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DALHOUSIE'S ADMINISTRATION OF BRITISH INDIA. 191 portion of oxide of iron, silica, and other should imagine from the appearance of them gritty materials, are first finely powdered, that they are not such favorable specimens and boiled in hydrochloric acid, to remove as could be produced by forcing the particles lime, part of the iron, and similar impurities. of the powder together in some of the The next operation consists in heating the hydraulic presses specially constructed for dried powder with a mixture of diluted sul- this purpose, the air being at the same time phuric acid and chlorate of potash. This exhausted from its pores. By this mode of mixture has the property of evolving a con- treatment we have no doubt that blocks siderable quantity of oxygen gas when it is superior in quality to the finest native black heated, and the graphite enters into some lead could be obtained. The product may be sort of combination with this gas and the considered as chemically pure carbon, and acid, the nature of which is, however, not leaves no appreciable amount of ash on invery well understood.
Professor Brodie cineration. Professor Brodie's process has shows specimens of this sulphuric acid com- now been before the scientific world for some pound; in appearance it is very similar to years, but we are not aware that it has yet the coarsely powdered graphite, the lustre, been taken up commercially by any firm ; however, being somewhat different. When this apathy on the part of our manufacturers this is heated in the dry state a remarkable is rather surprising, as the process seems to change takes place; the gas which is inti- offer no practical difficulties, whilst the exmately combined with the graphite is sud- pense of converting an almost waste product denly evolved, and tears the particles of the into a very valuable substance is but trifling. mineral asunder, swelling it up to twenty or thirty times its original volume, and reducing it to a most intimate state of division.
Part of an Article in The Examiner. The operation being almost parallel to that The Marquis of Dalhousie's Administration brought out some years ago by Claussen for of British India. Volume the First, contreating flax, the fibres of which were blown taining the Acquisition and Administraout and disintegrated in a similar manner by
tion of the Punjab. By Edwin Arnold,
M.A., University College, Oxford ; laté the sudden liberation of carbonic acid in the
Principal Poona College ; and Fellow of pores, reducing it to a material similar to
the University of Bombay. Saunders, cotion. The disintegrated graphite is then
Otley, and Co. shaken
with water, and the coarser par- This is but the first volume of a large ticles, consisting of gritty matter, etc., work, and therefore we content ourselves with quickly fall to the bottom of the liquid, the a few words of notice, and reserve a full acgraphite remaining suspended. This is then count for its completion. The author has poured off from the heavier particles, and had experience enough of the people and the suspended graphite separated from it by country about which he writes to give his filtration, or other means, and dried. In
account of them a vivid reality ; but not so this form it presents the appearance of shriv- long a one, as has sometimes been the case, elled up leaves, not unlike some of Dr. Hassell's tea. It has the color of black lead, minical and Islamic proclivities.
as to disanglicize him and give him Brahbut is quite devoid of lustre, and is excessively light, so much so that it is almost im
In his introductory chapter Mr. Arnold possible to remove the cover from the jar gives a brief but graphic and impartial outwithout sending a cloud of the powder into line of our mad and fatal enterprise, the Afthe air. The original appearance of the ghan War, which certainly led to our wars graphite can, however, be restored to this with the Sikhs, and eventually to the crownlight powder by pressure : a portion squeezed ing disaster, the rebellion of the Sepoys. between the thumb and finger immediately We give such part of his account as our limflakes into one mass, and the slightest fric- its will admit :tion communicates to it a brilliant lustre,
It will be useful briefly to recount the The last of the series of bottles exhibited events preceding Lord Dalhousie's accession, by the professor contains several solid lumps and influencing his policy. To do so, it is of graphite produced by squeezing the pow- necessary to look back to the appointment der together under immense pressure. We of Lord Auckland in 1835. In that year our
frontier on the North did not pass the desert | reputation offered up on the altar of minis. strip along the Indus and its affluent, the terial consistency. History, at last informed, Sutlej, from the Indian Ocean to the high- rescues from unfair neglect the memory of a lands of Gurwbal. The commercial character public servant as faithful to his duty as he of the Company had just suffered extinction was singularly fitted for it; and pronounces by the Charter of 1833. Ostensibly there the official records of the time unworthy of remained to it the control of political and firm reliance. The burden of perverting administrative affairs, but in subordinating past documents, and of throwing doubt on her masters, the Home Government had those to come, is heavy, and rests, with that brought India into the circle of European of the subsequent disaster, on statesmen to politics, and an independent policy there was whose easy honesty of intention a generous no longer easy. The change soon made it- nation has pardoned their infatuation. In self apparent. On insufficient grounds the October of 1837, Lord