however went round, and were glad when the At night we came to Bamff, where I remem. circuit was completed.

ber nothing that particularly claimed my atten. When we came down to the sea, we saw some tion. The ancient towns of Scotland have geboats, and rowers, and resolved to explore the nerally an appearance unusual to Englishmen. Buller, at the bottom. We entered the arch, The houses, whether great or small, are for the which the water had made, and found ourselves most part built of stones. Their ends are in a place, which, though we could not think now and then next the streets, and the entrance ourselves in danger, we could scarcely survey into them is very often by a flight of steps, without some recoil of the mind. The basin in which reaches up to the second story; the fieer which we Boated was nearly circular, perhaps which is level with the ground being entered thirty yards in diameter. We were enclosed by only by stairs descending within the house. a natural wall, rising steep on every side to a The art of joining squares of glass with lead height which produced the idea of insurmount- is little used in Scotland, and in some places is able confinement. The interception of all late- totally forgotten. The frames of their windows ral light caused a dismal gloom. Round us was are all of wood. They are more frugal of their a perpendicular rock, above us the distant sky, glass than the English, and will often, in houses and below an unknown profundity of water. If not otherwise mean, compose a square of two I had any malice against a walking spirit, in- pieces, not joining like cracked glass, but with stead of laying him in the Red Sea, I would one edge laid perhaps half an inch over the condemn bim to reside in the Buller of Buchan. other. Their windows do not move upon hinges,

But terror without danger is only one of the but are pushed up and drawn down in groves, sports of fancy, a voluntary agitation of the yet they are seldom accommodated with weights mind that is permitted no longer than it pleases. and pulleys. He that would have his window We were soon at leisure to examine the place open, must hold it with his hand, unless wbal with minute inspection, and found many cavi- may be sometimes found among good contrivers, ties which, as the watermen told us, went back there be a nail which he may stick into a bole, ward to a depth which they had never explored. to keep it from falling. Their extent we had not time to try; they are What cannot be done without some uncomsaid to serve different purposes. Ladies come mon trouble or particular expedieut, will det hither sometimes in the summer with collations, often be done at all. The incommodiousness of and smugglers make them storehouses for clan- the Scotch windows keeps them very closels destine merchandise. It is hardly to be doubted shut. The necessity of ventilating human babut the pirates of ancient times often used bitations has not yet been found by our northera them as magazines of arms, or repositories of neighbours; and even in houses well built, and plunder.

elegantly furnished, a stranger may be sometimes To the little vessels used by the northern forgiven, if he allows himself to wish for fresher rowers, the Buller may have served as a shelter air. from storms, and perhaps as a retreat from ene- These diminutive observations seem to take mies; the entrance might have been stopped, away something from the dignity of writing, or guarded with little difficulty, and though the and therefore are never communicated but with vessels that were stationed within would have hesitation, and a little fear of a basement and been battered with stones showered on them contempt. But it must be remembered, that from above, yet the crews would have lain safe life consists not of a series of illustrious actions in the caverns.

or elegant enjoyments; the greater part of eur Next morning we continued our journey, time passes in compliance with necessities, in pleased with our reception at Slanes Castle, of the performance of daily duties, in the removal which we had now leisure to recount the gran- of small inconveniences, in the procurement ! deur and the elegance; for our way afforded us petty pleasures; and we are well or ill at ease, few topics of conversation. The ground was as the main stream of life glides on sincothly, neither uncultivated nor unfruitful; but it was or is rufiled by small obstacles and frequent instill all arable. Of Alocks or herds there was no terruption. The true state of every nation is appearance. I had now travelled two hundred the state of common life. The manners ef a miles in Scotland, and seen only one tree not people are not to be found in the schools s younger than myself.

learning, or the palaces of greatness, where the national character it obscured or obliterated by travel or instruction, by philosophy or vanity:

nor is public happiness to be estimated by the We dined this day at the house of Mr. Frazer assemblies of the gay, or the banquets of the of Streichton, who showed us in his grounds rich. The great mass of nations is neither ride some stones yet standing of a Druidical circle, nor ga ; they whose aggregate constitutes the and what I began to think more worthy of po- people, are found in the streets and the villages cice, some forest-trees of full growth.

