” He faltered a moment, but quickly shook Elizabeth is still living-which is a great the emotion off.

I shall tell blessing, for nobody could well do without them all about you, Elizabeth. Any special her. She will probably attain a good old message, eh ? "

age; being healthy and strong, very equable Only my duty, sir, and Master Henry in temper now, and very cheerful too, in her is quite well again,” said Elizabeth, formally, quiet way. Doubtless, she will yet have and dropping her old-fashioned courtesy; Master Henry's children climbing her after which, as quickly as she could, she knees, and calling her “Mammy Lizzie.” slipped out of the dining-room.

But she will never marry. She never But long, long after, when all the house loved anybody but Tom.

6. Of course,

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That "the old order changeth, giving place thankfully welcomed here just now; bat 70,000 to new,” never had a more startling affirmation camel-loads of Smyrna figs coming by way of than the opening, a few days since, of the new Ephesus reads like a bit of old Rycaat, of that line of railway between Smyrna and Ephesus. potent individual Busbequius, or, better still, Would any one expect to be shot by steam Marco Polo's far-off predecessor William de along that road, or to hear goods-trade man- Rubruquis, who, priest as he was, ever had an agers expatiating upon the probability--indeed, eye open for trade. As it is, tho "express,' extreme desirableness--of developing the carry- even at twenty-five miles an hour, would strain ing business in the Menander Valley, or a traf- the crcdulity of the magic-beliering Ephesians : fic manager enlarging upon the transit of Turk- Maximus, the Emperor Julian's teacher in ish or quasi-Turkish folks by omnibus through magic, would not pretend to do this thing. the Saladin Pass as not so profitable to a rail. Truly, a return-ticket from Smyrna to Ephesus way company as their going by way of Ephe- and back in 100 minutes would have had a value sus? One feels a little more at home when the incalculable to Antony, and worth all the litere first-named functionary refers to the 70,000 Ephesiæ are said to bave been to Cresus, who camel-loads of figs that are estimated as the sea escaped the pyro by them. This is almost son's production in those regious. Seventy enough to make the many-bosomed Diana, the thousand camel-loads of figs !-what a glorious stock” of the Ephesians, re-appear in her sound it has ! Fifty thousand bales of cotton, temple. -Atheneum. another product, is well enough, and would be

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From The Examiner. troduction of Spanish rule began their Travels in Peru and India, while Superin- misfortunes., Mr. Markham, however, in tending the Collection of Cinchona Plants opposition to the popular notion, endorses and Seeds in South America, and their In- Mr. Helps's assertion that “ the humane and troduction into India. By Clements R. Markham, F.S.A., F.R.G.š., Corr. Mem. benevolent laws, which emanated from time of the University of Chile, Author of to time from the Home Government, renCuzco and Lima.” With Maps and Il-"dered the sway of the Spanish monarchs lustrations. Murray.

over the conquered nations as remarkable In Mr. Markham's work as secretary of for mildness as any, perhaps, that has ever the Hakluyt Society and editor of some of been recorded in the pages of history.” The its publications, we have lately had to notice fault lay with the subordinates, who, being the advantages arising from personal ac- as a body untrustworthy, rapacious, and requaintance with a considerable portion of morselessly cruel, were so far removed from South America, obtained in the course of his the fountain of justice that the benign laws antiquarian and ethnological explorations in became a dead letter, and the natives, during that region. The same knowledge made three hundred years, were ground to the him an efficient agent of the Indian Govern- earth. It has been so in our own day with ment in its commendable project for intro- Cuban slavery. The laws of Spain being ducing the Peruvian bark into India. The more merciful, the Spanish slaveholders less undertaking, urged by Dr. Forbes Royle in merciful, than those of Carolina. The first 1839 as necessary for the supply of a drug tyrants known to the Peruvians were Pizarro, indispensable in the treatment of Indian who rebelled against the government which fevers, was unsuccessfully entered upon in bade him be friendly to the Indians, and 1852, and, owing to the special difficulties Belalcazar, who evaded his orders after a of the work, might never have been resumed fashion which gave foundation to the Spanbut for the proffered services of Mr. Mark- ish proverb, “ He obeys, but fulfils not.” The ham. Under Lord Stanley's direction, how- example of the one or the other wrs followed ever, a new attempt was made in 1859, and by all their successors, and consequently the its complete success, after three years' labor, population declined in two centuries from is recorded in a book which also sketches thirty millions to three. In recent times, and faithfully and effectively the past and pres- especially since the establishment of indepenent condition of Peru and its inhabitants. dence in Peru, the natives have fared better.

