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acted with great moderation. He upbraided for their lamps. Cuddies are so abundast, u Ilugh both with disloyalty and ingratitude ; some times of the year, that they are caught but told the rest, that he considered them as like white bait in the Thames, only by dipping men deluded and misinformed. Hugh was a basket and drawing it back. sworn to fidelity, and dismissed with his com- If it were always practicable to fish, there panions; but he was not generous enough to be islands could never be in much danger in reclaimed by lenity; and finding no longer any famine : but unhappily, in the winter, wbe countenance among the gentlemen, endeavoured other provision fails, the seas are commonly to to execute the same design by meaner hands. In rough for nets, or boats. this practice he was detected, taken to Macdon nald's castle, and imprisoned in the dungeon.
TALISKER IN SKY. When he was hungry, they let down a plentiful meal of salted meat; and when, after his repast, From Ulinish our next stage was to Talisker. he called for drink, conveyed to him a covered the house of colonel Macleod, an officer in the cup, which, when he lifted the lid, he found Dutch service, who in this time of universa empty. From that time they visited him no peace, has for several years been permitted to be more, but left him to perish in solitude and absent from his regiment. Having been brede darkness.
physic, he is consequently a scholar, and bis We were then told of a cavern by the seaside, lady, by accompanying bim in bis diferee remarkable for the powerful reverberation of places of residence, is become skilful in several sounds. After dinner we took a boat, to ex-languages. Talisker is the place beyond all the plore this curious cavity. The boatmen, who I have seen, from which the gay and the joria seemed to be of a rank above that of common seem utterly excluded ; and where the bermit drudges, inquired who the strangers were ; and might expect to grow old in meditation, withcer being told we came one from Scotland, and the possibility of disturbance or interruption. It is other from England, asked if the Englishman situated very near the sea, but upon a cest could recount a long genealogy. What answer where no vessel lands but when it is driven by a was given them, the conversation being in Erse, tem pest on the rocks. Towards the land are I was not much inclined to examine.
lofty bills streaming with waterfalls. The garThey expected no good event of the voyage ; den is sheltered by firs, or pines, which groter for one of them declared that he heard the cry there so prosperously, that some which the pre of an English ghost. This omen I was not told sent inhabitant planted, are very high and thick
. till after our return, and therefore cannot claim At this place we very happily met with Mr. the dignity of despising it.
Donald Maclean, a young gentleman, the eldest The sea was smooth. We never left the shore, son of the laird of Col, heir to a very great es and came without any disaster to the cavern, tent of land, and so desirous of improving bis which we found rugged and misshapen, about inheritance, that he spent a considerable time one hundred and eighty feet long, thirty wide among the farmers of Hertfordshire and Hamp in the broadest part, and in the loftiest, as we shire, to learn their practice. He worked with guessed, about thirty high. It was now dry, his own hands at the principal operations of but at high water the sea rises in it near six feet. agricultare, that he might not deceive himself Here I saw what I had never seen before, lim- by a false opinion of skill; which if he should pets and muscles in their natural state.
find it deficient at home, he had no meanser a new testimony to the veracity of common completing. If the world has agreed to praise fame, here was no echo to be heard.
the travels and manual labours of the czar ef We then walked through a natural arch in Muscovy, let Col have his share of tbe like af the rock, which might have pleased us by its plause, in the proportion of his dominions to novelty, had the stones, which encumbered our the empire of Russia. feet, given us leisure to consider it.
This young gentleman was sporting in the shown the gummy seed of the kelp, that fastens mountains of Sky, and when he was weary with itself to a stone, from which it grows into a following his game, repaired for lodging strong stalk,
lisker. At night he missed one of his dogs, and In our return, we found a little boy upon the when he went to seek him in the morning, point of a rock, catching with his angle a supper found two eagles feeding on his carcass. for the family. Te rowed up to him, and bor- Col, for he must be named by his possessions
, rowed his rod, with which Mr. Boswell caught hearing that our intention was to visit lona, ofa cuddy.