in the shops and farms; and from them, co



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lectively considered, must the measure of gene- , nificence, and we are in danger of doing that
ral prosperity be taken. As they approach to deliberately, which the Scots did not do but in
delicacy, a nation is retined ; as their conveni- the unsettled state of an imperfect constitution.
ences are multiplied, a nation, at least a com- Those who had once uncovered the cathedrals,
mercial nation, must be denominated wealthy. never wished to cover them again ; and being

thus made useless, they were first neglected, and
perhaps, as the stone was wanted, afterwards

Finding nothing to detain us at Bamff, we set Elgin seems a place of little trade, and thinly
out in the morning, and having breakfasted at inbabited. The episcopal cities of Scotland, I
Cullen, about noon came to Elgin, where, in the believe, generally fell with their churches,
inn that we supposed the best, a dinner was set though some of them have since recovered by a
before us which we could not eat. This was situation convenient for

Thus the first time, and, except one, the last, that I Glasgow, though it has no longer an archbishop, found any reason to complain of a Scottish ta- has risen beyond its original state by the opuble; and such disappointments, I suppose, must lence of its traders ; and Aberdeen, though its be expected in every country, where there is no ancient stock had decayed, flourishes by a new great frequency of travellers.

shoot in another place. The ruin of the cathedral of Elgin afforded In the chief street of Elgin, the houses jut us another proof of the waste of reformation over the lowest story, like the old buildings of There is enough yet remaining to show, that it timber in London, but with greater prominence; was once magnificent. Its whole plot is easily so that there is sometimes a walk for a consider. traced. On the north side of the choir, the able length under a cloister, or portico, which is chapter-house, which is roofed with an arch of now indeed frequently broken, because the new stone, remains entire; and on the south side, houses have another form, but seems to have another mass of building, which we could not been uniformly continued to the old city. enter, is preserved by the care of the family of Gordon; but the body of the church is a mass of fragments.

A paper was here put into our hands, which we went forwards the same day to Fores, the deduced from sufficient authorities the history town to which Macbeth was travelling when he of this venerable ruin. The church of Elgin met the weird sisters in his way. This to an had, in the intestine tumults of the barbarous Englishman is classic ground. Our imagina. ages, been laid waste by the irruption of a High- tions were heated, and our thoughts recalled to land chief, whom the bishop bad offended; but their old amusements. it was gradually restored to the state of which We had now a prelude to the Highlands. the traces may be now discerned, and was at We began to leave fertility and culture behind last not destroyed by the tumultuous violence of us, and saw for a great length of road nothing Knox, but more shamefully suffered to dilapi- but heath; yet at Focbabars, a seat belonging date by deliberate robbery and frigid indiffer- to the duke of Gordon, there is an orchard,

There is still extant, in the books of the which in Scotland I had never seen before, council, an order, of which I cannot remember with some timber-trees, and a plantation of the date, but which was doubtless issued after oaks. the reformation, directing that the lead, which At Fores we found good accommodation, but covers the two cathedrals of Elgin and Aber-nothing worthy of particular remark, and next deen, shall be taken away, and converted into morning entered upon the road on which Macmoney for the support of the army. A Scotch beth heard the fatal predictiou ; but we travelled army was in those times very cheaply kept; yet on, not interrupted by promises of kingdoms, the lead of two churches must have borne so and came to Nairn, a royal burgh, which, if small a proportion to any military expense, that once it flourished, is now in a state of miserable it is hard not to believe the reason alleged to be decay; but I know not whether its chief annumerely popular, and the money intended for al magistrate has not still the title of Lord Prosome private parse. The order, however, was vost. obeyed ; the two churches were stripped, and At Nairn we may fix the verge of the Highthe lead was shipped to be sold in Holland, 1 lands; for here I first saw peat fires, and first hope every reader will rejoice that this cargo of beard the Erse language. We had no motive sacrilege was lost at sea.

to stay longer than to breakfast, and went forLet us not, however, make too much haste to ward to the house of Mr. Macaulay, the mic despise our neighbours. Our own cathedrals nister, who published an account of St. Kilda, are mouldering by unregarded dilapidation. It and by his direction visited Calder Castle, frem seems to be part of the despicable philosophy of which Macbeth drew his second title. It has the time to despise monuments of sacred ning- been formerly a place of strength. The draw



bridge is still to be seen, but the moat is now | Scots ; he civilized them by conquest, and is. dry. The tower is very ancient. Its walls are troduced by useful violence the arts of peace. I of great thickness, arched on the top with stone, I was told at Aberdeen, that the people learned and surrounded with battlements. The rest of from Cromwell's soldiers to make shoes and to the house is later, though far from modern. plant kail.

