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From The Spectator. type, as it were, of the difficulties and perHEATHENDOM.*

plexities which beset the men of the nine

teenth century, and perceive in history nothLAS CASAS during a debate on the iniquity ing but the struggle of the human soul of subjecting the American Indians to toil with " foes,” whose “ faces” may now, inand slavery was hard pressed by some monk- deed, be slightly “new," but who are in ish casuists, who pleaded in support of the their nature old. The eighteenth century right possessed by one, race to enslave an- drew unconsciously even nearer to heathenother the revered names of Plato and Aris- ism than does the nineteenth. The imagitotle. The philanthropist could not restrain native mind attempted to recall the scenery his indignation at this line of argument, and which surrounded Epictetus or Tully, and in wondered that Christian men could refer to the whole phraseology and thoughts which the authority of writers who were them- marked the moralists of the day there are selves undoubtedly burning in the fires of traces of heathen parentage. Even Butler hell. No one could impeach the Spaniard's shows as much sign of the influence exerorthodoxy, and his inference as to the con- cised over him by Epictetus as of the effect dition of the two greatest philosophers who produced on him by the writings of St. have enlightened the world was the most Paul. Johnson's morality does not appear logical of deductions from the most un

very dissimilar from the prudential ethics doubted premises of the narrow orthodoxy, which may be supposed to have guided the His expressions, nevertheless, shocked the conduct of Cato the Censor, and in the pages best feelings of the theologians of his own of the Spectator are embodied quotations age, and are felt to need some sort of apol- from stoic philosophers, mingled with exogy when recorded by his modern eulogists. tracts apparently equally unknown to its He brought out in its plainest colors a con-readers from Solomon's Proverbs or from tradiction of sentiment which subsists in the Job. A whole generation drew its moral minds of almost all men, but of which most sustenance from diluted renderings of Cicepersons are little more than half conscious. ro's Offices, and when the eighteenth cenHeathendom wears two different aspects. tury terminated in the French Revolution, Clergymen in their pulpits dilate on the folly, the men and women who aimed to reform the vice, and the ignorance which degraded the world were, one and all, like Madame the heathen world. The same men when they Roland, imbued with the rhetoric and the turn from a parish congregation to a class principles of Plutarch. No one can renture of University pupils adopt a different tone. either to disdain the influence of heathenIn each line of Plato they find a foreshad-dom, or, on the other hand, to deny that, in owing of Christianity. Aristotle's name

spite of this influence which can be traced crushes their judgment by the weight of his in the arts, the morals, and the religion of reputation, for no long time has passed since the Christian world, there does indeed exist Oxford lecturers hunted in the Stagyrite's

a sharp contrast between the ages of pagan works for arguments in favor of human cor- darkness and the time of Christian light. ruption or of baptismal regeneration. In What students who cannot be contented by all this there is no hypocrisy. The same

mere words which convey little impression contradiction may be traced in the opinions demand is an investigation into the nature entertained by different writers and by dif- of heathendom which may bring forth both ferent ages concerning those times, of which the lights and the shades of the ancient we know at once so much and yet so little, world, which, in other words, can show both before the triumph of Christianity divided why Plato and Cicero may still claim our history by a gulf which neither genius nor

reverence; and why, at the same time, it learning finds it easy to bridge over. Of

was a true and enormous step in the progrecent years authors such as Mr. Kingsley

ress of humanity when the preaching of discover in the circumstances and passions Galilean fishermen swept away the system which influenced the Pagans of Alexandria which had nourished the patriotism of Peri

* The Gentile and the Jew in the Courts of the cles and the exalted virtues of Marcus AnTemple of Christ. From the German of J. J. I. Döllinger. By the Rev. N. Darnell, M.A. 2 vols. toninus. Longman.