fered to conduct us to his chief, Sir Allan MasThe cuddy is a fish of which I know not the lean, who lived in the isle of Inch Kenneth, philosophical name. It is not much bigger than and would readily find us a convenient passages a gudgeon, but it is of great use in these islands, From this time was formed an acquaintance, as it affords the lower people both food and oil | which being begun by kindness, was accident
» ally continued by constraint; we derived much The long continuance of the sun abo ve the hori 5. pleasure from it, and I hope have given him no zon, does indeed sometimes produce great heat in reason to repent it.
northern latitudes ; but this can only happen in The weather was now almost one continued sheltered places, where the atmosphere is to a storm, and we were to snatch some bappy inter- certain degree stagnant, and the same mass of u mission to be conveyed to Mull, the third island air continues to receive for many hours the rays 12 of the Hebrides, lying about a degree south of of the sun, and the vapours of the earth. Sky e Sky, whence we might easily find our way to lies open on the west and north to a vast extent
Inch Kenneth, where Sir Allan Maclean resid- of ocean, and is cooled in the summer by a per: ed, and afterward to Iona.
petual ventilation, but by the sume blast is kept For this purpose the most commodious station warm in winter. Their weather is not pleasing. that we could take was Armidel, which Sir Alex- Half the year is deluged with rain. From the ander Macdonald had now left to a gentleman autumnal to the vernal equinox, a dry day is who lived there as his factor or steward. hardly known, except when the showers are sus.
In our way to Armidel was Coriatachan, where pended by a tempest. Under such skies can be we had already been, and to which therefore we expected no great exuberance of vegetation. were very willing to return. We staid however so Their winter overtakes their summer, and their long at Talisker, that a great part of our journey harvest lies upon the ground drenched with rain. was performed in the gloom of the evening. In The autumn struggles hard to produce some of travelling even thus almost without light through our early fruits. I gathered gooseberries in Sepnaked solitude, when there is a guide whose contember ; but they were small, and the husk was duct may be trusted, a mind not naturally too thick. much disposed to fear, may preserve some de- The winter is seldom such as puts a full stop gree of cheerfulness; but what must be the to the growth of plants, or reduces the cattle to solicitude of him who should be wandering, live wholly on the surplusage of the summer. among the crags and bollows, benighted, igno- In the year seventy-one they had a severe searant, and alone?
son, remembered by the name of the Black The fictions of the Gothic romances were Spring, from which the island has not yet repot so remote from credibility as they are now covered. The snow lay long upon the ground, thought. In the full prevalence of the feudal a calamity hardly known before. Part of their institution, when violence desolated the world, cattle died for want, part were unseasonably sold and every baron lived in a fortress, forests and to buy sustenance for the owners; and, what I castles were regularly succeeded by each other, have not read or heard of before, the kine that and the adventurer might very suddenly pass survived were so emaciated and dispirited, that from the gloom of woods, or the ruggedness of they did not require the male at the usual time. moors, to seats of plenty, gayety, and magni6. Many of the roebucks perished. Whatever is imaged in the wildest tale,
The soil, as in other countries, has its diverif giants, dragons, and enchantment be ex- sities. In some parts there is only a thin layer cepted, would be felt by him, who, wandering in of earth spread upon a rock, which bears nothing the mountains without a guide, or upon the sea but short brown beath, and perhaps is not gewithout a pilot, should be carried, amidst his nerally capable of any better product. There terror and uncertainty, to the hospitality and are many bogs or mosses of greater or less exelegance of Raasay or Dunvegan.
tent, where the soil cannot be supposed to want
upon the field, gives them a better crop than
fertilizing substance. When they find a vein of
Their corn grounds often lie in such intri,
OSTIG IN SKY.
is then turned up by manual labour, with an in- | greens were wanting, and suppose, that strument called a crooked spade, of a form and choosing an advantageous exposition, they a weight which to me appeared very incommodi- raise all the more hardy esculent plants. ous, and would perhaps be soon improved in a vegetable fragrance or beauty they are bot country where workmen could be easily found studious. Few vows are made to Flora in 9 and easily paid. It has a narrow blade of iron Hebrides. fixed to a long and heavy piece of wood, which They gather a little hay, but the grass is DE must have, about a foot and a half above the late; and is so often almost dry, and again te iron, a knee or flexure with the angle down-wet, before it is housed, that it becomes a mai wards. When the farmer encounters a stone, lection of withered stalks without taste ar to which is the great impediment of his opera- grance; it must be eaten by cattle that has tions, he drives the blade under it, and bringing nothing else, but by most English farmers Fos. the knee or angle to the ground, has in the long be thrown away. handle a very forcible lever.
