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plicated. So complicatea, indeed, had the rather a sketch than a history, but modern different ciphers become in about fifteen research has done little to fill up the outline years after the art was first introduced into of what he was obliged to leave imperfecto Spain, that they were found to be intolera- Clogged as it is with countless inaccuracies, ble even by the Spanish ministers them- his book is still quoted as an authority, and selves. Nevertheless all difficulties gave the popular conception of the first of the way before Mr. Bergenroth’s indomitable Tudors is undoubtedly derived from the perseverance, and in the end he was able to portrait of him drawn by Bacon. Anything read every despatch except one short letter, like a history of the period we have not seen which was in a different cipher from all the as yet.

Here at least are some of the materials Even then, however, his troubles were not for it, exhibiting England, it is true, rather at an end :

exclusively from one point of view, but won“ “When I had nearly completed all mykeys, derfully complete and interesting, as far as doubts arose in the Archives whether i could they go. The scanty original documents be permitted to copy the ciphered documents. belonging to the period in our country, which As I was the only man living who was able lay dispersed and unknown in different librato interpret them, the control to be exercised ries, were partly brought to light the other by the Archivero was impossible. The ci- day, and published in the Government series phered despatches were actually taken from of Chronicles; but, important as these are, me, and all my labor seemed destined to be fruitless. I went to Madrid. The result they supply no continuous information relaof my appeals to the ministry showed that tive to the wants of the reign. In Spain even the whole affair had imply been due to a the oldest State papers appear never to have misunderstanding. The Spanish Govern- been disturbed; each legajo or bundle of ment, treating me with the greatest liberal- documents contains still the very letters and ity, imposed only one condition, namely, instructions that were placed in it three centhat I should leave copies of all my deci- turies ago ; the order in which they are prepherings and keys in the Archives, to which I gladly consented. When I returned to

served is perfect. And Mr. Bergenroth has Simancas the ciphered documents were not not only exhausted the Tratados con Inglaonly restored to me, but another search for terra in Simancas' and Barcelona, the old keys to the ciphers was made, and resulted Archives of the kingdoms of Castile and Arin the discovery of one complete key and the ragon, but whatever he could find in Paris fragments of two others. The complete key or London, in the Public Record Office, Britwas the one which had been the most used ish Museum or Bibliothéque Impériale, or in in the extensive correspondence of Doctor printed documents from the Archives of ViDe Puebla with the Spanish Government. It contains two thousand four hundred signs. enna, which could illustrate the relations beHad it been found some months earlier, tween Spain and England in the reign of when I first asked for it, it would have saved Henry VII., he has carefully catalogued unme immense labor, injurious to my health. der its proper date. Now, therefore, we As it was, it only served to confirm me in may feel tolerably confident that we have in the conviction I had entertained that my dis- Mr. Bergenroth’s Calendar all the informacoveries were real, and to fill up some blanks tion ever likely to be found upon this suboccasioned by the circumstance that certain

ject. signs had never been made use of in the correspondence."

Who would have expected that the very

first of the documents in the volume derived The new light obtained by these researches from a foreign repository would have been a on a very dark period of our history is of complaint of Ferdinand and Isabella against the most important nature. Not that it Columbus, then in the French service, whom clears away doubts or corrects many errors they charge with piracy? It seems he had in the received view of Henry VII. ; but it captured four Venetian vessels freighted by is the only real source of information we Spanish subjects, and carried off the booty possess respecting that monarch's actions to an English port. On the 5th of Novemand policy. The few contemporary writers ber, 1485, Ferdinand and Isabella wrote to the are miserably unsatisfactory. Lord Bacon King of England, not knowing as yet who wrote the life of Henry VII.; his work is that person might be (for it was but two

LIVING AGE. 960.

THIRD SERIES.