We were favoured by a gentleman, who lives How they lived without kail, it is not easy to in the castle, with a letter to one of the officers guess; they cultivate hardly any other plant for at Fort George, which being the most regular common tables, and when they had not kail they fortification in the island, well deserves the probably had nothing. The numbers that notice of a traveller, who has never travelled barefoot are still sufficient to show that shoes before. We went thither next day, found a may be spared; they are not yet considered as very kind reception, were led round the works necessaries of life; for tall boys, not otherwise by a gentleman, who explained the use of every meanly dressed, run without them in the part, and entertained by Sir Eyre Coote, the streets; and in the islands the sons of gentleGovernor, with such elegance of conversation, men pass several of their first years with naked as left us no attention to the delicacies of his feet. table.

I know not whether it be not peculiar to the Of Fort George I shall not attempt to give Scots to have attained the liberal, without the any account. I cannot delineate it scientifically, manual arts, to have excelled in ornamental and a loose and popular description is of use knowledge, and to have wanted not only the eleonly when the imagination is to be amused. gances, but the conveniences of common life. There was every where an appearance of the Literature, soon after its revival, found its way utmost neatness and regularity. But my suf to Scotland, and from the middle of the sixfrage is of little value, because this and Fort teenth century, almost to the middle of the Augustus are the only garrisons that I ever seventeenth, the politer studies were very

gently pursued. The Latin poetry of Delaze We did not regret the time spent at the fort, Poetarum Scotorum would have done honcu though in consequence of our delay we came to any nation; at least till the publication et somewhat late to Inverness, the town which May's Supplement, the English had very little may properly be called the capital of the High- to oppose. lands. Hither the inhabitants of the inland Yet men thus ingenious and inquisitive were parts come to be supplied with what they can- content to live in total ignorance of the trade not make for themselves : hither the young by which human want are supplied, and to nymphs of the mountains and valleys are sent supply them by the grossest means. Till the for education, and, as far as my observation has Union made them acquainted with English reached, are not sent in vain.

manners, the culture of their lands was upskilful, and their domestic life unformed; tables were coarse as the feasts of Eskimesek,

and their houses filthy as the cottages of HowINVERNESS was the last place which had a re- tentots. gular communication by high roads with the Since they have known that their condition southern counties. All the ways beyond it have, was capable of improvement, their progress it I believe, been made by the soldiers in this cen- useful knowledge has been rapid and uniferm. tury. At Inverness therefore Cromwell, when What remains to be done they will quickly de, he subdued Scotland, stationed a garrison, as at and then wonder, like me, why that which tvas the boundary of the Highlands. The soldiers so necessary and so easy was so long delayed seem to have incorporated afterwards with the But they must be for ever content to owe to be! inhabitants, and to have peopled the place with English that elegance and culture, which, if an English race; for the language of this town they had been vigilant and active, perhaps the nas been long considered as peculiarly elegant. English might have owed to them.

Here is a castle, called the castle of Macbeth, Here the appearance of life began to alter. I the walls of which are yet standing. It was no bad seen a few women with plaids at Aberdeen; very capacious editice, but stands upon a rock but at Inverness the Highland manners are so high and steep, that I think it was once not

There is, I think, a kirk in which accessible, but by the help of ladders, or a only the Erse language is used.