Auckland issued a ministry conceived the idea that Russia proclamation to the troops at Simla, which meditated dangerous advances; and they announced the alliance of the British with determined to anticipate an attack, which to Runjeet Singh and Shah Soojah. By the await would have been to baffle. The sup- terms of this we were to depose the rulers port they relied on was as vain as the evi- of Cabul and Candahar, and set up in their dence which satisfied them was vague. On place a sovereign, for twenty years a stranger the side of prudence were the bourans of the to the studies of government, and not less northern plains, their blinding drifts of dust unwelcome to his subjects than the cares of and snow, bitter frosts, salt lakes, and steep state to his own declining age. The rest of defiles, natural enemies to the invaders of the story is too well known. The Auckland Hindostan - on the side of an offensive War cost the British forces five thousand movement not much more than the nervous- lives, sixty thousand camels, £12,000,000 ness of a minister, Lords Durham and Clan- sterling, and that which outweighs even the ricarde, ambassadors at St. Petersburg, pro- first and dearest item, the reputation of intested uselessly against the apprehension ; vincibility which in the impressible East had the Muscovite Ambassador in London de- become a bulwark to our fortunate power. clared his master innocent of any hostile To carry on the war, fifty thousand men design; and the Czar went so far as to were added to the army, and a contingent change the staff of his eastern embassage. from Bombay was despatched by a detour The English Government refused to be re- of nine hundred miles, through the Indus assured, and persisted in construing the at- Valley, thus preparing a cause of quarrel tack upon Herat by the Shah of Persia as a with the Scinde Ameers. The army united first step in the interests of Russia. Yet if at the mouth of the Bolan pass under Sir J. the penetration of an envoy could be cheated, Keane, and though not seriously opposed, and the word of a Russian deceive, facts effected the passage in such confusion that might have seemed to reprove precipitation. Shah Soojah's force was reduced by twoThe Shah could not take Herat, and the thirds. The Khan of Khelat declined to English force despatched to Karrack was assist an expedition doomed by its own consufficient to raise the siege, and could even trivers. . You may take Candahar and have seized the Persian capital. Sir A. Ghuznee,' he said, and even Cabul, but Burnes, who had been sent to Cabul, found you cannot conquer the snows; and when Dost Mahommed inconveniently reasonable, ihey fall, you will neither be able to mainand willing to remove every cause of sus- tain your army nor to withdraw it.' Canpicion. He wanted Peshawur, which had dabar and Ghuznee yielded, Cabul surrenbeen an Affghan fief, but he wanted the dered, and the English were masters of friendship of the English only less. His de- Affghanistan, but on so insecure a tenure, sire to recover the territory wrested from the that in fourteen months they were thirtyDoorannee throne by the Sikhs was resented three times engaged with Afghan troops, as an affront to our ally Runjeet Singh, and and thirteen times without profit
. Upon the the presence of a Russian major at his court withdrawal of a portion of the expedition, was held to implicate him in the Russian the unpopularity of the imposed sovereign plot. In vain Burnes deprecated the peril- began to be shown, and the Affghans learnous quarrel with a well-disposed man: in ing a lesson from our fears, made overtures vain he suggested compromise upon com- 1- to the Czar. In 1840, a Russian army did, promise, and declared Dost Mahommed's as a counter-demonstration, march upon pretensions reasonable, and his the only nat- Khiva. It was buried in the snow-drifts, or ural authority in Affghanistan. His repre- perished of famine on the foodless steppes sentations were set aside a serious but of Mid-Asia, comparatively few survivors pardonable independence, if they had not returning, to humble Russian hope, and since been tampered with, and their author's calm English apprehensions."
POETRY.-Garibaldi Down, 195. The Crisis, 195. Finding a Relic, 195. The Parting of Ulysses, 195. The Touch of Nature, 221. Autumn Joys, 221. The Flag, 239. The Drummer-Boy of Marblehead, 239. Summer Evenings long ago, 239. A Song in Time of Revolution, 1860, 240. An Apple Gathering, 240.
SHORT ARTICLES.-Sensation Paragraphs, 221. Historical Scraps, 230. The Church of St. Nicholas du Chardonnet, 230.
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Or work forgotten - her dark eyes closed – Alas! the love of Italy lies bleeding,
Her fancy with sweet dreams rife, But not in vain ; his wounds are mouths, that of a tiny form by her arm caressed, speak,
A baby face to her bosom pressed -
The mother, as well as the wife.
'Twas thas I saw them - mother and babe Whose cry for Rome had fallen on ears unheed- Unconscious both, as they calmly slept,
But shrouded with flow'rets fair; ing. How long! And must they Rome still longer of the long, long vigils, we sadly kept —
Of the bitter tears that he and I wept seek? A hero's venture, not a madman's freak,
Kept in our love and despair ! The world had named his high attempt, succeed. From the work her fingers would touch no more ing.
I took that relic alone: It has not failed, a captive though he lies,
But your cheek is wet, and your lip is pale If niggard France relent. Napoleon, hear
I should not have told this sorrowful tule The noble blood that out upon thee cries,
Go, hide the relic, my own! L. C. And thy base policy, which right denies. To Italy, if not thy baser fear.
THE PARTING OF ULYSSES.