In the islands I have not heard that aby sa According to the different mode of tillage, terraneous treasures have been discover farms are distinguished into long land and short though where there are mountains, there a: land. Long land is that which affords room for commonly minerals. One of the rocks in C a plough, and short land is turned up by the has a black vein, imagined to consist of the spade.
of lead; but it was never yet opened or esserei The grain which they commit to the furrows In Sky a black mass was accidentally picked thus tediously formed, is either oats or barley. and brought into the house of the owner of the They do not sow barley without very copious land, who found himself strongly inclined b manure, and then they expect from it ten for think it a coal, but unbappily it did not burn in one, an increase equal to that of better coun- the chimney. Common ores would be bere å tries ; but the culture is so operose that they no great value ; for what requires to be separated content themselves commonly with oats; and by fire, must if it were found, be carried away who can relate without compassion, that after in its mineral state, here being no fuel for te all their diligence, they are to expect only a smelting house or forge. Perhaps by diligen triple increase? It is in vain to hope for plenty, search in this world of stone, some valuable when a third part of the barvest must be re- species of marble might be discovered. Bet served for seed.
neither philosopbical curiosity, nor commercial When their grain is arrived at a state which industry, have yet fixed their abode here, where they must consider as ripeness, they do not cut, the importunity of immediate want, supplied but pull, the barley: to the oats they apply the but for the day, and craving on the morrow, has sickle. Wheel carriages they have none, but left little room for excursive knowledge, or the make a frame of timber which is drawn by one pleasing fancies of distant profit. horse, with the two points behind pressing on They have lately found a manufacture conthe ground. On this they sometimes drag home siderably lucrative. Their rocks abound with their sheaves, but often convey them home in a kelp, a sea-plant, of which the ashes are melted kind of open pannier, or frame of sticks, upon into glass. They burn kelp in great quantitie the horse's back.
and then send it away in ships, which come Of that which is obtained with so much diffi- regularly to purchase them. This new source culty, nothing surely ought to be wasted; yet of riches has raised the rents of many maritime their method of clearing their oats from the farms; but the tenants pay, like all other husk is by parching them in the straw. Thus tenants, the additional rent with great unvit. with the genuine improvidence of savages, they lingness ; because they consider the profits of the destroy that fodder for want of which their cat-kelp as the mere product of personal labour, to tle may perish. From this practice they have which the landlord contributes nothing. Howtwo petty conveniences; they dry the grain so ever, as any man may be said to give what he that it is easily reduced to meal, and they escape gives the power of gaining, he has certainly at the theft of the thresber. The taste contracted much right to profit from the price of kelp as of from the fire by the oats, as by every other any thing else found or raised upon his ground. scorched substance, use must long ago have Tbis new trade has excited a long and eager made grateful. The oats that are not parched litigation between Macdonald and Macleod, for must be dried in a kiln.
a ledge of rocks, which, till the value of kelp The barns of Sky I never saw. That which was known, neither of them desired the reputaMacleod of Raasay had erected near his house tion of possessing. was so contrived, because the harvest is seldom The cattle of Sky are not so small as is combrought home dry, as by perpetual perflation to monly believed. Since they have sent their prevent the mow from heating.
beeves in great numbers to southern marts, they of their gardens I can judge only from their have probably taken more care of their breed. tables. I did not observe that the common At stated times the annual growth of cattle is
cami penury of sustenance.
driven to a falr, by a general drover, and with an overmatch for other animak, that in all the money which he returns to the farmer, the countries, where they are in use, the wild part rents are paid.
of the creation sensibly diminishes. There will The price regularly expected, is from two to probably not be long either stags or roebucks in three pounds a head; there was once one sold the islands. All the beasts of chase would have for five pounds. They go from the islands very been lost long ago in countries well inhabited, lean, and are not offered to the butcher till they had they not been preserved by laws for the have been long fatted in English pastures. pleasure of the rich.