There is like bridge. Over against it, on another hill, was a wise an English chapel, but meanly built

, fort built by Cromwell, now totally demolish- where on Sunday we saw a very decent congres ed; for no faction of Scotland loved the name gation. of Cromwell, or had any desire to continue his We were now to bid farewell to the luxury of memory.

travelling, and to enter a country upon

which Yet what the Romans did to other nations, perhaps no wheel has ever rolled. We could was in a great degree done by Cromwell to the indeed bave used our postchaise one day foogti. I





along the mllitary road to Fort Augustus, but we field, which served to impress more strongly the
could have hired no horses beyond Inverness, general barrenness.
and we were not so sparing of ourselves, as to Lough Ness is about twenty-four miles long,
lead them, merely that we might have one day and from one mile to two miles broad. It is re-
longer the indulgence of a carriage.

markable that Boethius, in his description of At Inverness therefore we procured three Scotland, gives it twelve miles of breadth. When horses for ourselves and a servant, and one more historiads or geographers exhibit false accounts for our baggage, which was no very heavy load. of places far distant, they may be forgiven, beWe found in the course of our journey the con- cause they can tell but what they are told ; and venience of having disencumbered ourselves by that their accounts exceed the truth, may be justlaying aside whatever we could spare; for it ly supposed, because most men exaggerate to is not to be imagined without experience, how in others, if not to themselves : but Boethius lived climbing crags, and treading bogs, and winding at no great distance; if he never saw the lake, through narrow and obstructed passages, a lit- he must have been very incurious, and if he had tle bulk will hinder, and a little weight will bur- seen it, his veracity yielded to very slight tempden; or how often a man that has pleased him- tations. self at home with his own resolution, will, in the Lough Ness, though not twelve miles broad, 'hour of darkness and fatigue, be content to leave is a very remarkable diffusion of water without behind him every thing but himself.

islands. It fills a large hollow between two ridges of high rocks, being supplied partly by the torrents which fall into it on either side, and

partly, as is supposed, by springs at the bottom. We took two Highlanders to run beside us, Its water is remarkably clear and pleasant, and partly to show us the way, and partly to take is imagined by the natives to be medicinal. We back from the sea-side the horses, of which they were told, that it is in some places a hundred were the owners. One of them was a man of and forty fathoms deep, a profundity scarcely great liveliness and activity, of whom his com- credible, and which probably those that relate it panion said, that he would tire any horse in In- have never sounded. Its fish are salmon, trout,

Both of them were civil and ready- and pike. handed. Civility seems part of the national It was said at Fort Augustus, that Lough Ness character of Highlanders. Every chieftain is a is open in the hardest winters, though a lake not monarch, and politeness, the natural product of far from it is covered with ice. In discussing royal government, is diffused from the laird these exceptions from the course of nature, the through the whole clan. But they are not com- first question is whether the fact be justly monly dexterous: their narrowness of life con- stated. That which is strange is delightful, and fines them to a few operations, and they are ac- a pleasing error is not willingly detected. Accustomed to endure little wants more than to re- curacy of narration is not very common, and move them.

there are so few rigidly philosophical, as not to We mounted our steeds on the twenty-eighth represent as perpetual, what is only frequent, or of August, and directed our guides to conduct as constant, what is really casual. If it be true us to Fort Augustus. It is built at the bead of that Lough Ness never freezes, it is either shelLough Ness, of which Inverness stands at the tered by its high banks from the cold blasts, and outlet. The way between them has been cut by exposed only to those winds which have more the soldiers, and the greater part of it runs along power to agitate than congeal, or it is kept in a rock, levelled with great labour and exactness, perpetual motion by the rush of streams from the near thc water-side.

rocks that enclose it. Its profundity, though it Most of this day's journey was very pleasant. should be such as is represented, can have little The day, though bright, was not hot; and the part in this exemption ; for though deep wells appearance of the country, if I had not seen the are not frozen, because their water is secluded Peak, would have been wholly new. We went from the external air. yet, where a wide surface upon a surface so hard and level, that we had is exposed to the rull influence of a freezing atlittle care to hold the bridle, and were therefore mosphere, I know not why the depth should at full leisure for contemplation. On the left keep it open. Natural philosophy is now one of were high and steep rocks shaded with birch, the favourite studies of the Scottish nation, and The hardy native of the north, and covered with Lough Ness well deserves to be diligently exfern or heath. On the right the limpid waters of amined. Lough Ness were beating their bank, and waving The road on which we travelled, and which their surface by a gentle agitation. Beyond was itself a source of entertainment, is made them were rocks sometimes covered with ver- along the rock, in the direction of the lough, dure, and sometimes towering in horrid naked- sometimes by breaking off protuberances, and

Now and then we espied a little corn- sometimes by cutting the great mass of stone to