To give the results of such an examina


tion is the object of M. Döllinger's work. youth. Priests existed, but no organized He has attempted, to use his own words, body such as since the rise of Christianity “to represent the Paganism of the period has been known as the priesthood. Sacriprevious to our Lord with at least an effort fices were universal ; but though the idea of at completeness, the sketch embracing the expiation was not entirely foreign to them, heathen religious system, heathen modes of and is even prominent in those human offerthought and speculation, heathen philoso- ings which, according to M. Döllinger, were phy, life, and manners as far as they were more frequent than is ordinarily supposed, severally connected with the religion, were they were rather occasions for festivity than determined by it and reacted upon it in means of atonement, and in many cases the their turn.” In a certain sense he has suc- popular notion obviously was that the sacriceeded. In his book is contained a mass of fice was a feast wherein gods and men each information which nothing short of German took a part. Oracles again, or auguries, learning and German industry could have were general; but little moral significance brought together. Readers, if they find in attached to the character of a prophet, and it none of those flashes of insight by which generally ethics and religion occupied, as it Hegel occasionally throws a gleam of light were, distinct spheres. Even when moral over the whole tendencies of an era, and philosophy arose, the opposition between its none of those humorous touches in which teachings and the doctrines of the received Mommsen explains the feelings of the an- creeds was but indistinctly recognized. The cient world through analogies drawn from priests of the temple, since their influence modern life, are still rewarded by obtaining did not depend upon the support of moral a knowledge of facts which the lifetime of doctrines, were little inclined to condemn an ordinary individual would scarcely suffice ethical speculations as heresy. Socrates to collect. M. Döllinger has written a book might have easily escaped death; and it is which all students of ancient religions will typical of the slight opposition of his views be compelled to consult. Many of his opin- to the prevailing religion that his last inions and conclusions deserve criticism, but junction was to pay a sacrifice to Æsculaan author of his learning and research claims pius. to have his opinions clearly stated before Changes in the condition of the world, they are made the subject either for eulogy the progress of speculation, and, above all,

the spread of the Roman empire, wrought a The history of Paganism divides itself gradual revolution in the whole condition of into two great periods, which, though their the heathen religious world. Philosophy limits cannot be very accurately drawn, are inevitably encroached upon the domain of distinguished from each other by very clearly religion. The teachers of the Porch or of defined characteristics. Paganism, in its the Garden were far inferior in intellectual earlier stage, may be described as natural power to Plato or Aristotle; but the quesheathenism. Whilst the world was yet tions which occupied their minds were individed into numerous states, each country quiries far more akin to the problems which held to its separate gods and its different bave perplexed and harassed modern metamodes of worship, and the idols of Greece physicians and moralists than were the inor Egypt were as little connected with one tellectual enigmas proposed for solution in another or with the gods of Rome as were the groves of the Academy. The nature of the citizens who listened to the speeches of free will, the power of Providence, the existPericles with the Romans who, about the ence of God, the relation of man to God, the same period, were occupied in remodelling respect due from philosophers to the religion the laws of their city. Of course there of the people, were all topics which agitated were, during this condition of the world, in the minds of men after the fall of Grecian finite differences between the religious usages freedom and before the Roman Republic of various races. Still certain features were gave place to the empire. As centuries common to all the heathen institutions of at rolled on Paganism itself was so revolutionleast the western world during the first stage ized that the heathenism which was overof pagan development. Unconsciousness thrown by Christianity was essentially diswas the main trait of heathendom during its tinct from the religion of either Greece or Rome, in the days of their youth and vigor. into cunning, and the countrymen of Socrates The gods of all nations had met and mingled and Thucydides became the basest of sycoat the Capitol ; Isis and Anubis claimed phants to Roman masters. Rome herself more worshippers at Rome than the Capi- fell nearly as low as the races she had contolean Jupiter. Strange rites of expiation, quered. Bravery degenerated into brutalthe Taurobolium and the Criobolium, were ity, and combats of gladiators occupied citiinvented to appease the growing sense of zens who had ceased to do battle for the human guilt and misery. Soothsayers, as- state. Slavery ate up the vitals of the peotronomers, and magicians, swarmed in every ple, and the grossest immorality, whilst it corner of the empire; and whilst philosophy degraded both men and women, made maritself became mixed up with Theurgy, tales riage an intolerable burden, and the increase abounded of the gods appearing once more of the population an impossibility. On the to their worshippers. The unconsciousness 19th of December, B.C. 69, the Roman and the gayety of the pagan world had de- capital was consumed by fire, kindled by serted it and left but a sense of sin without Roman hands. When, ten months later, knowledge of any certain means of atone- the Temple at Jerusalem was also reduced ment, and a desire for happiness without the to ashes, if Romans and Jews of the first hope either of liberty in this world or of century saw but a spark of the hatred of bliss in another.

or censure.

heaven to man, modern writers may be parM. Döllinger concludes his account of doned for perceiving the sign, as it were, heathendom with an estimate of the moral that the days of heathenism were numresults flowing from Pagan life and institu- bered, and “that ground was to be cleared tions. The picture he draws is a dark one. for the worship of God in spirit and in All the intellect of Greece gradually sank truth.”

