From The Economist. isfactory price. The chief solicitude has The Republic of Liberia, its Products and been to purchase the line of sea-coast, so as

Resources. By Gerald Ralston, Consul- to connect the different settlements under General for Liberia. A Paper read before one government, and to exclude the slave the Society of Arts, and reprinted from trade, which formerly was most extensively the “ Journal of the Society of Arts," for

carried on at Cape Mesurado, Tradetown, May 23, 1862.

Little Bassa, Digby, New Sesters, Gallinas, The little state of Liberia owes its founda- and other places at present within the Retion to that very questionable and half- public, but now happily excluded-except hearted association of slaveholders known as in a recent instance at Gallinas, under pethe American Colonization Society. But, culiar circumstances.” (We wish Mr. Ralpainful as is the episode which the history ston had explained this allusion, especially of that Society forms in the annals of the as we heard, some months ago, similar ru“ Slave Power” in America, its 'one good mors of a painful nature, of which we would deed beyond the sea promises to survive and gladly hear the correct version.) flourish. The settlement of Liberia, founded The population at present numbers 500,in 1822, was, on the 24th of August, 1847, 000, of which 16,000 are Americo-Liberians, proclaimed a free and independant state, and and the remaining 484,000 aboriginal inhabregularly installed as the Republic of Liberia. itants. We infer from Mr. Ralston's stateAcknowledged speedily by England, and ments that the Americo-Liberians, or Angloafterwards by France, Belgium, Prussia, Saxon negroes, as he calls them, act as pioBrazil, Denmark, and Portugal, it has now, neers and civilizers of their African brethren in its fortieth year, been at last recognized in several ways, and that their increase by by the United States. The paper before us immigration is much desired in order to is a brief sketch of its past history and pres- stimulate industry and enterprise. Imporent condition by its Consul-General, Mr. Ral- tant exports cannot be expected until greatly ston, which was read before the Society of increased capital, and a great addition from Arts last May, and was followed by an in- the free negroes of the United States, shall teresting discussion in which several colored give a greater command of skilled and ingentlemen from Liberia took part. On the dustrious settlers who will be, fortunate in whole, the impression we gain of this little finding abundance of native laborers at the state is favorable and promising. In mate- low rate of three dollars and rations per rial and commercial development it is far month all through the country. . . . It is inferior to Hayti, but it is, perhaps, capable the policy of the Liberian Government to of a higher ultimate development. Its Prot-induce American immigrants to settle in the estantism will render it more acceptable to interior-some fifteen, twenty, or thirty miles Anglicized negroes than the French-Catho- from the coast--where the surface of the lic republic of the West Indies; while its country is undulating and hilly, and more position as an outpost of civilization on the healthy for those freshly arrived than the African continent is very important as an coast country. Carysburg, White Plains, influence for good upon the tribes of the in- and Clay Ashland, are some of these interior terior, which it endeavors to draw to itself settlements from which good results hare by honest and conciliatory measures. Mr. already been experienced.” Ralston tells us that it has about six hun- The Republic is divided into four counties, dred miles of coast line, and extends back Montserrado, Grand Bassa, Sinoe, and Maryabout one hundred miles on an average, but land, which are further subdivided into townwith the facility of almost indefinite exten- ships, each of the latter being “ about eight sion into the interior, the natives everywhere miles in extent. Each town is a corporation, manifesting the greatest desire that treaties its affairs being managed by officers chosen should be formed with them, so that the lim- by the inhabitants. Courts of monthiy and its of the republic may be extended over all quarter sessions are held in each county." the neighboring districts. The Liberian Each county sends two members to the territory has been purchased by more than Senate, and every ten thousand persons send twenty treaties, and in all cases the natives a member to the House of Representatives. have freely parted with their titles for a sat- | The latter is elected for two years, the Sen


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ate for four. The President and Vice-Pres- | advantage ; and with some of the coast tribes, ident (who are elected for two years) musta knowledge of English is beginning to be each be thirty-five years of age, and pos- regarded as a necessary qualification for the sessed of real property to the amount of six ruling men of the chief towns." hundred dollars. “The judicial power is

