tion, if it was possible to do but little, to do phy, and astronomy at Cincinnati College; that little well and thoroughly. He re-or- in 1836 and 1837, chief engineer of the Little ganized the affairs of his department; he Miami Railroad; and in 1841, a member of inspired his troops with the same ardor which the board of visitors of the Military Acadanimated him; he spoke to the poor blacks emy. In 1845 he proposed the establishsuch manly and honest words as appealed to ment of an observatory in Cincinnati, and their best natures, and put them in the way the proposition having been carried out he of providing for themselves, telling them became a director of the institution. The that freemen must depend on no one. He principal instrument in this institution is the set his house in order for the active campaign, great refractor, equatorially mounted, and which he hoped to begin in a few weeks- made in Munich, and which cost $10,000. and then he died.

In 1859 General M. became director of the His memory will be dear to the people Dudley Observatory in Albany, retaining at always, as that of a man who gave himself the same time his connection with that in unreservedly to their cause ; who, with all Cincinnati. As a popular lecturer on astronhis acquirements, with all his genius, was omy General M. was particularly eminent, above all a true patriot, and a brave and and he was scarcely less distinguished for faithful soldier of the Union.

his mechanical skill by the aid of which he

has perfected a great variety of astronomiFrom The Boston Daily Advertiser.

cal apparatus, the most important of which An arrival from Port Royal brings the is that at Albany, for recording right ascensorrowful intelligence of the death of the sions and declinations by electro-magnetic soldier-astronomer, General O. M. Mitchel. aid, to within 1-1000th of a second of time, To his great fame as a man of science, whose and for the measurement with great accutriumphs in times of peace benefited the racy of large differences of declination, such whole world, was lately added the greater as the ordinary method cannot reach. He and more glorious fame of taking up the made several discoveries of great scientific sword in his country's defence. His loss importance, some of which were the result will be felt all the more deeply in a time of Prof. M.'s remeasurement of Prof. W. like this, when the government needs well- Struve's double stars south of the equator, trained soldiers to command ; but the sor- a work to wbich he devoted much of his row at his death will be universal, for the time. He began in July, 1846, the first asrecord of few lives can show such a combi-tronomical periodical in the United States, nation of scientific knowledge and real prac-entitled “ The Sidereal Messenger,” which tical ability.

abandoned for want of patronage. As an Ormsby Macknight Mitchel was born in author he has produced a treatise on alge Union County, Kentucky, Aug. 28, 1810. bra, a popular astronomy, a collection of At the age of twelve years he had obtained earlier public lectures published under the a good knowledge of Latin and Greek and name of “ Planetary and Stellar World,” etc. the elements of mathematics. At this age But the peaceful pursuit of scientific study he became clerk in a store in Miami, Ohio, was abandoned at the moment when the and afterwards removed to Lebanon where country called for true men to aid in its he had been educated. There he received preservation. General Mitchel was made a a cadet's warrant, and earned the money brigadier-general of volunteers on the 9th that took him to West Point, which place of August, 1861, and was subsequently prohe reached with a knapsack on his back and moted to a major-generalship in the volun. twenty-five cents in his pocket, in June, teer army. His career in the West is fa1825. He was graduated in 1829, and for miliar to our readers, as well as the later two years thereafter was assistant professor circumstances of his assignment to South of mathematics. From 1832 to 1834 he was Carolina, where he had laid the foundation counsellor-at-law in Cincinnati ; from 1834 of a successful campaign. to 1844, professor of mathematics, philoso



From The Spectator. claim, in modern parlance, was with the THE QUEEN'S PEDIGREE.

house of York, which inherited direct from MR. MALCOLM has just issued a curiously Edmund, third son cf Edward the Third, and suggestive plate. It is a tree with three in- was therefore the nearest male branch. The tertwined trunks, every leaf bearing a name, fourth son, however, John of Gaunt, “timeand it is intended to display in somewhat honored Lancaster,” had married Blanche fanciful style the pedigree of the kings of of Lancaster, representative of the second England. We do not know a better illus- son of Henry the Third, and therefore of an tration of the permanence, the involuntary elder, though female branch. Both Roses, conservatism which underlies all apparent po- however, were descended from the Plantaglitical change. England is, par excellence, enet stock, and each, in default of the other, the land of strange political incident and mu- was admitted to be unquestioned heir of the tation. She has twice changed her domi- throne. Henry the Seventh, the direct repnant race, and once her religious creed, has resentative of Lancaster, fortunately married abandoned her old political name, and car- Elizabeth, heiress of York, and Henry the ried through half a dozen successful revo- Eighth therefore united every possible claim lutions. She has beheaded a king, and ban- -was, in fact, the strict lineal representaished a king, and twice subverted a dynasty, tive of the Plantagenets, and therefore, of has been invaded every century, and has in both Saxon and Norman dynasties. The almost