THE MONOGRAM.—The monogram on the leading private firms. A few days ago, some sacred standard of Constantine became for a of the most eminent ship-builders of Liverpool long time conspicuous on Christian monuments waited on Mr. Turner with a desire of nego. in the East and West, and is now carved on which they are about to construct for the pur

tiating permission to adopt his principle in ships most of the sepulchral tablets of modern Italy.


single cupola Yet there is a mystery about what it really poses of the American war. means, without a pretence of anything miracu- to be fitted on the deck of Mr. Turner's new lous as to the way in which it came to be used. ship will require no turn-table or other machinIt is doubtful whether any one besides the Emery, and will contain twenty-six guns, capable peror himself can have known whether he took of being fired at any required point or deflecits upper part to represent the Latin letter P, or tion, with sufficient space for the free circulation the Greek one for R. The great comparative feet in length, ten feet in depth, and fifty fect in

of the gunners. It is two hundred and thirty prominence of the said upper part on carly breadth. The armor-proof plates will be applied monuments, joined to Constantine's ignorance of Greek, inclines us to the former opinion, and by a patent invention of Mr. Turner, rcquirperhaps Eusebius as an enthusiastic Oriental ing neither grooves nor tongues, and will be gave rise to the latter. There is some evidence removable singly in case of fracture or damage, that the Roman Emperor Probus brought the and also easily replaced. The Board of Admimonogram, or something like it, from Egypt in ralty, who inspected the model on their visit to the third century. His name and virtucs per- Turner to furnish specifications

the dockyard a few days ayo, have called on Mr. haps suggested the appropriation of a sign for their consideration.

his method which had long before been attached to repre- Prince Adalbert, Admiral of the Prussian flect,

His royal highness sentations of the more popular members of the has also ordered' draughts of the model to be Ptolemaic dynasty.-Once a Weele.

transmitted to him for the service of his own country. The ship to be built after Mr. Turner's design will carry 8,700 displacement bur. den, and will be a most formidable ram, having

a powerful weapon of eight feet in length proSHIP-MAKING IN ENGLAND FOR THE REB-jecting three feet under the water-line. Pre

3.--The model of the fixed cupola and cautions are adopted to have her rudder, sternarmor-plated ship, invented by Mr. Tarner, post, and propeller thoroughly immersed, and, master shipwright of Woolwich dockyard, has consequently, out of the reach of damage from been inspected and approved by numbers of the / without.-Liverpool Times.



From Once a week. the water of the sea whence the animal was MEDUSA AND HER LOCKS.

taken. ALONG the sandy shores at low water may Though the cells appear at first sight to be seen in the summer months numbers of be disposed almost at random, a closer inround, filattish, gelatinous-looking bodies, vestigation will show that a regular arrangescientifically called Medusæ, going popularly ment prevails among them, and that they by the expressive though scarcely euphemious can all be referred to a legitimate organizatitles of slobs, slobbers, stingers, and stang- tion. Șo invariably is this the case, that the ers, and called jelly fishes by the inland pub- shape and order of these cells afford valuable lic, though the creatures are not fishes at all, characteristics in the classification of these and have no jelly in their composition. strange beings.

As these Medusæ lie on the beach they Just below the upper and convex surface present anything but agreeable spectacles to may be seen four elliptical marks, arranged the casual observer; and, as a general fact, so as to form a Maltese cross, and differently rather excite disgust than admiration : and colored in the various specimens, carmine, it is not until they are swimming, in the free pink, or white. These show the attachments enjoyment of liberty, that they are viewed of the curious organization by which food is with any degree of complacency by an un- taken into the system, and may be better practised eye. Yet, even in their present examined by taking up the creature, and helpless and apparently lifeless condition, looking at its under surface. sunken partially in the sand, and without a Now, take one of the Medusæ, choosing a movement to show that animation still holds specimen that lies near low-water mark, and its place in the tissues, there is something place it in a tolerably large rock pool, where worthy of observation and by no means de- the water is clear, and where it can be watched void of interest.

for some time without the interruption of the In the first place, be it noted that all the advancing tide. Medusa lie in their normal attitudes ; and, The apparently inanimate mass straightin spite of their apparently helpless nature, way becomes instinct with life, its disc conwhich causes them to be carried about almost tracts in places, and successive undulations at random by the waves or currents, they, in roll round its margin, like the wind waves so far, bid defiance to the powers of the sea, on a cornfield. By degrees the movements that they are not tossed about in all sorts of become more and more rhythmical; the creapositions as is usually the case with creatures ture begins to pulsate throughout its whole that are thrown upon the beach, but die, like substance, and before very long it rights itCæsar, decently, with their mantles wrapped self like a submerged lifeboat, and passes round them.

