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upon the latter asked for his passport, and | laws, or peremptorily settled by the foreign went off to his native land. Lucky is the sovereign. These principles are applicable envoy who has not a wife so jealous of her to the wives of all envoys, and especially to privileges as the Countess Lilienroth, and ambassadresses, who, as we have seen, poswho appears to have caused her poor hus- sess a more independent title to their priviband incessant trouble.
leges than the mere fact of belonging to their An occurrence, which might have had se- husbands' suite. Moser has written a sperious consequences, took place at Vienna in cial treatise on the subject, “ How long an 1730, with the wife of the Prussian envoy, ambassador's widow enjoys the privileges of Von Brandt. She was driving, with her her deceased husband;” and one of the cases daughter, pást a religious procession, and which he quotes is interesting. The wife of the mob, excited by a priest, insisted on the a foreign envoy at the Viennese court retwo ladies getting out, and on their refusal, mained there when a widow. No time was they were forcibly dragged forth by two men. settled during which she must return home, The Austrian Government had the latter or lose her privileges and be regarded as a at once thrown into prison, and they after- private person, and hence, when she died, wards asked pardon of the envoy on their a few years after, she still held the ambasknees, and in chains'; but the priest escaped sadorial privileges, which had never been rewithout any punishment, because the Gov- called during her lifetime. Upon her death, ernment declared that it had no jurisdiction the question was raised whether these privover him. As undoubted as the inviolabil- ileges were applicable to her will, and the ity of ambassadors' wives, is their freedom Imperial Court of Exchequer gave an opinfrom the jurisdiction of the foreign state; ion to the contrary effect. Moser attacks and these, as well as all other privileges, re- this judgment, and declares that the court main equally valid after their husbands' was incompetent to decide the question, bedeath. The practice of the several courts cause the lady was not subject to its jurishas always been the same in this respect, diction during her lifetime. although some writers have now and then As a rule, a period is allowed in most made the arbitrary assertion that, by the countries for the duration of the ambassadeath of an envoy, his widow at once returns dorial privileges of the widow of an envoyto private life. This idea originates from a generally one year; and the same is the case confusion between the functions of the em- if the ambassadress should remain in the forbassy and its privileges : the former cer- eign capital, after her husband's recall, or tainly cease through the demise of the envoy, with him. After the expiration of this time, but not the latter. Should these cease and the ambassador's wife becomes a private perdetermine before the return of the ambas- son, just in the same way as if she had resador and his suite to their native country, turned home immediately upon her hus. it only takes place at the expiration of band's recall. tain period, which is either decided by the
SPECIE PAYMENTS.-CURRENCY. SINKING FUND. 527 SPECIE PAYMENTS. — NATIONAL CUR- | Clothing, Arms, Ammunition, Ships, and RENCY.- SINKING FUND.
Houses, they will pay in notes of larger
amounts. And in the same notes they will pay DURING the year 1863, it is assumed for the the Interest of the Public Debt. purpose of the present argument, that the re- These notes paid out during the year in all ceipts of the United States, for Duties and parts of the United States will come back in Taxes of all kinds, will not be less than 300 many ways. Merchants will draw gold with millions of dollars.
them for exportation. Large amounts of them We propose that all the payments of the will be paid for Duties, and innumerable payUnited States be made in notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, ments for Taxes in all parts of the country will 100, and 1,000 dollars ; such notes to be paya- be made in them. Still they will never all ble on demand at the Treasury, New York. come back. It is not too much to suppose that They may be supposed to amount to 300 mil- at the end of the year 100 millions of them will lions of dollars.
be outstanding, and of course an equal amount Now as a man can get gold for his notes on of gold will remain in the Treasury. demand, or can remit them to any part of the It would be perfectly safe, as our large Bank United States in payment of debt, or for pur- experience has proved, to take half this amount chases, he will ordinarily think them more con- and invest it in United States six per cent venient and valuable than the gold itself, and, Stocks, as the beginning of a great SINKING therefore, will not ask for gold until he needs FUND; in order to keep up the credit of the it. Indeed, there is so much inconvenience and United States, and to pay of the Public Debt in danger in holding gold in a man's own house, a single generation, as we shall proceed to show. that most persons who have much of it will be If this investment bo made, we should havo, desirous of depositing it in some safe place. at the beginning of 1864, an outstanding So Brokers, and all who have large amounts amount of notes of 100 millions; and we of gold in New York, are desirous of depositing should have to meet them 50 millions of gold it with the Banks there. But, for the same and 50 millions of United States Stocks. Here reasons, the Banks are not willing to take the would Specie Payments be again and firmly estrouble and run the risk of holding gold for tablished. other people. All the room they have for that During 1864 the receipts would not be less purpose is needed for their own Stocks.
