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spout, with the road above and the rail be- harmonize with the church opposite," as the low-a true Procustes bed.

clerk of the works explains. Two biggish * At length we emerge from the tunnel, after kind of sentinel-boxes, covered by domes about ten minutes' walk, and arrive at the modelled after the originals of Captain Fowke, first station of the Underground Railway, R.E., start out of the ground, stuck to what that of King's Cross. It is a structure a appears to be a stable on the one side, and good deal more comely than the departure a pigeon-house on the other. Our friend, shed in Farringdon Street, consisting of two the clerk, says it is “ Doric ;” but it looks wide platforms on each side, covered by a Kensingtonian all over. Luckily, there is huge dome of glass of nearly a hundred feet not much light below to examine the niceties span. By laying a floor across the rails, on of the " style," and the tunnel opens its arms a level with the platform, the building might near to the platform on either side. The easily be converted into a fine ball-room, for next station, Baker Street, is close at hand. merry Underground directors and sharehold- It is a simple contrivance, without attempts ers to dance in. There is capital accomoda- at Doric, lighted by nineteenth-century chimtion for a good orchestra, on a pretty aërial ney-pots, and covered like an honest rail. bridge, which hangs high under the glass way-shed. The stairs leading into the outer roof, spanning the rail from side to side. world are well lined with brass, as a protecClose to the bridge the tunnel yawns again. tion against hob-nailed boots, which proves It is an exact counterpart of its brother on that the architect was a man with no nonthe other side; the same height and width sense about him. Another tunnel, rather throughout, the same beautiful elliptical arch damp, and revealing to the nose the existabove, and the same double line of broadence of sewers somewhere near, brings us to and narrow guage rails along the ground. the penultimate station, that of EdgwareThere are the same “man-holes" too at the road. It lies in an open cutting, some five side of the tunnel : small niches cut in the hundred feet long and more than one hunsolid wall, sufficient for sheltering two per- dred feet wide, and is consequently well sons, and met with every twenty or thirty lighted and aired. There are extensive yards. The tunnel is large enough to allow “ sidings” for housing locomotives and carfree passage on either side, and between the riages; the top is corered by an elliptical trains ; but these “man-hole " excavations arched roof of iron and glass, as at King's are made, it seems, as extra security, or to Cross; aad the whole appearance of the staserve as a refuge in case of accident. After tion is very cheerful and pleasing. But one another six or seven minutes' walk through more tunnel beckons invitingly beyond, the dark we emerge again in the light, in a promising to carry us to the end of the iron building somewhat less lofty than King's underground highway. It is not long, and Cross, and by no means so well lighted. It one of the most interesting works of the is Gower Street station, lying below the car- whole line. The road gradually ascends unriage way of the New Road, and having no til it arrives at an open space, where it diother illumination than that obtained by a vides iuto two branches, the one leading to the number of chimney-like openings, enamelled Paddington station and the other to the Greatinside with white tiles, and covered at the top Western Railway Hotel. The entrance to the with thick ground glass. On a clear day latter is by a huge bell mouth, covered with sufficient light for all ordinary purposes is thick elliptical wrought-iron ribs, with cross obtained in this manner; but in good ortho- girders between them, and stout iron plating dox London weather, the chimney illumina- over the whole. It is one of the grandest tion must be largely supplemented by gas. engineering pictures which it is possible to The latter is near enough at hand, the main imagine ; and lit up by profusion of gas pipe running right across the arch, in close jets, the effect is truly magical. The tunnel, grip of road and rail, like the poor Fleet from this place to Paddington station, folditch.

lows the direction of the South Wharf-road, Another black tunnel of four or five hun- till, creeping out below the coal wharf, it dred yards, and we arrive at Portland Street emerges at last and falls into the Great Station. This is a very pretentious edifice, Western line. There is a separate station in the pepper-box style of architecture : “to here in course of erection; but at present it

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is difficult to determine the end of the un-| long boxes, lined with vulcanized india-rubderground road and the commencement of ber, and freighted with heavy weights, which the King of Railways."