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months and a half after the battle of Bog- “ Perkin," says Mr. Bergenroth, worth, and they had not heard whether lieved by all the princes of his time to be the Richmond's expedition had been successful), real Duke of York. Of this we have the desiring that the adventurer might be ar

certainly unexceptionable evidence of Henry

VII. himself. On the occasion when he saw rested. This letter, or a duplicate of it, is Perkin Warbeck in the presence of the preserved at Barcelona, and a blank is left Bishop of Cambray and De Puebla, he said for the King of England's name.

to both ambassadors, in order to prove the The diplomatic documents, however, com- great perversity of Perkin, that he had sucmence in the year 1488, when the first nego- ceeded in persuading the Pope, the King of tiations were set on foot for the marriage the Romans, the King of France, and, in between the son of Henry and the daughter fact, all the princes of Christendom, with the of the Spanish sovereigns. While the chil- exception of Ferdinand and Isabella, that he

was the son of King Edward. He thus condren themselves were yet in their cradles firmed the assertion of Perkin in his letter to their wise parents saw how to make them Queen Isabella that the King of the Rothe means of a firm alliance between Spain mans, the Archduke Philip, the Duke of and England. A very full report is given Saxony, and the Kings of Denmark and of the conferences on this subject between Scotland had honored him with embassies the ambassadors of Ferdinand and Isabella and treated him as their equal. Even the

single exception which Henry made with reand the English king and his ministers. gard to Ferdinand and Isabella will not bear Considering the insecurity of Henry's throne, investigation. For, if documents which are one might have supposed the advantage of destined to remain in the bands of the most such a union would be chiefly on his side ; confidential servants, and which have no pothe greatness of the alliance for one so situ- litical object in view, deserve greater reliated seems even to have been admitted by ance than declarations of ambassadors made Henry himself.

for certain purposes, Ferdinand and Isabella • The king, according to his

also considered Perkin Warbeck to be the usual manner, took his bonnet off his head, Duke of York. The document to which I and said the most flattering things of the refer is the original of a key to the cipher in masters (Ferdinand and Isabella), every time Latin numbers, used by De Puebla and prehe pronounced their names taking the meas- served at Simancas. One chapter of it is ure of his bonnet.” Nevertheless the Eng- headed. The Pope, the Emperor, Kings, and lish commissioners long stood out for a

other persons of the Blood Royal.' There

is even the direction added, that persons much larger marriage portion than Spain who do not belong to royal families must be was inclined to give. The Spanish ambas- looked for in other places. Perkin Warsadors remonstrated against their demands. beck, not under this name, but under that “ Bearing in mind,” they said, “ what hap- of the Duke of York, is to be found in the pens every day to the kings of England, it chapter of royal personages; his cipher is is surprising that Ferdinand and Isabella DCCCCVII, and his neighbors on either side should dare to gire their daughter at all.” are the Duchess Margaret and King Alfonso But they add, " This was said with great that Perkin Warbeck was an impostor, it

of Naples. Even to those who firmly believe courtesy, in order that they might not feel must at least be clear that he was treated by displeasure.” The English urged that Fer- the continental princes just as the real Duke dinand and Isabella might be more liberal, of York would have been treated.” as the money would not come from them,

It might, perhaps, be doubted whether but out of the pockets of their subjects; the Henry himself esteemed this “idol” as for. English aristocracy were wealthy, and as for midable to his throne as abroad he was beos the crown itself, there was not "a drop of lieved to be. It is very remarkable, howblood” in existence that could endanger ever, not only in reference to Warbeck's Henry's title.

importance, but also as showing the deferThe notices of Perkin Warbeck are both ence Henry paid to the counsels of Spain, numerous and curious, but they leave him as that when the king at length got Warbeck mysterious a character as ever. Mr. Ber- into his power, he thought it right to ask genroth doubts whether Henry himself knew, Ferdinand's advice what to do with him. or even cared to know, who he was. There “ I besought your highnesses a long while is no doubt that everywhere abroad he was ago," writes De Puebla to Ferdinand and spoken of as the true son of Edward IV. Isabella,“ to write your opinion and advise

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how the King of England ought to deal with on Wednesdays and Fridays. He would Perkin. Your higbnesses have to this day, not ride on Sundays for any consideration, no doubt from some just reasons and imped- not even to mass. He says all his prayers. iments, never sent a word in answer, nor

Before transacting any business, he hears two masses.