The wealth and refinement of Peru under “ So far as my experience extends,” says Mr. its Incas are fully detailed by Prescott. Mr. Markham, “and after a careful consideraMarkham describes traces of a much more tion of the subject, I can see no grounds for ancient civilization. One district, on the resigning the hope that a brighter future is north side of the Lake of Umayu, is covered yet in store for the land of the Incas." with ruins, four of them being towers of The entire population of Peru is at presfinely cut masonry, with the sides of the ent rather under two millions; the laboring stones skilfully dovetailed. The most per- people being chiefly Indians, with a proporfect of the four has a broad rounded cornice tion of negroes and zambos, a caste between and a vaulted roof, with a vaulted chamber the two, and the upper classes comprising a underneath containing human bones. On very few of pure Spanish descent, a few pure another is a great lizard, the national animal Indians, and a large body of half-castes. of the early Indians, carved in relief on a The Indian blood carries with it much enstone measuring six feet by three. The only ergy, and at any rate equal ability with that tradition that Mr. Markham could glean derived from Europe; and the whole nation from the people in the neighborhood was, is described as quick and intelligent, very that in the middle of the eleventh century a hospitable and forgiving, but fickle and volman and woman, calling themselves the chil- atile, often indolent, and rarely persevering. dren of the sun, came and founded the Em- Mr. Markham contradicts the statement, pire of the Incas among the earlier residents. frequently made, that since the war of indeUnder the dominion of their brother Indians pendence Peru has been in a constant state these primitive people, called Aymaras, en- of civil war, and shows that, of the thirtyjoyed peace and multiplied. With the in- seven years and a half of its life as a repub

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lic, twenty-eight and a half have been passed until they are humanized by family ties, and in peace, two in foreign war, and seven in that, while now they live for the Church, that civil dissensions. The disputes have arisen is, for themselves and their order, they ought partly from the follies of long ago in fixing to live for their flocks. A third patriot, and vexatious boundaries, and partly from the perhaps the one from whom most is to be difficulties in the way of inventing any plan hoped, is Mariano Paz Soldan, who among of government agreeable both to the half of his various good public works has already the people living near the capital and to the succeeded in substituting for the villanous half thinly scattered about the provinces. prisons of former days a penitentiary conBetween the years 1834 and 1844 occurred structed on the best English and American a miserable series of insurrections and of models. With such leaders, and with the flying governments, each more selfish and large natural resources of the country, it pusillanimous than, its predecessors, under may be possible to make of Peru a quiet, which the honest statesmen were forced to working State. Every nation has its beretire into private life and wait for a fit time ginning, an inevitable and perhaps necessafor action. Ten years of prosperity followed, rily rough ordeal to undergo, and South during six of which the government was in America must not expect to make a leap the hands of General Castilla, an old Indian that no other country has been able to do." of sterling worth and ability. The malver-Thus Mr. Markham passes with his kindly sations of his successor, General Echenque, gloss over the confusion of the South Amerkindled a new insurrection in 1854, of which ican republics, in whose easily stirred revothe end was that Castilla was recalled to lutions European traders are, we fear, only power, but surrounded by men who forced too apt to speculate. There have been, travthe adoption of some unfortunate experi- ellers tell us, revolutions good fop a week's ments in the theory of government. A new anarchy manufactured in a morning by a constitution was set up in 1860, reversing clever merchant who has a shipload of goods many of the former absurd and injurious that he would like to get in or send out duty arrangements, and restoring the best of the free. original provisions. This government Mr. The special subject of Mr. Markham's Markham considers “ as good a one as the book, however, is the quinine-yielding Cincountry is fit for, and capable, in firm and chona plant, so called because the Countess honest hands, of meeting all the present re- of Cinchon, whose husband was Viceroy quirements of the people.” Admitting that of Peru early in the seventeenth century, there are many bad men waiting for an op- was the first European whom it cured of inportunity of disorder which may turn to termittent fever. Returning to Spain in their selfish advantage, he believes that the 1640, she brought a quantity of the healing present masters of power are thoroughly bark, which, being sold by her physician for patriotic. Castilla, now about seventy years one hundred reals the pound, at once beold, is “ an excellent soldier, brave as a lion, came famous, and was named after her by prompt in action, and beloved by his men.” Linnæus. From that time it was steadily He is too exclusively devoted to his profes- exported by the Jesuit missionaries and sion to care anything for the improvement largely used by Romanists, although for of the people by encouraging education or many years the Protestants opposed it on promoting public works, but he does good religious grounds. In 1726 La Fontaine service by maintaining peace while men as made it the subject of an epic poem, but not honest and of larger mind are preparing to till a later day was it known that the bark succeed him. One of these is Juan Manuel bought from the Indians, who gathered it del Mar, an able lawyer, and a friend to in forests unexplored by white men, came every enlightened scheme for benefiting the from a tree almost unrivalled in the esquination. Another is Dr. Vigil, a Roman site beauty of its leaves and the delicious Catholic clergyman of singularly liberal fragrance of its flowers. In 1743 La Couviews, anxious to establish toleration of all damine visited Loxa and collected some sects, and independence of the rule of the plants to transfer to Paris, but they were Papacy. “One of his strongest convictions washed overboard in the passage; and in is tbat priests will never lead virtuous lives 1771 Jussieu took a similar disaster so much