press the aëriform fluid to the burners. Into At Paddington the passenger vehicles of these boxes the gas is pumped by hydraulic the new line stand ready for their work. pressure, each carriage holding sufficient to They are really handsome carriages, im- serve for three hours. The contrast of the mensely superior to the mass of old railway splendid illumination thus obtained with the coffins on wheels, into which travellers are wretched semi-opaque condition of the old oilstowed away. There are only two classes of lamp light is something marvellous, and will -carriages—both, as already mentioned, for go far, probably, to make underground travelthe broad guage. The first class is divided ling popular in London. In Belgium railway into compartments for ten persons, five on carriages have been lighted by gas for some either side ; each passenger having an arm- years, and in Ireland also the system has chair of most comfortable and luxurious di- been tried, and found to answer admirably. mensions. The benches of the second-class There is no reason, therefore, why it should carriages, too, are bolstered, with cushions not be a success likewise in the bowels of at the back; but there are no divisions of the British metropolis, and throw a new seats, and the compartment holds twelve pas- light upon the subject of railway travelling: sengers. Both classes of vehicles are 80 With locomotives consuming their own high that the tallest life-guardsmen need not smoke, such as have been built for the new stoop while standing upright, helmet on line ; with soft-cushioned seats, and plenty head; and so broad thai even ladies in gar- of room to breathe and move ; and with artiments of the latest Paris fashion can move ficial light, far surpassing the metropolitan along without damaging their hoops. But sunshine, the Underground Railway can what is most satisfactory is that all carriages scarcely fail to obtain a fair share of public are lighted to profusion with gas, there be- patronage. If it accomplish no other good, ing two large burners in each compartment it is likely to have the one great effect of of the first as well as the second class. The either annihilating or improving those horrigas is kept on the top of the carriages in ble sarcophagi of London called omnibuses.

Blackwood's Magazine has an article on Amer- An Irish local paper, the Munster News, gives ica, in which it says :

an account of a curious silver cross that has been So far, therefore, as it is a question of legal- discovered in the ruins of Quin Abbey, County ity, England would be amply justified in recog

Clare, by a herdsman of the neighborliood, while nizing the independence of the Confederate making some casual researches amongst the old States."

stones that had fallen from the walls. This is On this The Press, 8 Nov., a strong Tory abbot of the Franciscan order, to whom tho ab

supposed to have been a pectoral cross of a mitred paper, and perhaps especially devoted to Mr. bey, one of the oldest in Ireland, belonged. It is D'Isracli, thus speaks :

of silver, gilt, perfectly solid, elaborately wrought The only comment we feel disposed to for its size, and bears'a figure of the crucificd Samake on the statement, is that precedents for viour; the prominent features were partially recognition do not necessarily prove either the worn, presumably by constant attrition. It is justice or the wisdom of recognition. What we said 10 be of the fourteenth-century workman. ought to be more careful of than anything is ship. From the fact of the wearing away of establishing a precedent against ourselves. It the features, and also of the ribbon-ring, by may be said, of course, that this has been done which it would be suspended, this relic would long ago, and by the acts of intervention above appear to have been in use for a considerable quoted; so that as we cannot make our own period, and to have been a sort of official hcir. case worso, we may just as well get all the good loom of successive abbots. The foot-ring, from out of the precedents that we can. Perhaps so. which is suspended an ornamental silver drop or But the point is a very nice one; and we rather tassel, is, in like manner, worn to a mere thread. distrust that appeal to the voice of humanity” | Above the head of the Redeemer's figure is 4 by which one people would justify dictation to small, square, silver box, embracing a precious another. The voice of humanity is a singularly stone of sanguine hue, and affording room for a elastic and ubiquitous voice, and may possibly relic; in the foot of the article was another be heard next in a quarter where it will not be hole, probably intended to contain a second very welcome.0

stone.