After mass he has a cantata written any other thing. Your silence causes

sung, during which he sometimes despatches me much pain, because I am sure the King very urgent business. He gives alms libof England would do whatever your High- erally, but is a severe judge, especially in nesses might direct.

the case of murderers. He has a great preAnother remarkable feature in these papers dilection for priests, and receives advice is the interest which the Spanish sovereigns from them, especially from the Friars Obtook in Scotland. The distant situation or servant, with whom he confesses. Rarely,

even in joking, a word escapes him that is that country, and the proverbial barbarism

not the truth. He prides himself much upon of its people, made it an object of very little it, and says it does not seem to him well for concern to European nations generally. To kings to swear their treaties as they do now. England it was but a plague, to France only The oath of a king should be his royal word, a means of plaguing England. James had as was the case in bygone ages. He is neitaken up the cause of Perkin Warbeck ; but ther prodigal nor avaricious, but liberal

when occasion requires. He is courageous, Henry initiated a new policy of conciliation, greatly against the prejudices of the people a good witness of it. I have seen him often

even more so than a king should be. I am whom he governed. His chief agent in this undertake most dangerous things in the last was Don Pedro de Ayala, Ferdinand's am- I sometimes clung to his skirts, and bassador to the court of James IV., and Fer- succeeded in keeping him back. On such dinand himself used every effort to cement occasions he does not take the least care of the union between the northern and south- himself. He is not a good captain, because ern kingdom. Don Pedro made himself he begins to fight before he has given his

orders. He said to me that his subjects very well acquainted with both countries,

serve him with their persons and goods, in and came to entertain great friendship for just and unjust quarrels, exactly as he likes, James IV. A long and very minute report and that, therefore, he does not think it which he made at the command of his sov- right to begin any warlike undertaking withereigns, concerning the King and Kingdom out being himself the first in danger. His of Scotland, is one of the most remarkable deeds are as good as his words. For this papers in this volume. We cannot refrain reason, and because he is a very humane

prince, he is much loved. He is active, and from giving one extract, long as it is :

works hard. When he is not at war ho “ The king is twenty-five years and some hunts in the mountains. I tell your highmonths old. He is of noble stature, neither nesses the truth when I say that God has tall nor short, and as handsome in com- worked a miracle in him, for I have never plexion and shape as a man can be. His seen a man so temperate in eating and drinkaddress is very agreeable. He speaks the ing out of Spain. Indeed such a thing seems following foreign languages: Latin, very to be superhuman in these countries. He well; French, German, Flemish, Italian and lends a willing car to his counsellors, and

Spanish ; Spanish as well as the marquis, decides nothing without asking them; but but he pronounces it more distinctly. He in great matters he acts according to his likes, very much, to receive Spanish letters. own judgment, and, in my opinion, he genHis own Scotch language is as different from erally makes a right decision. I recognize English as Aragonese from Castilian. The him perfectly in the conclusion of the last king speaks, besides, the language of the peace, which was made against the wishes savages who live in some parts of Scotland of the majority in his kingdom. and on the islands. It is as different from • When he was a minor he was instigated Scotch as Biscayan'is from Castilian. His by those who held the government to do knowledge of languages is wonderful. He some dishonorable things. They favored his is well read in the Bible and in some other love intrigues with their relatives, in order devout books. He is a good historian. He to keep him in their subjection. As soon as has read many Latin and French histories, he came of age, and understood his duties, and profited by them, as he has a very good he gave up these intrigues. When I armemory. He never cuts his hair or his rived, he was keeping a lady with great state beard. It becomes him very well.

in a castle. He visited her from time to He fears God, and observes all the pre- time. Afterwards he sent her to the house vepts of the Church. He does not eat meat of her father, who is a knight, and tharried