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to heart that he is said thereby to have lost his by the merchants and their friends, and but reason. Quite recently some specimens have for the exercise of great care, Mr. Markham been reared at Kew, but the plant can only would have failed. Once, with no food but grow naturally within precise limits of lati- some parched maize, he was for eleven hours tude, varying in size, according to the local- in the saddle, riding quickly over a rugged ity, from a high tree to a diminutive shrub; country, and in extreme cold, which he and there was no precedent for Mr. Mark- dreaded less for himself than for the young ham's work of transporting it to India. He plants that were in bis keeping. Many other had to overcome many difficulties incident such difficulties had to be overcome before to the labor of exploring some thousands of the various boxes could be brought in good miles in search of the best varieties, and of condition to the coast and transported to collecting a sufficient quantity, in opposition India, where another series of difficulties had to the jealousy of the residents, who, though to be contended with before suitable soil and they are now gathering the bark so reck- climate could be found. All this is well delessly that there is danger of its soon be- tailed by Mr. Markham, who records that coming almost extinct, were loth to assist in the greatest success has been attained at the the formation of a trade which they thought plantations in the Neilgherry Hills, under detrimental to their interests. He obtained the superintendence of Mr. McIvor. A the help of several competent agents-the postscript informs us that on the 31st of most zealous and successful being Mr. last August 72,568 plants were flourishing. Spence—who searched different districts, and From such a stock uvlimited supplies of in the course of a few months produced quinine and cinchonidine may soon be probetter results than could have been expected. cured, and besides the inestimable benefit By Mr. Markham himself an ample supply conferred on the natives of India by the of seeds was collected, with the assistance of naturalization of an important drug, a likely his native Indian friends. Suspicious they result is that after the lapse of a few years certainly were at times, and with good rea- Peruvian bark and quinine will decline son, after the treatment they have usually greatly from their present high price in the met with from white men, but willing, hard- European market, and will take their place working, intelligent, good-humored, always more fully than they have done hitherto as ready to help each other, quick in forming medicines of free use for the poor. the encampments, conversing quietly and Mr. Markham's pleasant record of travel without noise round the camp fires, and al- and adventure is the book of a man who ways kind to animals; altogether very has really something fresh to tell the world efficient and companionable people.” A of readers, and which happens both to be formidable opposition, however, was raised well worth the telling and to be well told.

RESEARCHES ON THE NATURE AND TREAT- stance gets into the blood. It is cither thrown MENT OF DIABETES. By F. W. Pavy, M. D. into the blood from the liver in greater quanti(Churchill.)-The discovery that the liver is not ties thau it ought to be, or it is detained in only a bilo-making organ, and by over-activity the blood by some deficient excretory, power. an embitterer of life, but a sugar-making organ Henceforth the treatment of diabetes becomes and a sweetener of the blood, is one of the glo- more scientific, reasonable, and certain, and Dr. ries of modern physiology. Dr. Pavy, has placed Pavy has devoted this work to the consideration his name by the side of the distinguished French of its nature and treatment.