Mr. Ralston's paper

was illustrated by a vested in a supreme court, and such subor- collection of the products of Liberia as sent dinate courts as the Legislature may from to the International Exhibition. These contime to time establish." “ Such of the abo- sisted of specimens of cotton cloth, well manrigines as have for three years previously ufactured, and dyed; of coffee, sugar, raw adopted and maintained civilized habits, are cotton, palm oil, rice, silkworm cocoons. entitled to the elective franchise, and a con- Swords made by the natives from the iron siderable number exercise this privilege." of the country, with stone anvils and ham“There are native [i.e., pure African, we con- mers, pouches, leather accoutrements for clude] magistrates and jurors.” This is an horses, and a great variety of fibres were extremely hopeful feature, and the following also on the table.” Iron ore abounds all facts are equally encouraging. “The Eng- over Liberia, and every species of tropical lish is the mother tongue of the Liberians, produce thrives there. Cotton grows sponand they are extending its use along the taneously all over the country, and the Libecoast and into the interior. Nothing is more rians, encouraged by the Manchester Cotton common than for the native chiefs and the Supply Association, are now paying greater head men and other important persons among attention to its production than they have the tribes within the jurisdiction of Liberia, hitherto done. We rejoice to note all these and even far beyond, to place their sons at hopeful tokens, and wish the fullest success the early age of three, four, or five years, in to this brave little African Republic. A nothe family of the Americo-Liberians expressly ble work lies before it, and we hope that to learn English and to acquire civilized every European influence that can accelerate habits. Among the natives, to understand its progress will be heartily exerted in its English is the greatest accomplishment and behalf.


The first Alfred while he was a refugee in And Alcain, writing to Cuthbert's successor, Ireland became “deeply versed in literature, Athelard, reminds him that when he should and enriched his mind with every kind of learn- come to Rome to visit the Emperor Charles the ing.” His fourth successor Celwulf was also a Great, he should not bring the clergy or monks, scholar. “Bede at the very juncture when dressed in party-colored or gaudy garments, for Britain most abounded with scholars, offered the French clergy used only ecclesiastical habits. his History of the Angels for correction, to this prince more especially; making choice of his authority, to confirm by his high station what had been well written; and of his learning to rectify by his talents what might be carelessly expressed."

And either tropic now 'Gan thunder, and both ends of heaven; the

clouds Tais Celwalf “thinking it beneath the dig- From many a horrid rift abortive poured nity of a Christian to be immersed in earthly Fierce rain with lightning mixed, water with

fire things, abdicated the throne after a reign of eight years and assumed the monastic habit at In ruin reconciled; nor slept the winds Lindisfarn,” where he lived and died in the Within their stony caves, but rushed abroad odor of sanctity.

From the four hinges of the world, and fell
On the vexed wilderness, whose tallest pines,
Though rooted deep as high, and sturdiest oaks,

Bowed their stiff necks, loaden with stormy
BONIFACE wrote to Cuthbert, Archbishop of blasts,
Canterbury, to remonstrate with the clergy and Or torn up sheer.
nups on the fineness and vanity of their dress.


From The Spectator. passion, which, if interrupted, is a mere RELICS OF SHELLEY.*

spray of isolated drops,-if completed, adds WE regret the publication of this volume. another new movement to the few distinct It is evident that Shelley's most attached vibrations of intellectual melody that perfriends and relatives, while from delicate manently possess the imagination of youth. and honorable motives they refrain as yet To have Shelley's poetry in disjointed from telling all they know of Shelley's in particles is more disappointing than to have some respects-unhappy life, lest it should broken atoms of a rainbow ; for though give pain to surviving relatives of the per- there also the whole beauty consists in the sons involved, yet cannot help hovering rare proportions of the continuous curve, round the subject of his more questionable the least arc will enable us to pursue the actions, as the moth hovers round the candle, bow of promise in imagination up to the neither willing as yet to explain fully what zenith and down again to the horizon, while might refute the worst reflections upon his every hiatus in Shelley's many-colored conduct, nor able to let the subject sleep till thought is simply beyond all human power the time arrives when they could do so. to supply. For example, what is this disloThe literary worth of the fragments in these cated stanza worth,-part of the shining ore volumes is not such as to have demanded of Shelley's mind though it evidently is,separate publication, even if it would have without the whole movement of which it justified publication at all; and the little must have been an essential element ?instalment of correspondence printed here, “At the creation of the Earth would have been of far more value if woven Pleasure, that divinest birth, into the correspondence already published.

From the soil of Heaven did rise

Wrapt in sweet wild melodiesThere is, in fact, scarcely any motive for the

Like an exhalation wreathing book, except Mr. Garnett's rejoinder to Mr. To the sound of air low-breathing T. L. Peacock, in reference to the conduct Through Æolian pines, which make

A shade and shelter to the lake of Shelley towards his first wife : and this

Whence it rises soft and slow; it would have been far more dignified to

Her life-breathing (limbs) did flow defer till it was possible to produce all the In the Harmony divine particulars to which so many mysterious Of an ever-lengthening line, references are made. Except a beautiful

Which enwrapt her perfect form

With a beauty clear and warm." poem of Shelley which was published a few months ago in Macmillan's Magazine, and

And many of the fragments are far more one of some merit of Mr. Garnett's own on

fragmentary even than this is; for example, the poet, written in the neighborhood of

the following excluded passage in the

Adonais : Mrs. Shelley's tomb, there is nothing in this book that has any literary unity or finish.