than in 1863 : 350 millions in addition to 50 Now let the United States accept the custody millions of gold on hand. Let the payments of gold when offered at any Sub-Treasury, giv- be made in notes as before. To manage the ing in return these notes payable in gold at the constantly increasing business of the country, it great centre of commerce, the city of New York. is supposed that an addition of 20 millions a And of course all such gold should be sent to year of notes will be necessary; and that there New York, so as to be ready to meet any de- will be a steady addition of that amount of the mand. It is estimated that Banks and private notes outstanding, and of the gold in the persons will deposit in the year 50 millions of Treasury. At first, indeed, the amounts will gold in exchange for notes.
be larger. Now if we invest cach year half of Adding this last item to the amount estimated this increase in United States Stocks, and inas receipts for Taxes, it will be seen that the vest also the Interest accruing thereon, the reUnited States will receive throughout the year sult will be, as shown in the following table, to 350 millions of dollars, and will pay out the pay off a thousand millions of Debt, in 25 same large amount.
years. That this estimate is for short of the probable In practice there never would be so large an amount may be seen from a letter to the Secre- amount as 50 millions to be invested at one tary of tho Treasury, by Mr. Cisco, the Assist- time. The Commissioners of the Sinking Fund ant Treasurer at New York. It is there shown would buy up Stocks at favorable times, and in that the receipts at New York for the last six smaller amounts. months of 1861, were 207 millions, and the dis- It is evident that if judiciously managed the bursements 233 millions. The sum was five process would so strengthen the credit of the times as great as in the last six months of 1860. United States, that even a war with Europe
Now let us look at the practical working of would not shake it. the matter.
And then such a safe and steady CURRENCY The United States will pay their Soldiers as would be established ! Men who have and Sailors in notes of the smaller sums, as watched the ebbs and floods of Corporation more desirable to that large class of public notes for 50 years past will not think it extrav. creditors. To Contractors for Beef, Pork, agant to assert that the cstablishment of such a
Currency would compensate us for the money the feasibility of introducing a National Carlosses of the rebellion.
rency by means of rechartering the Bank, with And this may be done so quietly, and will a provision that it should issue this Currency, grow so gradually, that all existing banking and no other. The President listened favoraand other business will adapt itself easily to the bly; he told Congress that if applied to, he change. There is no uncertainty about it: the would furnish such a charter as he would be experiment has already been made in Great Bri- willing to approve. Congress would not ask tain by means of the Bank of England. That him, and the great opportunity passed away. At Corporation issues 30 millions sterling of notes, the end of thirty years it is again in our power. secared by 15 millions of Government Stock The pressure of financial necessity crowds us and 15 millions of gold. We have not, and do into the right path; the Treasury Department not need, any such gigantic Corporation to come has already entered upon it; the Press advobetween the Government and the people. cates it; the public is prepared for it, and Seo
Fully impressed more than forty years ago retary Chase has it in his power to take rank with these principles, the writer saw an oppor- with Alexander Hamilton. tunity of reducing them to practice when the charter of the United States Bank was about to Office of Littell's Living Age, expire. He visited President Jackson, to show Boston, 20 Nov., 1862.
TABLE OF SINKING FUND AND CURRENCY FOR TWENTY-FIVE YEARS.
Interest to be invested
1863 350 350 100 100 50 50 3
4 370 370 50 50 25 78 5
15 146 9
9 470 470 30 30 15 195 12 1870 490 490 30 30 15 222 13 1 510 490 20 20 10 245
15 2 530 530 20 2010 | 270 16 3 550 550 20 20 10 296 18 4 570 570
324 19 5 590 590 20 20 10353 21 6 610 610 20 20 10 384 23 7 630 630 20 20 10 417 25 8 650 650 20 20 10 452 27 9 670 670 20 20 10
1) 710 710 20 20 10 569 34
This calculation, at the same rate, when extended to 1888, will show an investment of 1007 millions, of which 350 is Principal and 657 Interest.