Of their black cattle some are without horns, There are in Sky neither rats nor mice, but called by the Scots, humble cows, as we call a the weasel is so frequent, that he is heard in bee an humble bee, that wants a sting. Whether houses rattling behind chests or beds, as rats in this difference be specific, or accidental, though England. They probably owe to his predomiwe inquired with great diligence, we could not nance that they have no other vermin; for since be informed. We are not very sure that the the great rat took possession of this part of the bull is ever without horns, though we have been world, scarce a ship can touch at any port, but told that such bulls there are.
What is pro
some of his race are left behind. They have duced by putting a horned and unhorned male within these few years begun to infest the isle of and female together, no man has ever tried that Col, where being left by some trading vessel, thought the result worthy of observation. they have increased for want of weasels to op
Their horses are, like their cows, of a mode- pose them. rate size. I had no difficulty to mount myself The inhabitants of Sky, and of the other commodiously by the favour of the gentlemen. islands, which I have seen, are commonly of the I heard of very little cows in Barra, and very middle stature, with fewer among them very tall little horses in Rum, where perhaps no care is or very short, than are seen in England; or taken to prevent that diminution of size, perhaps, as their numbers are small, the chances which must always happen, where the greater of any deviation from the common measure are and the less copulate promiscuously, and the necessarily few. The tallest men that I saw are young animal is restrained from growth by among those of higher rank. In regions of
barrenness and scarcity, the human race is binThe goat is the general inhabitant of the earth, dered in its growth by the same causes as other complying with every difference of climate and animals. of soil. The goats of the Hebrides are like The ladies have as much beauty here as in others : nor did I hear any thing of their sheep other places, but bloom and softness are not to to be particularly remarked.
be expected among the lower classes, whose In the penury of these malignant regions, no. faces are exposed to the rudeness of the climate, thing is left that can be converted to food. The and whose features are sometimes contracted by goats and the sheep are milked like the cows. want, and sometimes hardened by the blasts. A single meal of a goat is a quart, and of a Supreme beauty is seldom found in cottages or sheep a pint. Such at least was the account workshops, even where no real hardships are which I could extract from those of whom I am suffered. To expand the human face to its full not sure that they ever had inquired.
perfection, it seems necessary that the mind The milk of goats is much thinder than that should co-operate by placidness of content, or
and that of sheep is much thicker. consciousness of superiority. Sheep's milk is never eaten before it is boiled ; Their strength is proportionate to their size, as it is thick, it must be very liberal of curd, but they are accustomed to run upon rough and the people of St. Kilda form it into small ground, and therefore can with great agility skip cheeses.
over the bog, or clamber the mountain. The stags of the mountains are less than those campaign in the wastes of America, soldiers of our parks or forests, perhaps not bigger than better qualified could not have been found. our fallow deer.
Their flesh has no rankness, Having little work to do, they are not willing, nor is inferior in flavour to our common veni
nor perhaps able, to endure a long continuance The roebuck I neither saw nor tasted. of manual labour, and are therefore considered These are not countries for a regular chase.
as habitually idle. The deer are not driven with horns and hounds.
Having never been supplied with those accomA sportsman, with bis gun in his hand, watches modations, which life extensively diversified with the animal, and when he has wounded him, trades affords, they supply their wants by very traces him by the blood.
insufficient shifts, and endure many inconveni. They bave a race of brinded greyhounds, ences, which a little attention would easily relarger and stronger than those with which we lieve. I have seen a horse carrying home the course hares, and those are the only dogs used | harvest on a crate. Under his tail was a stick by them for the chase.
for a crupper, held at the two ends by twists Man is by the use of fire-arms made so much of straw. Hemp will grow in their islands, and
therefore ropes may be had. If they wanted sure can feed or starve, can give bread, or wt. hemp, they might make better cordage of rushes, hold it. This inherent power was yet strengt. or perhaps of nettles, than of straw.