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her. He did the same with another lady, / which carried out to Spain the news of his by whom he had had a son. It may be about first queen's death contained an indirect offer a year since he gave up, so at least it is from the king to marry Katharine of Arrabelieved, his love-making, as well from fear gon, the widow of his own son Arthur. of God as from fear of scandal in this world, Queen Isabella’s reply to this is dated 11th which is thought very much of here. I can of April, 1503, exactly two months after the say with truth that he esteems himself as event wbich made the monstrous proposal much as though he were Lord of the world. possible. We should, perhaps, expect that He loves war so much that I fear, judging it would be pretty strongly worded. It is by the provocation he receives, the peace certainly decided enough, but not in the will not last long. War is profitable to him least indignant. Though Isabella directed and to the country.”

her ambassador to speak of it as a thing

not to be endured,' and even to be sure he How many features of the Scottish char

put the king completely out of hope to acacter, precisely as we see it at the present complish it, we have no reason to believe day, have been noted by this shrewd ob- that her feelings were much outraged by the server of the fifteenth century! The extreme suggestion. Her reason for refusing, as she regard for personal character and good herself tells her ambassador, is that it would fame, the importance attached to the "

the marriage of Katharine with the pre

prevent cepts of the Church,” observance of the young Prince Henry; and she adds that if

the King of England wished another wife, Sunday and study of the Bible, the noble she could perhaps find one for bim. She truthfulness descending even into trivial accordingly suggested the young Queen matter of fact, and the degrading preva- Dowager of Naples already referred to. lence of intemperance,--all go to prove that after a time that project, too, was dropped, Scotchmen in the days of James IV. were and Henry endeavored to gain the hand of wonderfully like Scotchmen in the days of Margaret of Savoy, daughter of the EmQueen Victoria. A few points no doubt been twice married. Her reply was rather

peror Maximilian. This lady had already have been altered as civilization has ad- curious. She had hitherto, she said, been vanced. The Wednesday and Friday fasts unfortunate in husbands, and had no wish have long been abar oned as superstitious ; to try matrimony a third time. This project even the fasts of the Scottish Church, though also, though spoken of more than once, never formally, are not painfully observed ; and came to anything: we would not for the world tell our Highland tion of the kind was that which Henry made,

But perhaps the most repulsive proposifriends that Gaelic is the language of say

on the death of Philip of Castile, for the ages. But, radically, the national character hand of his insane widow. He himself was is the same.

at this time laboring under the most seriBut the most extraordinary of the new ous illness. His life had been despaired of; facts brought to light by Mr. Bergenroth are one might almost suspect his intellect had undoubtedly those relating to Henry's nu- been impaired. He could only hope to effect merous projects of marriage. It was already and Ferdinand's interest

such an object through the aid of Ferdinand,

was obviously known that on the death of his queen, Eliz- against it. Yet he not only made the offer, abeth of York, he entertained from time to but made use of the poor unhappy Princess time various plans for a new alliance, and Katharine of Arragon to negotiate it. He that op one occasion he sent three gentle would marry her whether she were sane or men to Spain with minute and by no means insane, and his

council told the Spanish amdelicate instructions to report upon

the

bassador the English would not mind her

personal qualities of the young Queen of Na- insanity provided she were able to bear chil

dren ! ples. de commissioned them to see her if

We have by no means exhausted the possible fasting, to smell her breath, to give points of interest in Mr. Bergenroth’s vola particular account of her skin, her hair, ume. Henry's treatment of Katharine of her eyebrows, teeth and lips, nose, forehead, Arragon is also a dark chapter in his history. fingers, breasts, and a great deal more be- But we believe we have said enough to insides. It would be difficult to find in the dicate the very important nature of these history of match-making anything more ex-results. And so we take leave of Mr. Ber

researches, and to call due attention to their traordinary than this; yet even this is almost genroth for the present, hoping to meet him equalled in indecency by Henry's other pur- again when he has brought down his work suits in a similar direction. The very letter to the days of Henry VIII. and Charles V.