POETRY.--Childless Mother, 530. Autumnal Thought, 530. A Deathless Love, 576. Rediviva, 576.
SHORT ARTICLES.-A Live Yankee in China, 544. Recognition of the South by England, 567. Discovery of a Relic in Quinn Abbey, Ireland, 567.
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BY THOMAS MILLER.
THE CHILDLESS MOTHER.
I now bow down on thrice a day ;
To ine it is a holy shirine.
I doze at times, and fancy brings With one hand pressed against her head, His footstep sounding on the stair: This, to herself, the lady said :
His little hands untie my strings, “But Sorrow cannot always weep,
His busy fingers pull my hair.
And then I waken with a start, Nor Grief be ever making moan!
And wonder how the inward eye
Makes such a fluttering at the heart,
Then say, 'This love can never die.' With gloomy shadows overcast
“I fondly hoped I should have seen And see if she can solace find
Thy children gathering round my knee; Among those pictures of the past
Pictured the comfort they'd have been With which it everywhere is hung,
In my old age to thee and me, The living mingling with the dead ;. With her thou to thy beart wouldst fold: And round the shifting circle swang
But while I sat and wove the chain So quick-I look on all in dread.
In fancied links of lengthening gold, “ Thus ever on the past I gaze,
It suddenly was snapped in twain. What was, still linked to what is now,- “I saw thee in my dreams last night, Like one who in a wildering maze
Sitting beside a starry gate, Goes round about, but knows not how. 'Mid other children robed in light,
Who for their mothers seemed to wait, “I sleep !-but in my love awake,
As if they feared to go alone, Still feel about for him in bed,
Where golden pillars stretched away, Shifting my arm, as if to make
Lost in the brightness of a throne. A pillow for his pretty head.
And in my dream I heard thee say, And in my dreams again I fold
‘My mother now will soon be here; My darling closer to my bosom.
She is already on her way! Then wake to find the spot is cold
And then I seemed to enter there, Where nestled once my blue-eyed blossom. And thou didst lead me by the hand, His form in many a thing I see,
And to an angel named my name, In many a sound I seem to hear him
Who by the starry gate did stand. Calling, as he once called to me,
And while I hung my head in shame, And start, as if I still were near him.
And feared he would not let me in, As when I hummed some plaintive ditty, I heard these pleading words from thee,Of Babes who in the Wood lay dead,
Angel! my mother's greatest sin, And woke his childish tears of pity
While upon earth, was loving me.' The only happy tears we shed.
And then we both knelt at his feet, Quiet doth now the kitten lie,
While heavenly music 'gan to sound; Which he in turn did tease and nurse; And voices, for this carth too sweet, It played about when he was by :
Anthemed within, The lost is found !” Still is the creaking rocking-horse,
-St. James's Magazine. Of which I did so oft complain,
When mounted there he shook the floor: Oh! could I have thee back again,
AN AUTUMNAL THOUGHT. My child ! I nc'er would murmur more.
In the bright morning sun, That rocking sound awoke tho bird,
In the warm crystal air, And it would sing, and thou wouldst shout
When merry squirrels run, Until the very house seemed stirred.
And frisks the woodland hare, Now-a sad silence hangs about,
And basks the glossy pheasant, Made sadder if that poor bird sings.
Is it indeed so pleasant, I fix my eyes upon the door,
So easy a thing to die? For back another voice it brings,
That thus, dear leaves, ye fly, Whose music I shall hear no more.
So airily light and gay, Worse than a desert unto me
As if it were death in playMy garden seems; I sit for hours,
A twinkling, golden rain, And all the while I only see
From the boughs where never again A little coffin filled with flowers.
Ye shall rustle in April showers, And then sometimes I sit and mend
Or dream through summer hours. The garments in thy gambols torn;
Ah, mo !-ah, would that thus And while I o'er them fondly bend,
Our autumn came to us! Forget they will no more be worn;
That souls might take a flight Think how this rent was made in play,
As easy and swift and light, And that while climbing on my knee;
Without the sorrow and sighing, And then I throw the work away,
Without the wrestling and pain, And clasp my hands in misery.
The travail to those who are dying, The mat on which thou knelt'st to pray,
The wailing to those who remain ! My folded hands enclosing thine,
-Fraser's Magazine E. HINXMAN.