every hundred years been engaged in name of Tudor became that of the family, some struggle which threatened to shake the because the Countess of Richmond, mother very foundations of society. And yet through of Henry the Seventh, and heiress of the all these changes, through a thousand years Lancastrian claim, had married a Welsh of progress and war and revolution, a single squire of that name. The three next soverfamily has floated always on the top, and the eigns, Edward the Sixth, Mary, and Elizabest-loved sovereign in Europe is, if not the beth, are out of the line of succession, all heiress, at least the descendent of Egbert, dying, fortunately for Great Britain, childKenneth, and Rollo. The fact is the stranger, less. Henry the Seventh's daughter Marfrom the number of family names which have garet, however, whose claim was as perfect from time to time been borne by the great as that of her brother, Henry the Eighth, English house, the only one in Europe which had married James the Fourth of Scotland has consistently and fully admitted the equal (man killed at Flodden), and the Scotch rights on the female side.

House, then called Stewart, on Elizabeth's The royal house springs from three stems death, ascended the English throne as repre-Saxon, Norman, and Scotch—though it sentative of every English line. has never repudiated the conquest, and dates This house had become regal in Scotland itself, we believe, only from the bastard son in 1314, Marjory, sole child of Robert the of Duke Robert, heir of Rollo, the viking Bruce (of Bannockburn), having married who conquered Normandy from Charles the Walter, eighth Lord Steward of Scotland, Simple, and married the French King's and, like herself, a descendant of Kenneth daughter Gila. The conqueror's son, Henry the Second, stem of all Scotch royalty. the First, married Matilda, daughter of Mal- The Stewards, Stewarts, or Stuarts, were colm III., of Scotland, and Margaret, grand- therefore “legitimate" sovereigns both in daughter of Edmund Ironside, and represen- Scotland and England, and neither the Retative, after the death of Edgar Atheling, of bellion nor the Revolution, strange to say, the old Saxon line. Their daughter, another broke up the line. The Rebellion produced Matilda, was mother of Henry the Second, no permanent change, and when, in 1688, and from his accession the Plantagenets rep- Parliament finally resolved to endure the resented both Norman and Saxon lines, and elder branch of the Stuarts no longer, they were entitled on the principles now held by only went back a step in the ancient line, legitimists to the loyalty of both races the They accepted descendants of the daughter conquering and the subject one. This house of James the First, instead of descendants continued unbroken till the death of Edward of his son. This daughter, Elizabeth of the Third, when the abstract right fell for a Bohemia, was the mother of Electress Socentury into dispute. The "legitimate "phia, and grandmother of George the First,


from whom the reigning sovereign is directly has, however, been formally acknowledged descended. Hers is not, it is true, the most a hundred times by an Irish Protestant Par. direct branch of the Stuarts, for, on the fail- liament, and once by a free native Parliaure of the Pretender's line-which expired ment filled only with Catholic Celts, called in the Cardinal of York--the “ legitimate ” together in obedience to the summons of claim reverted to the children of Henrietta, James the Second. The Channel Islands daughter of Charles the First, and ancestress are the last relic of the old Norman Dukeof the “legitimate" Bourbons, and of the dom, and belong, therefore, rather to the reigning house of Savoy, the latter being the dynasty than the kingdom; the Orkneys nearer to the succession. Nevertheless, came from Norway through Margaret, wife though not heiress, the queen is the direct of James the Third, the King of Norway, descendant of the Stuarts, and it is a mis- unable to pay her portion, having offered the take in this sense to call the royal house a islands in pawn for the amount; and the purely German one. No English house in sovereignty over the Isle of Man was bought existence is nearer the ancient stock. The during our own days from the representagreat points in the pedigree, the junctions, tives of the house of Stanley. as it were, which alone it is necessary to remember, are Henry the Second, who inherited from his mother the representation of both Norman and Saxon lines; Margaret of Lancaster-cum-York, who united all the

From The Spectator, 11 Oct. fibres of title derivable from the Plantag- THE INFLUENCE OF FRANCE IN