A mighty Phantasm, half concealed

In darkness of his own exceeding light, It is a basket of literary chips and shavings, which clothed his awful presence unrevealed, gathered up from the poet's workshop. Charioted on the

night There is no writer in the whole range of Of thunder-smoke, whose skirts were chrysolite English literature who will less bear this The splendor-winged chariot of the sun,

And like a sudden meteor, which outstrips piecemeal treatment than Shelley. It is not

eclipse the rich light of imaginative thoughtmas The armies of the golden stars, cach one with Coleridge,—the passion of deep insight Pavilioned in its tent of light-all strewn

Over the chasms of blue night-as with Wordsworth,—nor the gleam of fanciful sentiment—as with Moore,—which There is, we feel, far more pain in the sense takes hold of us,-all these might be to of mutilation which such passages produce some extent preserved in fragments, and the sense of a broken melody—than preserved even without loss of power. But pleasure in the occasional gleam of Shelley's Shelley's poems, whatever else they are genius which remains there; for the breathmeant to be, are meant at least to be felt less continuity of his song, which rolls on. and seen as wholes—as melodies complete ward to the end without rest or pause, was in themselves, expressing some one wave of of the true essence of Shelley's genius, and

* Relics of Shelley. Edited by Richard Garnett. to have shattered fragments of his music is London: Moxon & Co. 1862.

like listening to a stammering lark.

Nor is the injury to Shelley's poetry in- And truly, Shelley, thine were strains volved in this fragmentary treatment greater

At once to fire and freeze the veins than that to his biography. Never was any

Such as were haply spells of dread

In the high regions forfeited, great poet made known to the world by more Breathed less intelligibly for fitful and inadequate biographic hints ; The duller earthly auditor.” never was there any great poet whose story stood more in need of a continuous and sions which marks itself so deeply on Shel

This “unearthly

» form of earthly pasfrank narrative, or whose nature was more susceptible of a living and distinct portrai- gularly unique coloring to his whole life,

ley's poetry and fate, while it gives a sinture in such a narrative, than Shelley's. His life was like one of his own lyrics, eager to is so much both in his poetry and life

was, no doubt, the real cause why there breathlessness when the spell of action or which it is difficult to approach without emotion was on him,-faint to sickness in

some preconceived bias. No man of equal the after-mood of reaction, when it had passed away; at all times penetrated with either as a poet or a man.

genius has been less adequately criticised

Even in these the glow of a temperament in which selfish lines Mr. Garnett scarcely reaches the cencalculation had absolutely no share,--at all tre of the difficulty. Shelley's mysticism is

. times underrating law, or rather holding the

not exactly of the kind which we can aclaw of impulse intrinsically higher than any count for, even fancifully, by referring to other, and chafing at what he called the its origin in another planet. It is quite infinite malice of Destiny," when that which

true that his Wordsworth would have bowed before as

were strains the awful form of Duty, bade him impera

At once to fire and freeze the veins ; tively curb the wayward impulse of the hour;

-in short, a life in which the throbbing but the rest of the suggested explanation pulses of intellectualized passion can be felt seems to us scarcely to grasp the whole of distinctly at almost every point, and so the difficulty. The mysticism which runs unique as a whole, that his outward lot, both through his life and his poetry apwhether as regards his errors, his persecu- proaches, odd, as it may appear, very closely tions, his companions, or his strange death to a somewhat naked simplicity of nature. and stranger funeral rites, seems almost the There was wanting in him that nameless inseparable vesture of his marvellous na- awe which teaches men to feel the differture.