From The Spectator. geniality, we might almost say joviality, CHRISTOPHER NORTH.*

which made them lords of the ascendant in In the course of this year, the British all societies. We note in both the absence public has been asked to read the lives of of t'e sense of time and the same supreme two remarkable Scotchmen-two men of indifference to money. Both had “ learned very unlike outer fortunes, to whom very love in huts where poor men lie," and were different fields of labor were assigned, who, completely elevated above the region of in certain respects, possessed very dissimi- Flunkeyism. In both there was an exhaust lar qualities and intellect, and yet in whom less fund of generosity and benevolence, and we find sundry elements of a very kindred the twain were alike unsystematic in their character-Edward Irving and John Wilson. philanthropy. Two more passionately de To begin with, both were sons of Anak, voted husbands ard fathers were not to be handsome and good looking, and charged found in Scotland ; and in these two men with a quite extraordinary amount of phys- of giant mould there was the tenderness of ical activity, endurance, and strength. Wil- a woman's heart, and a vast capacity of son son could clear the Cherwell-twenty-three row. Irving mourned all his days over the feet-with a running leap, and readers of loss of his first-born. A mere boy of Irving's "life" will remember how, after a twelve, Wilson fainteū at his father's grave, hard day's march, the preacher vaulted with and whén, after twenty-five years of wedded amazing ease a many-barred gate. Largely | love, his wife was taken from his mortal alike in their indomitable pedestrianism, sight, he fell half delirious on the floor of there was in both a very characteristic no- the room in which she had just ceased to madic or “ Bohemian” tendency, — the er- breathe ; nur during the eighteen years he ratic impulse becoming at times, in each survived her “did igourning ever entirely case, wholly dominant, leading Living to leave his heart.” The two were orators of roam in the north of Ireland, and take the the highest order : and although Wilson, chance shelter for the night, of outhouse or mainly, we suspect, through the malign incabin, during the weeks preceding bis set- fluence of Lockhart, failed wholly to appretlement in Glasgow: and ever and anonciate Irving,—the one instance, as far as we sending Christopher North into the solitary can remember, in which his marvellous dishills and valleys of Ireland, Wales, or his cernment of contemporary genius was at passionately loved Scotland. Again, when fault,—and although the men were, appar we hear of Irving saying to a friend that he ently, personally unknown to each other, would greatly relish an encounter with a yet they were fellow-workers; and, so it certain grenadier soldier, who was standing seems to us, as prophet and poet, have con ncar, or of his reckless gig-driving down a ferred on their country everlasting benefits, very steep incline, scattering in dismay a and have nobly helped forward that day party of soldiers at the bottom of the de- when Scottish song and Scottish theology scent, we recognize the presence of the will work in heartfelt concord. If any of ow same abounding animal vigor which on a readers suspect that we are overestimating certain occasion caused an Oxford pugilist or misestimating Irving, let them remember to exclaim that the antagonist who had ter- what Carlyle says of the “uncelebrated, bigbribly punished him for stopping the way souled, blooming young man ;” let them sudacross a bridge, “must either be Jack Wil- der the sublime prophesyings of his earlier son or the devil,” or which, to the alarm of London days from the confusions of a later his faithful Palinurus, “Billy Balmer," period, and ask themselves what he might not would indulge in a midnight boat excursion still further have accomplished, with all his on Windemere, in weather so cold, the “ici- genius, his culture, his humanity, his faith, cles hung from Wilson's beard.” Fear was had he lived like Wilson in constant com equally foreign to the two; and in both, munion with Nature, and had he not, abad aboriginally, there was a superabounding doning all literary and scientific interests,

* Christopher North. A Memoir of John Wilson, become the subject of a fixed idea. late Professor of Moral Philosophy in the Univer: It is a somewhat curious coincidence that sity of Edinburgh. Compiled from family papers the biographers of these two noble-hearted and other sources, by his daughter, Mrs. Gordon. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas. 1862. men are both ladies. Of Mrs. Oliphant's