EUROPE. enets, and, therefore, from Henry the Second; James the First, who inherited her If there be any truth in the details which rights and those of the Scotch throne ; and have been given ere this in the pages of the George the First, great-grandson of James Spectator as to the condition of Imperialist the First, through his daughter Elizabeth. France, of her army, her people, her adminThe queen is, therefore, by a curious series istration, the last feeling with which such a of circumstances, the only Protestant with a picture should inspire an Englishman should claim to be heir to every family which has be that of a Pharisaic self-righteousness occupied the British throne since the Seven For in truth many traits of that picture must Kingdoms were united, and though there remind him of what he sees around him in are descendants nearer to Charles the First, his own country. It may not quite be de te they, like her, claim through the female line, fabula, but proximus urit falls even short of and her ancestress is the one furthest back the mark. on the tree. The inquiry may seem, to mod

For indeed the influence of France over ern ideas, to involve some waste of time, the world, over Europe, over England, is a but England owes much of her special char- fact of which few Englishmen have wit enough acter, her fixed dislike to break with the to acknowledge to themselves the greatness. past, to the fact, that she has never been Partly, no doubt, because Frenchmen are so forced either to import a new dynasty, as the loud-spoken in asserting it, so blind to the French have done, or to give up the heredi- existence of any other influence, that many tary principle altogether.

Englishmen feel it a sort of point of patriThe royal title to Ireland, and some other otism to underrate, pooh-pooh, deny what is portions of the Isles, rests on a different so boastingly and unfairly put forward. But foundation. Ireland, unluckily for us all, to an impartial observer it must be matter had no regal house to bring to its rulers the of extreme doubt which of the two influences, advantage of a title by admitted descent. the French or the English, is really the most The right to that country rests primarily extensive. The French (including in this upon conquest, and secondly upon a grant term that of the whole of the French-speakmade by the reigning Pope to Henry the Sec- ing races) may be said to manifest itself ond-a document not of much validity in our more directly and suddenly; the English eyes, but which ought completely to shut the more slowly, and to a great extent indirectly mouths of the Ultramontanes against Henry through the French. It is really through the Second's heirs. The validity of this title Voltaire and Montesquieu, through Benja.


min Constant and Madame de Stael, that the of the English reading public with Alexan. English principles of constitutional govern- dre Dumas's romances, and with many other ment and of civil and religious liberty have forms of French light literature ? Day by found their way round the world. Voltaire day, as the knowledge of French spreads discovered Shakspeare and Newton, Milton through our middle to our working classes, and Locke ; Tocqueville the United States, not only do translations of French works not for France alone, but for the whole Latin multiply, but the original works themselves race at least. Without J. B. Say, political are read. What facilities now exist for obeconomy (as we now understand the term) taining French books to read in London, might have remained wellnigh unknown out compared with the days in which but little of the British Isles; without Dumont, the in the shape of French was taken in by any powerful impulse given by Bentham to law-circulating library, beyond the last Paul de reform might equally have stopped on the Kock, for the behoof of a certain number of hither shore of the Channel. But it is as epicures in the nasty! difficult for an Englishman to admit that the We must, therefore, accept this influence influence of his own country remains insular of France at the present day as a fact, not until accepted by France, as for a French- only for all the world besides, but for ourman to admit how much of apparently selves. And it does, therefore, very seriFrench influence is really English in its ously concern us if the sources of that influorigin.

ence be healthy or diseased, quickening or England, on the other hand, is far slower stagnant, ennobling or corrupting. But who in receiving influence from France than the can say that the moral influence of the SecContinental nations ; nay, her first impulse ond Empire has worked for good on any sinis, perhaps, to draw herself up and resist it. gle nation in the world, except through the Still, from the days of Edward the Confes- resistance which has been offered to it, the sor, there have been epochs in her history repulsion which it has inspired ? What has in which that influence has been unmistaka- most braced up Italian nationality, the conble; those of the Plantagenets, for instance; quest of Lombardy by the aid of Napoleon of Charles II., and, so far as literature is III., or the sturdy and successful resistance concerned, of nearly the whole period which to the peace of Villafranca which he had dicextends from Milton to Burke. Within our tated, the persistent protest against his ocown generation, the passing of the Reform cupation of Rome? Whose example has Bill is to be looked upon as in great meas- done most to keep the traditional Italian ure the sequel to the French Revolution of poinard in its sheath, that of Ricasoli re1830 ; whilst the influence of France over fusing to bend before the modern Nebuchadthe literature and manners of our own day nezzar, and Garibaldi flinging defiance in his is still enormous. France, be it remem- face, or that of the cringing Rattazzi ? For bered, is the great caterer for the theatre England, too, the Second Empire has done throughout the world ; England, almost the two great things; it has called forth our only country which takes the trouble so much volunteer movement; it has driven us to reas to recast a French piece ; elsewhere, from new our navy. Whatever effects have been Naples to Lima, it would be merely trans- produced upon England, so to speak, in the lated. The range of the French novel is grain of that influence, have been purely scarcely less extensive. Any one who has evil; from the prating of our Positivists read Miss Bremer's works, for instance, will about the blessings of Imperialism, in the be struck with the evidence which they af- teeth of every memory worth preserving in ford of the familiarity of the far North with the history of England or of mankind, down contemporary French novelists. The same to that invention of a French Empress witness is afforded by Countess Hahn-Hahn ashamed of motherhood, which, besides offor Germany, by Fernan Caballero for Spain. fending every sense of classic artistic beauty, The influence of these made itself felt in has certainly been the cause of more deaths, the literature of the United States even be- and those more dreadful ones, than all other fore it was traceable in that of England; articles of human dress put together throughbut who by this time can doubt the wide- out the world during the same period of time. spread familiarity of the very lowest grades From the “ demi-monde" of the Second Em