AN HOMERIC REMINISCENCE.
Farewell, for aye, farewell!
Is “onward e'en through hell!”
While, mingled with the battle-cry,
Breathed by our sires in days gone by. 'Twas theirs to win : 'tis ours to guard ;
They faltered not when faint and few;
Who bear the banner many-starred,
That we should walk the narrow way,
R. S. CHILTON.
-N. Y. Evening Post.
Stay me not; raise, dread queen, thine eyes ;
In shade upon my face.
Good rowers, take your place!
Dost thou not spare too long?
True wife, I do thee wrong!
FINDING A RELIC.
You show me with crimsoning face ;
Whose finger it used to grace ?
For she who that relic wore,
Was a cousin boy
Flung on a couch with my books,
And the answering joy in her looks.
Alone in her easy-chair,
Of a new-known pleasure and care.
Yield me my mates, my frolic crew;
The working hours of life!
Loved isle, sweet son, true wife!
Fair stars, that blind the day!
Farewell! my crew, give way! -Once a Week.
From The Eclectic Review. the Secession. The writings of Dr. Lawson GEORGE LAWSON. *
have long been well known to us, and we HERE is another of those entertaining have desired to know more than is conveyed biographic Scottish ana, in which we have in the very slight sketch of him prefixed to very much of the interest we find in the life a posthumous volume by Dr. Belfrage ; but of Jupiter Carlyle and in Dean Ramsay's we were not prepared for a volume of such 6 Sketches of Scottish Character.” The singular interest as this which Dr. Macfarbook would, we believe, have gained by lane has produced ; nor were we prepared some abbreviation; it is full of very racy to find in Dr. Lawson so truly a benevolent anecdotes of old Scotch men and Scottish and accomplished man. As the works of life and manners, and it describes a section Johnson would convey but a slight concepof life upon which the volume to which we tion of the man without the pages of Boshave already referred does not touch. Here well, so whoever would see this great, wise, we have none of those scenes which, in the most lovable, and venerable oddity of a autobiography of Alexander Carlyle, show scholar must read the pages of Dr. Macfarhow the world and the flesh—not to men- lane. Students for the ministry will find a tion the third and more unpleasant party - model for their imitation in acquisition, and can keep company with church professions. professors a model for imitation in teaching. Such scenes, indeed abundantly justify the George Lawson was born in March, 1749, Secession' in its departure. In this book we at Boghouse, a small farmhouse about two have, indeed, a most interesting document, miles from the village of West Linton, Peeillustrating the power and the piety of the men blesshire. He sprung from the peasant race of old. The men who are seen in these pages of old Scotland, his father uniting the work all belong to the schools of the prophets. It of a carpenter to the rental of a small farm. has been the pleasure of Carlyle and Som- He was, eren in Scotland, remarkable for erville to give us pleasant glimpses of the his thrift and industry, and was sometimes Humes and Robertsons, and the Homes and known to begin and complete the making of Logans--men whose reputation was in the a plow before the sun rose; perhaps the worlds of literature and politics. Dr. Mac- plow was more in harmony with the agriculfarlane has varied the picture; has introduced tural ways and means of that age than our us to many interesting persons grouped own, but still it is an illustration of the inaround his central hero-men who, in com- dustry of the man. The parents of George parison with those names we have mentioned Lawson were connected with the Secession above, were obscure and unknown, but who Church at West Linton ; and although in fill a large circle in popular estimation, these his first days he did not look out upon who lived and trod their hallowed round the wild and magnificent scenery of the Scotof humble and holy duty in their plain and tish mountains or moorlands, he passed his unadorned churches and scattered mountain youth amidst the scenes hallowed by the villages, and fed the flocks of God. Our blood of the Covenanters. Very frequently Scottish neighbors are true hero-worship- the famous Ralph Erskine came to preach pers. Reverence is their true national char- in the neighborhood ; and among the farmacteristic homage, too, to great men. We houses and lowly homesteads of the neighdo not venerate as they venerate, either the borhood there dwelt a people who were acdivine or human. It must be admitted that customed to revolve in their minds and in our national homage to genius or talent al- their conversations the most abstruse probways becomes conventional or valetized-it lems of systematic divinity. In most of their is never, or seldom, spontaneous and free; houses might be found the works of Owen and the little work before us, in its way, has and Manton and Boston and Baxter; they all this national trait in it. It is a tribute of met, too, at each other's firesides for the purveneration to the men of the early days of poses of religious discussion and devotional * The Life and Times of George Lawson, D.D.,
exercise. How different are these things to Selkirk, Professor of Theology to the Associate any we have or hear of! How hare we Synod : with Glimpses of Scoliish Character from mended in our religious doings ! Truly, it 1720 to 1820. By the Rev. John Macfarlanc, LL.D. makes us mournful to think how far all these Edinburgh: William Oliphant and Co. London: Hamilton and Co. 1862.
usages are from any we have among us now.