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From The Spectator. perforated brick carry a low roof of tiles and THE UNDERGROUND RAILWAY.

ground plate glass, very useful for sheltering THE idea of an underground railway people against wind, but not very beautiful through London is due to the late City So- to look at. However, as the Underground licitor, Mr. Charles Pearson, who died but Railway was certainly made to be used, and recently. When the scheme was first started, not to be looked at, there is not much to be some ten or twelve years ago, it did not find said in the matter, and the visitor must many admirers, and the public was as in- check his reflections on this score. Stepcredulous about the possibility of burying a ping bravely down on the rails, the road of “line” beneath houses and shops as the cap- exploration lies for some distance among italists were unwilling to risk their money high brick walls, which gradually approach in the enterprise. However, Mr. Pearson was nearer to each other, until they end in a bellindefatigable in explaining the eminent utility mouthed arch. The yawning tunnel, black of his project, and by dint of hammering it as Erebus, is by no means inviting for lonely into the heads of men, he, of course, carried foot-passengers ; but it is Hobson's choice, his object at last. Gradually, timid moneyed for no other mode of locomotion is to be had citizens came forward to invest their surplus for the present. Fortunately, after treading cash in underground shares ; gradually, a some distance into the dark region, a little company was formed, a legion of lawyers blacksmith's boy offers himself and his napbfeed, and parliamentary sanction obtained tha lamp as guide, making it possible to for the new scheme; and, gradually, the proceed in the journey of inspection. What army of navvies, with their spades and bar- strikes the eye first in the long tunnel through rows, set to work digging into the London which the way now lies, is the exquisite symclay, converting the whole ground from Pad- metry of the proportions of the arch above. dington to Clerkenwell into one huge mole- The curve is perfectness itself, looking more hill. The project of the City Solicitor was as if moulded in one mass by the help of found to be of no easy execution, for the mathematical instruments, than as if put towork of the navvies was not a mere boring gether piece by piece, in single bricks. The through the ground, as in the ordinary tun-arch is of a most graceful elliptical form, sixnelling process, but a careful groping with teen feet and a half high from the level of spade and pickaxe through a maze of acque- the rails, and twenty-eight feet and a half ducts, sewer-pipes, gas-tubes, and magnetic wide. This great width is made necessary wires. More than once the water refused to by the fact that the Underground Railway is give way to the light, and the light to elec- to be worked by the Company of the Great tricity ; but, ultimately, all were conquered Western line, the broad guage carriages of by steam, and the iron links, which bind to- which are to carry the whole passenger traffic. gether nations, were safely laid down in the There is a narrow guage between the broad bowels of the metropolis. At the present lines ; but the former is to be used only for moment, after more than five years' hard the transport of goods, and for such occaand uninterrupted labor, the Underground sional trains as the Great Northern Company Railway is finished at last, and about to be may think fit to send to the city. The branch opened to the still somewhat sceptic pub- tunnel, leading up to the Great Northern lic.

station, is the first object which diverts the Anything more curious and startling than eye, being separated from the main tunnel a promenade along the iron highway which by a brick wall, close to where the turbid now lies below London, can scarcely be im- waters of the Fleet Ditch are carried across agined. The road commences at the end of the rails in a flat iron trough. The noise of Farringdon Street, close to Old Smithfield the gushing stream is distinctly heard overmarket, and not far from the grim strong- head, and, in the darkness all around, the hold of Newgate. The entrance is formed imagination is at liberty to call up pictures by a temporary station, some five hundred of ancient London, at the time when the feet long and ninety feet wide, built in the Fleet carried crowds of sailing vessels on its ordinary style of railway architecture, a cross bosom, and shoals of jolly salmon in the fold between a goods-store and a greenhouse. of its waves. How the poor old Fleet must Tall iron girders and long arches of white I feel the change now, squeezed into an iron

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