ened by the kindness of consanguinity, and the Their method of life neither secures them reverence of patriarchal authority. The heart perpetual health, nor exposes them to any parti- ' was the father of the clan, and his tenants en cular diseases. There are physicians in the ' monly bore his name. And to these principes islands, who, I believe, all practise chirurgery, of original command was added, for many za and all compound their own medicines.
an exclusive right of legal jurisdiction. It is generally supposed, that life is longer in This multifarious and extensive obligate places where there are few opportunities of operated with force scarcely credible. Every luxury; but I found no instance here of extra- duty, moral or political, was absorbed in die ordinary longevity. A cottager grows old over tion and adherence to the chief. Not un his oaten cakes, like a citizen at a turtle feast. years have passed since the clans knew no las He is indeed seldom incommoded by corpulence. but tbe laird's will. He told them to wbie Poverty preserves him from sinking under the they should be friends or enemies, what king burden of himself, but he escapes no other in- / they should obey, and what religion they sbuch! jury of time. Instances of long life are often profess. related, which those who hear them are more When the Scots first rose in arms against the willing to credit than examine. To be told that succession of the House of Hanover, Lovat, the any man has attained a hundred years, gives chief of the Frasers, was in exile for a rape hope and comfort to him who stands trembling The Frazers were very numerous, and very on the brink of his own climacterie.
zealous against the government. A pardoa wa Length of life is distributed impartially to sent to Lovat. He came to the English camp, very different modes of life in very different and the clan immediately deserted to him. climates ; and the mountains bave no greater Next in dignity to the laird is the Tacksas. examples of age and health than the low lands, a large taker or leaseholder of land, of which where I was introduced to two ladies of high he keeps part as a domain in his own band, and quality, one of whom, in her ninety-fourth lets part to under-tenants. The tacksmas é year, presided at her table with the full exercise necessarily a man capable of securing to the of all her powers; and the other has attained | laird the whole rent, and is commonly a caloher eighty-fourth, without any diminution of, teral relation. These tacks, or subordinate pe her vivacity, and with little reason to accuse sessions, were long considered as hereditary, time of depredations on her beauty.
and the occupant was distinguished by the name In the islands, as in most other places, the in- of the place at which he resided. He beld a habitants are of different rank, and one does middle station, by which the highest and the not encroach here upon another. Where there lowest orders were connected. He paid rent is no commerce nor manufacture, he that is and reverence to the laird, and received them born poor can scarcely become rich; and if from the tenants. This tenure still subsists, none are able to buy estates, he that is born to with its original operation, but not with the land cannot annihilate his family by selling it. primitive stability. Since the islanders, u This was once the state of these countries. longer content to live, have learned the desire of Perhaps there is no example, till within a cen- growing rich, an ancient dependent is in danger tury and half, of any family whose estate was of giving way to a higher bidder, at the expense alienated otherwise than by violence or forfei- of domestic dignity and hereditary power. The ture. Sivce money has been brought amongst stranger, whose money buys him preference, then, they have found, like others, the art of considers himself as paying for all that he bas spending more than they receive; and I saw and is indifferent about the laird's honour of with grief the chief of a very ancient clan, safety. The commodiousness of money is inderd whose island was condemned by law to be sold great; but there are some advantages which for the satisfaction of his creditors.
money cannot buy, and which therefore no wis The name of the highest dignity is Laird, of man will by the love of money be tempted to which there are in the extensive isle of Sky only forego. three, Macdonald, Macleod, and Mackinnon. I have found in the bither parts of Scotland, The laird is the original owner of the land, men, not defective in judgment or general exwhose natural power must be very great, where perience, who consider the tacksman as a useleșs no man lives but by agriculture; and where burden of the ground, as a drone who lives upon the produce of the land is not conveyed through the product of an estate, without the right of the labyrinths of traffic, but passes directly from property, or the merit of labour, and who imthe hand that gathers it, to the mouth that eats poverishes at once the landlord and the tenant. it. The laird has all those in his power that the land, say they, is let to the tacksman at six live upon his farms. Kings can, for the most
pence an acre, and by him to the tenant at tenpart, anly exalt or degrade. The laird at plea-1 pence. Let the owner be the immediate land