slowly and gracefully through the water, Looking closer at the Medusæ, the observer throwing off a thousand iridescent tints will find that the substance is by no means from its surface, and trailing after it the aphomogeneous, but that it is traversed by pendages which form the Maltese cross above numerous veinings something like the ner- mentioned, together with a vast array of delvures of a leaf. These marks indicate the icate fibres, that take their origin from the almost inconceivably delicate tissues of which edge of the disc, or umbrella, as that wonthe real animated portion of the creature is derful organ is popularly called. composed, and which form a network of cells, Words cannot express the exceeding that enclose a vast proportionate amount of beauty and grace of the Medusa, as it slowly sea-water. If, for example, a Medusa weigh- pulsates its way through the water, rotating, ing some three or four pounds be laid in the revolving, rising, and sinking with slow and sun, the whole animal seems to evaporate, easy undulations, and its surface radiant with leaving in its place nothing but a little gath- rich and changeful hues, like fragments of subering of dry fibres, which hardly weigh as marine rainbows. It is often possible, when many grains as the original mass weighed the water is particularly clear, to stand at pounds. The enclosed water has been ex- the extremity of a pier or jetty, and watch amined by competent analysts, and has been the Medusa as they float past in long profound to differ in no perceptible degree from cessions, carried along by the prevailing cur


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rents, but withal maintaining their position animal that had been thrown overboard, and by the exertion of their will.

swam away from it, not being anxious to The reader is doubtlessly aware that the come in contact with so unpleasant a subtitle of Medusa is given to these creatures on stance. account of the trailing fibres that surround While still approaching it, I had noticed the disc, just as the snaky locks of the myth- a slight tingling in the toes of the left foot, ological heroine surrounded her dreadful but as I invariably suffer from cramp in those visage. Many species deserve the name by regions while swimming, I took the "pinsreason of the exceeding venom of their tresses, and-needles” sensation for a symptom of the which are every whit as terrible to a human accustomed cramp, and thought nothing of being as if they were the veritable vipers of it. As I swam on, however, the tingling exthe ancient allegory.

tended further and further, and began to feel Fortunately for ourselves, the generality very much like the sting of an old nettle. of those Medusæ which visit our shores are Suddenly, the truth flashed across me, and almost, if not wholly, harmless ; but there I made for the shore as fast as I could. are some species which are to be avoided as On turning round for that purpose, I carefully as if each animal were a mass of raised my right arm out of the water, and angry wasps, and cannot safely be ap- found that dozens of slender and transparent proached within a considerable distance. threads were hanging from it, and evidently The most common of these venomous beings still attached to the Medusa, now some forty is the stinger, or stanger, and it is to put or fifty feet away. The filaments were slight sea-bathers on their guard that this article and delicate as those of a spider's web, but is written, with a sincere hope that none of there the similitude ceased, for each was its readers may meet with the ill-fate of its worked their way into the tissues, and af

armed with a myriad poisoned darts that author.

fected the nervous system like the stings of If the bather, or shore wanderer, should wasps. happen to see, either tossing on the wares, Before I reached shore the pain had beor thrown

upon the beach, a loose, roundish come fearfully severe, and on quitting the mass of tawny membranes and fibres, some- cool waves it was absolute torture. Wherething like a very large handful of lion's mane

ever one of the multitudinous threads had and silver paper, let him beware of the ob- scarlet line, which, on closer examination,

come in contact with the skin was a light ject, and sacrificing curiosity to discretion, was resolvable into minute dots or pustules, give it as wide a berth as possible. For and the sensation was much as if cach dot this is the fearful stinger, scientifically were charged with a red hot needle, graducalled Cyanea capillata, the most plentiful ally making its way through the nerves. and most redoubtable of our venomous Mc- The slightest touch of the clothes was agony, duræ.

and as I had to walk more than two miles beMy first introduction to this creature was endured may be better imagined than de

fore reaching my lodgings, the sufferings a very disastrous one, though I could but scribed. reflect afterwards that it might have been Severe, however, as was this pain, it was even more so. It took place as follows. the least part of the torture inflicted by these

One morning towards the end of June, apparently insignificant weapons. Both the while swimming off the Margate coast, I saw respiration and the action of the heart beat a distance something that looked like a

came affected, while at short intervals sharp patch of sand occasionally visible, and occa- had passed through the heart and lungs,

pangs shot through the chest, as if a bullet sionally covered, as it were, by the waves, causing me to stagger as if struck by a which were then running high in conse- leaden missile. Then the pulsation of the quence of a lengthened gale which had not heart would cease for a time that seemed an long gone down. Knowing the coast pretty age, and then it would give six or seven well, and thinking that no sand ought to be leaps as if it would force its way through the in such a locality, I swam towards the strange and I stood gasping in vain for breath; as if

chest. Then the lungs would refuse to act, object, and had got within some eight.or ten the arm of a garroter were round my neck. yards of it before finding that it was com- Then the sharp pang would shoot through posed of animal substance. I naturally the chest, and so da capo. thought that it must be the refuse of some After a journey lasting, so far as my feel


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