We need not say physiologist, Claude Bernard, by his researches that it is entitled to the consideration and study on this subject. Bernard showed that the liver of the medical profession.-Athencum. formed sugar; but Pavy showed that it first formed starch or a starchlike substance, which became converted into sugar in the air. He The Island of Fayal has been desolated by a questions, indeed, if in health sugar is ever succession of earthquakes, extending over ninoformed in the blood; but in the disease called teen days, in consequence of which all the indiabetes it unquesnonably exists. We have habitants who could were quitting for other: thus arrived ut a knowledge of how this sub- islands in the Azorian group.

From The Saturday Review. trie, and the Rev. Derwent Coleridge. This THE WORKS OF WINTHROP MACK- was followed by Knight's Quarterly MagaWORTH PRAEI).*

zine, to which some of Praed's best producIt is difficult to account for the fact that tions were contributed, and among them his none of our publishers have yet re-issued the longest poem, the “Troubadour.". This works of W. M. Praed. Since his death, in work, however, was never completed, for a 1839, the book has been promised at fre- total disagreement took place between the quent intervals, and on one occasion it was staff and the publisher. The young men actually announced by a well-known firm. became weary of the task they had underThe delay is the more inexplicable because taken, rather as a source of amusement than Praed is by this time tolerably well known, with any serious object in view; and on and there can be no question whatever that more than one occasion Mr. Charles Knight, an edition of his works would very soon be the publisher, was compelled to postpone taken up. Two American publishers issued the issue of the magazine, and make an his longest poems. The edition published apology to the public. Praed and his friends in 1852 is the most comprehensive, although seem to have been not only irregular in their it abounds in errors and misprints, some of contributions, but also a little tyrannical. which confuse or entirely alter the meaning They were neither disposed to submit to the of the author. It had no pretension, how- restraints, nor to heed the warnings with ever, to be regarded as a perfect copy. The which the prudent publisher sometimes aim of the editor, Mr. Griswold, was ex- found it necessary to visit them. Some pressed modestly enough. He simply hoped wished to promulgate opinions which were that the book “might have the effect of in- calculated to bring destruction upon the ducing some English publisher to give us a enterprise. Others, as Mr. Knight says, complete collection of the works of an au- “made captious objections” to authority; thor whose carelessness of his literary repu- and at length the whole team became so tation should not deprive the world of one thoroughly unmanageable that the publisher of the most charming books for which any resolved to discontinue the magazine. After writer of our time has furnished material.” paying the little band a warm compliment The volume includes Praed's chief contribu- on their talents, he reproached them with tions in verse to Knight's Quarterly Maga- being guilty of “ something like a heartless zine, a few pieces from the annuals, and the indifference to the consequences of wanton two English poems that gained for the author neglect.” And with this rebuke the young the Chancellor’s medal at Cambridge in writers found their plaything taken from 1823–24. It is much to be regretted that them and broken up. not a single letter of Praed's has yet been Among his friends at Trinity, Praed was printed out of the whole mass of his corre- distinguished for his wit and genial nature, spondence. No small proportion of his com- no less than for his sarcastic powers, which positions still lie buried in extinct magazines undoubtedly were considerable. and annuals, and few are acquainted with countered, none o'ercame him," is the testithe exact spots whence these treasures may mony of the Rev. John Moultrie. At the be exhumed. There are several of his poems, “Union” he was always a brilliant and effecfor example, that seem to have been over- tive speaker, and he bore off the largest looked, in the London Magazine, some of number of prizes from the university of any which we should have been glad to quote man of his time. In 1822 he gained two had our limits permitted.

gold medals for the Greek ode and the Praed evinced a literary turn at an early Greek and Latin epigrams; and in the folperiod of life. At Eton he was one of the lowing year he also gained Sir William little group of young men who started that Browne's medal for the Greek ode, and the clever magazine, the Etonian-his colleagues Chancellor's medal for the best English being Lord Macaulay, the Rev. John Moul- poem on “ Australia.” In 1825 he again

* The Poetical Works of W. M. Praed. Now obtained the Browne medal and the Chanfirst collected by R. W. Griswold. New York. cellor's prize for a poem on" Athens.” BeThe Etonian-Knight's Quarterly Magazine

fore quitting the university, he took the deThe London Magazine, fc.

gree of B.A.; and in 1829 he was called to

6 Few en

1844 and 1852.

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