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a considerable depth. The fragments are piled years old, were at work in the wood. Her tri in a loose wall on cither side, with apertures left next sons were gone to Inverness to buy m. at very short spaces, to give a passage to the by which oatmeal is always meant. Meal she wintry currents. Part of it is bordered with considered as expensive food, and told us, tha: low trees, from which our guides gathered nuts, in spring, when the goats gave milk, the children and would have had the appearance of an Eng- could live without it. She is mistress of sixty lish lane, except that an English lane is almost goats, and I saw many kids in an enclosure si always dirty. It has been made with great la- the end of her house. She had also some pool. bour, but has this advantage, that it cannot, try. By the lake we saw a potato-garden, and without equal labour, be broken up.

a small spot of ground on which stood four Within our sight there were goats feeding or shocks, containing each twelve sheaves of bar. playing. The mountains have red deer, but ley. She has all this from the labour of their they came not within view; and if what is said own hands, and for what is necessary to be of their vigilance and subtilty be true, they have bought, her kids and her chickens are sent to some claim to that palm of wisdom, which the market. eastern philosopher, whom Alexander interro- With the true pastoral hospitality, she asked gated, gave to those beasts which live farthest us to sit down and drink whisky. She is relifrom men.

gious, and though the kirk is four miles ef. Near the way, by the water-side, we espied a probably eight English miles, she goes thither cottage. This was the first Highland but that every Sunday. We gave her a shilling, and she I had seen; and as our business was with life begged snuff; for snuff is the luxury of a Higåand manners, we were willing to visit it. To | land cottage. enter a habitation without leave, seems to be not

Soon afterwards we came to the General considered here as rudeness or intrusion. The Hut, so called because it was the temporary old laws of hospitality still give this license to a

abode of Wade while he superintended the stranger.

works upon the road. It is now a house of enA hut is constructed with loose stones, ranged tertainment for passengers, and we found it ne for the most part with some tendency to circu- ill stocked with provisions. larity. It must be placed where the wind cannot act upon it with violence, because it has no cement; and where the water will run easily away, because it has no floor but the naked | Towards evening we crossed, by a bridge, the ground. The wall, which is commonly about river which makes the celebrated Fall of Fiers. six feet high, declines from the perpendicular a The country at the bridge strikes the imagina. little inward. Such rafters as can be procured tion with all the gloom and grandeur of Siberian are then raised for a roof, and covered with solitude. The way makes a flexture, and the heath, which makes a strong and warm thatch, mountains, covered with trees, rise at once cu kept from flying off by ropes of twisted heath, the left hand and in front. We desired our of which the ends, reaching from the centre of guides to show us the Fall, and dismounting, the thatch to the top of the wall, are held firm clambered over very rugged crags, till I began hy the weight of a large stone. No light is ad- to wish that our curiosity might have been gratimitted but at the entrance, and through a hole fied with less trouble and danger. We came as in the thatch, which gives vent to the smoke. last to a place where we could overlook the river, This hole is not directly over the fire, lest the and saw a channel torn, as it seems, throagb rain should extinguish it; and the smoke there- black piles of stone, by which the stream is obfore naturally fills the place before it escapes. structed and broken, till it comes to a very steep Such is the general structure of the houses in descent, of such dreadful depth, that we were which one of the nations of this opulent and naturally inclined to turn aside our eyes. powerful island has been hitherto content to But we visited the place at an unseasonable live. Huts however are not more uniform than time, and found it divested of its diguity and palaces ; and this which we were inspecting was terror. Nature never gives every thing at once. very far from one of the meanest, for it was A long continuance of dry weather, which made divided into several apartments; and its inhabi- the rest of the way easy and delightful, deprived tants possessed such property as a pastoral poet us of the pleasure expected from the Fall of might exalt into riches.

Fiers. The river having now no water but what When we entered, we found an old woman the springs supply, showed us only a swift curboiling goat's flesh in a kettle. She spoke little rent, clear and shallow, fretting over the asperiEnglish, but we had interpreters at hand, and ties of the rocky bottom; and we were left to she was willing enough to display her whole exercise our thoughts, by endeavouring to consystem of economy. She has five children, of ceive the effect of a thousand streams poured which none are yet gone from her. The eldest, from the mountains into one channel, struggling a boy of thirteen, and her husband, who is eighty for expansion in a narrow passage, exasperated

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