the "

pire have come to us,—though with an orig-| lous as to means, firm alliance with every inality of their own, pretty

horse- available cant, persistent compression of
breakers ” and other Hetæræ who for the erery quickening faith. Whilst it is there,
first time in our history have begun to form it is as a stone in the very heart of the Eu-
publicly a distinct class in English society; ropean Continent, chilling all around, and
nor is it possible to estimate bow overwhelm- even ourselves across the waters. Let us be
ing would have been the tide of public immor- frank; in what country are men not con-
ality from the shores of Imperial France, had scious that the Second French Empire is the
it not been for the checks which have been standing nuisance of the world ? Sharp as
opposed to it by the sovereignty of a virtuous has been and still is the crisis of American
queen and the example of her court. But disruption, the permanent uncertainty as to
apart even from these coarser and more glar- the motions of that mighty and inscrutable
ing forms of evil influence, who among us is self-will at the Tuileries has done far more
not conscious, around him on all sides, with during the last ten years to paralyze and
in his own self, of feelings and tendencies, disorganize trade and the familiar relations
often, indeed, antagonistic among them- of nation with nation, man with man. The
selves, yet closely akin to those which are fear of that it is which has made all coun-
lowering France of that moral lassitude, tries arm to the teeth. Why is Italy rush-
that despair of good from above or from be- ing headlong into an enormous debt, strain-
low in the social cosmos, that worship of ing every nerve to increase her armies ? Is
brute strength, that sympathy with clever it only to be able to cope with Austria ?
success often amounting to a tacit accom- Would she toss, as she does now, in such an
pliceship in its rascalities, that lazy acqui- ecstacy of anguish upon the live coals of her
escence in evil realities, that tolerance of hopes, instead of letting them blaze forth as
cant for want of faith, or intolerance of faith beacon-fires upon her onward path, had she
because we dare not acknowledge the exist- only a generous France behind her, and not
ence of aught but cant, that practical god- an Imperial bird of prey ? Would England
lessness, in a word, assuming as it does the be expending sums on her iron-clad navy
most various forms, compatible at once with which would give food and labor to tens of
the most feverish physical and intellectual thousands of her suffering ones, but for a
activity, and with absolute torpor of the well-grounded distrust of her “august
whole man- —which alone could have stilled ally” ?
demands for Reform, maintained Mr. Dis-

- ,
No, there is no real peace for England

raeli in the leadership of the Conservative for the world so long as the Imperial des
party, enabled the Record or the Saturday potism weighs upon France, galling and cor-
Review to live and decent folk to read them, rupting at once the great people which is
allowed the Times to dictate to public opin- subject to it. So long as this lasts, all Eu-
ion, made Mr. Carlyle a prophet for a large ropean progress, if not suspended, must
portion of our youth, and created a sympa- creep on at a snail's pace; only so far se
thy between free England and the great slave cure, as it manages to keep clear of entan-
power of Northern America ? All these, be glement with the Napoleonic policy. In
it observed, are points on which there is fel- short, the old Cromwellian saying must, while
low-feeling between us and the French Im- Napoleon III. holds the crown, be the motto
perial system. That stands out before the for all the world besides : “Put your trust
world as the great exemplar of triumphant in God, and keep your powder dry,"
brute force, clever self-will utterly unscrupu-

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