ence between the natural and the supernatMr. Garnett has struck the true key to ural, and makes them hold even the most the character in the following lines: solemn impulses of their own nature in re

straint. Byron, and many of Shelley's “ That Soul of planetary birth,

contemporaries, felt this awe and wantonly Tempered for some more prosperous Earth,

violated it. Shelley seems to us not even Happy, by error or by guile Rapt from the star most volatile

to have felt it. Hence the strange perfecThat speeds with fleet and fieriest might tion of his pantheism. He could throw his Next to the kernel of all light,

imagination into all the forms and attitudes Fallen unwelcome, unaware, On this low world of want and care,

of natural life, and interpret them as if he Mistake, misfortune, and misdeed,

were conscious of nothing higher than Passion and pang,—where not indeed beauty or deformity,—without shrinking in Ever might envious dæmon quell

any way from the most naturalistic view The ardor indestructible ; The mood scarce human or divine,

which they suggested. Hence all the marAngelic half, half infantine;

vellous passion of his poetry has about it a The intense, unearthly qnivering

tone from which we shrink ;-without any Of rapture or of suffering;

of the license of Byron, without anything The lyre, now thrilling wild and high, Now stately as the symphony

of the erotic vulgarity of Moore, with the That times the solemn periods,

highest sense of the sacredness of passion, Comings and goings of the gods,

there is a bold, eager naturalism of tone, a And smitten with as free a hand

complete absence of any sense of distincAs if the plectrum were a wand Gifted with magic to unbar

tion between the supersensual and the senThe silver gate of every star :

suous, which gives to Shelley's writings

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something of the impression that they are publications of facts bearing on the one or
the poetry of a man with no “spirit” in St. two central errors of his life. There is much
Paul's sense, though with a noble “ soul” as in Sbelley's life, looked at as a whole, which
well as a sensitive physical body. This relieves the naked naturalism of his theory
seems to us one of the central features of of love. But to this one focus we are again
all his poetry. It shows senses of ethereal and again drawn by these unwise publica-
fire, an intellect of wonderful subtlety, a tions of fragments all bearing on this point,
soul of pure magnanimity, but no shadow Hence we trust that Mr. Garnett's may be
of divine responsibility, no consciousness the last. He is not unfit to write, whenever
of living under an eternal eye and will, the time shall come, a complete and harmo-
and none of the breadth of sympathy and nious life of the poet, embodying all that has
judgment which that consciousness never yet appeared, and laying no undue stress on
fails to bring. But if this be the great neg. controverted points, and till he does so,
ative feature of this wonderful poet's writ- we hope he will not again publish on the
ings, the jar with which it strikes upon us is subject.
indefinitely increased by these fragmentary


RUSHES were used to strew the floors in Nor- The editor of Rabelais

says ce qu'il y a de mandy when Wm. the Conqueror was born, for certain, c'est que ce furent les Goths qui intro“at the very moment when the infant burst into duiserent l'usage de dîner et de souper, c'est à life, and touched the ground he filled both hands dire, de faire deux grands repas par jour. En with the rushes strewed upon the floor, firmly quoi on s'éloigna de l'ancienne coutume qui grasping what he had taken up.” This prod- étoit de diner fort légèrement, et de souper à igy was joyfully witnessed by the women gos- fond.” sipping on the occasion; and the midwife hailed the propitious omen, declaring that the boy would be a king.

A Saxon nun wrote six plays in imitation of Terrence, but in honor of virginity. They

were published at Nusenberg, 1501 ; but the "When Harold was in Normandy, William book is singularly scarce. She wrote circiter, took him with him in his expedition to Brittany, A.D. 980. to make proof of his prowess, and at the same time with the deeper design of showing to him his military equipment, that he might perceive Alcuin writes to the monks of Wearmouth, how far preferable was the Norman sword to obliquely accusing them of having done the very the English battle-axe."

thing which he begs them not to do. “Let the youthis be accustomed to attend the praises of our heavenly King, not to dig up the burrows

of foxes, or pursue the winding mazes of hares.HAROLD's spies, before the battle of Hastings, reported that almost all the Norman army “had the appearance of priests, as they had the whole face with both lips shaven. For the English

ETHELBALD of Mercia, who died 756, exleave the upper lip unshorn, suffering the hair empted all monasteries and churches in his kingcontinually to increase ; which Cæsar aflirms to dom from public taxes, works, and impositions, have been a national custom with the ancient except the building of forts and bridges, from inhabitants of Britain."

which none can be released.

He also gave the servants of God "perfect liberty in the product of their' woods and lands,

and the riglrt of fishing.". Ergo, there were “The English at that time wore short gar- rights of the feudal character, and game laws ments reaching to the mid-knec; they had their before the conquest. hair cropped, their beards shaven, their arms laden with golden bracelets, their skins adorned with punctured designs. They were accustomed ATHELSTAL, his hair was “flaxen, as I hare to eat till they became surfeited, and to drink seen by his reliques, and beautifully wreathed till they were sick. These latter qualities they with golden threads." Was he then baried with imparted to their conquerors; as to the rest they his hair thus disposed? This was a fashion at adopted their manners.”

Troy, sce the death of Euphorbus,

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