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“Life of Edward. Irving” we have already an old gentleman, a friend of my father, spoken in these columns, and in rather qual- was sitting gravely in his seat, when a lady ified language. But of Mrs. Gordon's two in the same pew moved up to him, wishing most charming volumes we can only speak to speak with him. He kept edging cauin terms of cordial commendation. We do tiously away from her, till at last, as she not know that we have ever read a biogra- came nearer, he hastily muttered out: 'Sit phy ich has, on the whole, satisfied us bet-yont, miss, sit yont! Dinna ye ken, ma ter. We cannot but believe that this Life pouch is fu' o' gemm (i.e., game) eggs??? of Christopher North will secure and perma- Wilson himself comes forth in Mrs. Gornently retain a very high place in our bio- don's pages in the integrity of his complex graphical literature. Mrs. Gordon has shown yet magnificent manhood. Her father's herself to have inherited much both from her memory is too sacred to her to allow her father's heart and intellect. With singular either to cloak or exaggerate. And why diffidence she presents her In memoriam to should she have attempted to do either ? the world. We hear that “abler hands ” John Wilson was certainly no ascetic, and declined the task. We have failed to note rumor, somewhat noisily and busily,—espewherein other hands could have added to the cially at the time of his candidature for the intrinsic merits of her portraiture. Con- Chair of Moral Philosophy in the Metropoltrasted with other volumes, which we need itan University-carried through scandalnot name, when we open “ The Memoirs of loving parties in Edinburgh, sundry rather John Wilson," it is like passing from the queer stories affecting both his practical ethglare of footlights into the naturalness of the ics and his creed. But as regards the latter pleasant sunshine. We have no sensation the stories were pure fiction. If we may be writing--no gaudy headings; but we have, allowed the expression, John Wilson was instead, a book as healthful in tone and spirit, born a great believer; and while, as we read as it is faithful and impartial in its charac- in the memoirs before us, he could, in his terizations. Our main regret concerning Oxford days, handle the Gibbon and Vol. this book is that Mrs. Gordon has thought taire weapons with formidable mastery, it it worth while, at this time of day, to print was only as a debating exercitation that he what Lockhart said of Irving, and to append did so. There was nothivg negative about a foot-note in which she accepts some words the man, and strange as it may seem to those of Mrs. Oliphant too much au pied de la let- who have thought of Wilson only or mainly tre. Mrs. Gordon's power of pen-and-ink as the great lord of the Roundabouts, or portrait-painting is of a very high order ; chieftain of the Harum-Scarum class of litbut her style is so quiet and unobtrusive that erature—and in the circumbendibus region her likenesses rather steal their way into he is monarch confessed, his full-flooded senyour imagination than force themselves on tences, overflowing at times both “ bank and your criticism. Altogether perfect of their brae,” his passionate love of nature, his inkind are her reminiscences of Hartley Cole- evitable accuracy, and his panoramic sweep ridge, Lockhart, and De Quincey—all, too, of description, his wondrous combination of very pathetic representations, and not the man and boy, his glorious abandon, renderleast so, that of Lockhart grown old, a worn, ing him facile princeps,-there is not, we sad-hearted, hopeless being. Interspersed believe, one of his “children,” as he loved here and there are some capital stories, told to call his students, who would not cordially so effectively that, like Oliver Twist, we are testify that there was no contemporary teacher sorely tempted to "ask for more.” Take in the university whose whole bearing and the following specimen, which is furnished language bore so profoundly the impress of by Mrs. Gordon as an illustration of the con- reverence for God and all that is Godlike, as tinuance, amongst quite respectable church- did those of the Professor of Moral Philosogoing folks, of the mania for rearing fighting- phy. How far he accepted or rejected the cocks, at a period long subsequent to the special dogmas of Scottish theology we do days when the yet unfloored drawing-room not know. He seems to have rather ignored at Ellery was converted into an arena for the than questioned them; or whenever they feathered combatants : “One Sunday, in came in his way, though repugnant to his St. John's (Episcopal) Chapel, Edinburgh, owo heart and conscience, the remembrance

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that they were, if even superstitiously, held | freed from his burden, crept slowly away, in great veneration by the peasantry of his and the professor still clutching the whip in own day, and that the Covenanters had car- one hand, and leading the horse in the other, ried them, along with their blue banner, to proceeded through Moray place (a noted the moors and mountains, would invest them section of the Edinburgh Belgravia), to dein his imagination with a sacredness that, posit the wretched animal in better keeping for the time, prompted him rather to worship than that of its driver.” How animals of all than gainsay. This, however, is known of kinds were known and loved by their impulmany, and may be read of all, that, when- sive friend, and how largely he shared their ever he is not rioting in mere excess of en- warmest attachment, we are informed by ergy, a deep religiousness pervades all Wil- Mrs. Gordon in sundry places, some of which son's writings; and it is only in beautiful -particularly in the case of the dog

• Roaccordance with all that we ourselves had ver,”—have a quite pathetic interest, and previously believed, when we read, in his could scarcely effect us more had the narradaughter's touching words, that “it was no tive been written by the genial author of unfrequent sight to see my father, as early “ Rab and his Friends ” himself. dawn streaked the sky, sitting by the bed- In addition to his canine and gallic proside of the dying woman"-an old servant clivities, charges more directly implicating of Mrs. Wilson, whom the professor, after Wilson's moral character were so bitterly and his wife's death, had invited to his house at pertinaciously reiterated by the Whigs—for Roslin, as she had fallen into bad health in 1820 the election to the chair of Moral “arranging with gentle hand the pillow be- Philosophy was simply a question of politics neath her head, or cheering her with encour- in the Town Council-that it was absolutely aging words, and reading when she desired necessary for him to submit to the humiliait those portions of the Bible most suitable tion of having certificates from Walter Scott, to her need.” (Vol. ii. p. 246.)

Mrs. Grant of Laggan, and others, to the In the matter of Wilson's practical ethics, effect that he was a good husband, a good gossip had just enough of locomotive power father, and a wholly honorable and hardsupplied by some authentic bits of his early working man! Christopher in his “ambrohistory to get its wagon-loads of invention sial” moods, Christopher “on Colonsay," dragged through the “public square ;” and, in " his sporting-jacket," in the water, and certainly, there are some ultra-“ muscular" sometimes almost under the water, with rod passages in his biography which we could in hand; Christopher as eloquent naturalist, wish non-existent, and about which Mrs. as glowing expositor, as the maker of some Gordon, of course, shares the sentiment of poems which will always keep a high place all cultivated readers in this latter half of among those of the lesser lords of song, was the nineteenth century. But if he did “let widely known to the world; but as a teacher dogs delight to bark and bite,” and was only of philosophy John Wilson was scarcely heard too prone to encourage game-cocks also in of beyond the walls of his class-room, and the manifestation of " their nature," side by comparatively few were acquainted with his side with these pugnacious sympathies, was manner of life at home. a burning indignation against anything like We fear no words will ever be sufficient cruelty to animals. On one occasion, for to convey to those who never listened to his example, finding that expostulation with a prelections anything like an adequate concarter, who was unmercifully treating an ception of what Wilson was in his classoverburdened horse, was unavailing, and room. Mrs. Gordon bad had, on the whole, rather exasperated him, “ in an instant that valuable contributions of reminiscences from well-nerved hand twisted the whip which was old students, and the syllabus of his lectures held up in a threatening way from the fist for 1833-4, drawn up by the professor him. of the man, as if it had been a straw, and self, will, perhaps, surprise some who had walking quietly up to the cart he unfastened suspected that, as a lecturer, Wilson was its trams, and hurled the whole weight of more of a declaimer than a thinker. True, coals into the street. The rapidity with the field of ethics seems to be surveyed solely which this was done left the driver of the from the British point of view, but a

very cart speechless. Meanwhile, poor Rosinante, wide range is embraced, while there are in

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